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Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Unit 4 Orthopedics, Osteopathy, and Body Regions.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Unit 4 Orthopedics, Osteopathy, and Body Regions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Unit 4 Orthopedics, Osteopathy, and Body Regions

2 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bones Origin –Greek –osteon = bone oste/o = combining form

3 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bones Examples: –oste/o/pathy = disease of bones –doctor of oste/o/pathy = doctor who receives special training about skeleton and its relationship to disease –oste/o/path/ic = adjectival form

4 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bone Conditions oste/itis = inflammation of bone oste/o/malacia = softening of bone –Caused by: Deficiencies of vitamin D and phosphate Abnormal excretion of calcium –Contributing factor: Tobacco use

5 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bone Conditions oste/o/por/osis = deterioration of bone matrix that results in pores and weakness –Caused by: Menopause Calcium deficiency oste/o/penia = decreased bone density –Not as extreme as osteoporosis

6 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bone Conditions oste/oma = bone tumor –Hard growth on bone oste/o/sarc/oma = bone cancer

7 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Ribs cost/o = combining form cost/al = adjectival form Examples: –cost/ectomy = removal of rib or ribs –inter/costal = between ribs Can refer to muscles between ribs that move them during breathing

8 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Ribs

9 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Pelvis Framework of bones at base of spine pelves = plural form pelv/i = combining form Examples: –pelv/i/metry = taking pelvic measurements –pelv/i/meter = device used to measure pelvis –cephal/o/pelv/ic = head of fetus and mother’s pelvis

10 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Pelvis Pubis –Forwardmost bone of pelvis –Pubic bone Another term for pubis pub/o = combining form Example: –supra/pub/ic = region above arch of pubis

11 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bone Marrow myel/o = bone marrow Examples: –myel/o/cyte = young bone marrow cell –myelo/cyt/ic = pertaining to myelocytes –myelo/blast = bone marrow germ cell Precursor to myelocyte –oste/o/myel/itis = inflammation of bone and marrow

12 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Spinal Cord myel/o = spinal cord –Same combining form as bone marrow Example: –myel/o/cyte = cell associated with myelin of brain and spinal cord Myelin –Sheath that covers nerves

13 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Spinal Cord Conditions myel/o/cele = herniation of spinal cord mening/o/myel/o/cele = herniation of spinal cord and meninges encephal/o/myel/o/pathy = any disease of brain and spinal cord

14 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Gray Matter Brain and part of spinal cord made of nerve cell bodies that appear gray poli/o = gray –Gray matter of nervous system

15 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Gray Matter poli/o/myel/itis = inflammation of gray matter of spinal cord –Can result in: Paralysis of limbs Muscle atrophy –Caused by viral infection –Prevented by inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)

16 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Joints arthr/o = joint Examples: –arthr/itis = joint inflammation –oste/o/arthr/itis = inflammation characterized by destruction of bone and joint tissue –oste/o/arthr/o/pathy = bone and joint disease

17 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Joint Procedures arthr/o/scope = instrument used to look into joint arthr/o/scopy = procedure for examining joints with arthroscope arthr/o/plasty = surgical repair of joint arthr/o/tomy = incision into joint

18 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Rheumatology rheumat/ism = painful disorders of joints, muscles, and connective tissue rheumat/ology = specialty that studies, diagnoses, and treats rheumatic conditions rheumat/ologist = one who specializes in rheumatology

19 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Rheumatology Rheumat/oid arthr/it is –Results in: Changes in joint structure Increase in synovial (joint) fluid Inflammation Pain Joint deformity –Caused by systemic autoimmune response

20 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Tendons Connective tissue that attaches muscles to bones Origin –Latin –tendo = to stretch

21 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Tendons Three combining forms: –ten/o –tend/o –tendin/o

22 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Tendon Conditions tendin/itis = tendon inflammation ten/algia = tendon pain ten/o/dynia = tendon pain

23 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Tendon Procedures Three terms for surgical repair of tendon: –tend/o/plasty –ten/o/plasty –tendin/o/plasty

24 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bursae Bursa –Small serous sac between tendon and bone bursae = plural form Origin –Latin –bursa = bag or purse

25 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bursae Examples: –burs/itis = inflammation of bursa –burs/ectomy = removal of bursa

26 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bursae

27 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Cartilage Tough elastic connective tissue found in: –Ears –Nose tip –Rib ends –Lining of joints

28 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Cartilage chondr/o = combining form Examples: –chondr/algia = cartilage pain –chondr/o/dynia = cartilage pain –chondr/ectomy = removal of cartilage

29 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Cartilage Examples: –chondr/o/cost/al = pertaining to cartilage and ribs –inter/chondr/al = between cartilages –hypo/chondr/ial = below cartilage Rib cage cartilage region

30 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Cartilage menisc/us = crescent-shaped cartilage structure in knee joint –Prone to injury and tearing –Lateral On outer portion of knee –Medical On inner part of knee

31 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Cartilage menisc/itis = inflammation of meniscus menisc/ectomy = removal of meniscus

32 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Other Connective Tissues Ligaments –Attach bone to bone Fascia –Attach muscle to muscle

33 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Ligaments

34 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bones, Muscles, and Connective Tissue

35 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Orthopedics orth/o = straight –As in bone Example: –orth/o/ped/ist = physician who specializes in prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders Fracture –Break in bone

36 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Orthotics orth/o/tics = science that studies and develops appliances used as supportive devices orth/o/sis = devices used to stabilize or prevent deformity –E.g., splints, casts

