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Module 6: Configuring the Firewall. Overview Securing the Server Examining Perimeter Networks Examining Packet Filtering and IP Routing Configuring Packet.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 6: Configuring the Firewall. Overview Securing the Server Examining Perimeter Networks Examining Packet Filtering and IP Routing Configuring Packet."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 6: Configuring the Firewall

2 Overview Securing the Server Examining Perimeter Networks Examining Packet Filtering and IP Routing Configuring Packet Filtering and IP Routing Configuring Application Filters

3 Microsoft® Internet Security and Acceleration (ISA) Server 2000 includes several security features to help you enforce your security policies. The ISA Server Security Configuration Wizard enables you to set the appropriate level of system security for the operating system. Packet filtering helps prevent unauthorized access to your internal network by inspecting incoming traffic and blocking packets that do not meet your specified security criteria. Internet Protocol (IP) routing allows you to forward network packets according to rules that you define. Application filters control application-specific traffic to determine if network traffic should be accepted, rejected, redirected, or modified.

4 Important: The packet filtering and routing functions of ISA Server provide more