37 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Prostheses prosthe/sis = appliance that replaces body part –E.g., artificial leg prosthet/ist = one who works with patients who need artificial limbs prosthet/ic = pertaining to prosthesis

38 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Growth and Development Terms -plasia = changes in number and form of cells -trophy = changes in size of cells and organs -genesis = original growth of cells and organs

39 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Terms with -plasia -plasia = changes in number and form of cells Examples: –a/plasia = lack of or decreased cell growth –ana/plasia = abnormal growth of undifferentiated cells –dys/plasia = production of abnormally formed cells or tissues

40 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Terms with -trophy -trophy = changes in size of cells and organs Examples: –a/trophy = decrease in size of tissue Wasting –hyper/trophy = increase in size of cells, tissues, or organs –hypo/trophy = progressive degeneration Same as atrophy

41 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Terms with -genesis -genesis = original growth of cells and organs Examples: –a/genesis = absence of original development –hyper/genesis = repeated creation of body parts or organs resulting in extras –hypo/genesis = congenital underdevelopment of organs

42 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Defective Development plasia = development dys- = defective Examples: –dys/plasia = defective formation or development –a/plasia = failure of organ to develop –hyper/plasia = overgrowth or too much development –hypo/plasia = deficient development

43 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Defective Development Conditions oste/o/dys/plasia = of bone myel/o/dys/plasia = of spinal cord arthr/o/dys/plasia = of joint

44 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Teeth dent = word root dent/o and dent/i = combining forms dent/al = adjectival form Example: –dent/ist = doctor who takes care of teeth Doctor of dental surgery (DDS)

45 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Types of Teeth

46 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Dental Terms dent/algia = tooth pain dent/oid = resembling tooth inter/dent/al = between teeth orth/odont/ist = dentist who specializes in straightening abnormally positioned teeth –orth/o = straight –odont/o = shaped like tooth

47 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Prefix: peri- peri- = around Examples: –peri/odont/al = gums or tissues around teeth –peri/odont/ist = specialist in gums and tissues Many perform surgery

48 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Prefix: peri- Terms referring to membrane surrounding: –bone = peri/oste/um –cartilage = peri/chondr/ium –heart = peri/cardi/um

49 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Prefix: supra- supra- = above Examples: –supra/lumbar = above lumbar region –supra/costal = above ribs –supra/cranial = on top of head/skull –supra/pubic = region above arch of pubis

50 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Prefix: ab- ab- = from or away from –Away from midline Examples: –ab/normal = away from/not normal –ab/errant = structure that wanders from its normal path

51 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Prefix: ab- Examples: –ab/duct/ion = movement away from midline Arm moved away from body Fingers spread apart –ab/duct = to take away from

52 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Prefix: ad- ad- = toward –Toward midline Examples: –ad/duct/ion = movement toward midline –ad/duct = to move toward midline –ad/here = to join separate tissues together –ad/hesion = formed when tissues join

53 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Prefix: ad- Examples: –ad/dict/ion = drawn toward some habit –ad/dict = person addicted to substance, action, etc. –Typical ad/dict/ive substances: Drugs and alcohol

54 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Body Regions: Lumbar lumbar = pertaining to lower back –Includes five vertebrae: L 1, L 2, L 3, L 4, and L 5 lumb/o = combining form Example: –supra/lumbar = above lumbar region

55 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Body Region: Chest thorax = chest thoraces = plural thorac/o = combining form

56 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Body Region: Chest Examples: –thorac/o/pathy = any chest disease –thorac/o/tomy = incision into chest –thorac/o/lumbar = pertaining to thoracic and lumbar vertebrae

57 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Body Region: Abdomen abdomin/o = combining form abdomin/al = adjectival form Example: –abdomin/o/thorac/ic = pertaining to abdomen and thorax

58 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Divisions of the Abdomen

59 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Thorax and Regions of the Abdomen

60 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Meter Unit of measurement -meter = instrument used to measure or count –Suffix

61 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Meter Examples: –cyto/meter = counts cells –cardi/o/meter = measures heart –thorac/o/meter = measures chest –cephal/o/meter = measures head

62 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Additional Terms: Centesis Surgical act of puncturing body cavity or organ with hollow needle to draw out fluid Examples: –abdomin/o/centesis –cardi/o/centesis –thorac/o/centesis

63 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Amniocentesis amni/o = protective sac around fetus Example: –amni/o/centesis = puncturing of sac to remove cells for genetic testing

64 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Urinary Bladder cyst/o = combining form Examples: –cyst/o/scopy = process of examining urinary bladder with scope cyst/o/scopic exam –cyst/o/cele = herniation of bladder wall

65 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Urinary Bladder Procedures cyst/o/tomy = incision into bladder cyst/ectomy = removal of bladder cyst/o/plasty = surgical repair of bladder

66 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Water hydro- = prefix for water, fluid, or watery fluid Examples: –hydro/cyst = saclike structure with watery contents –hydro/cele = collection of fluid in herniated cavity –hydro/therapy = treatment using water –hydro/phobia = abnormal fear of water

67 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Water Examples: –hydro/cephal/us = condition characterized by enlarged head due to increased amount of fluid in skull Can result in: –Head deformity –Brain damage –Abnormal eyes hydro/cephal/ic = adjectival form

68 Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Phobia Abnormal fear -phobia = suffix Examples: –acr/o/phobia = fear of heights –carcin/o/phobia = fear of cancer –dys/morph/o/phobia = fear of deformity –bacteri/o/phobia = fear of bacteria


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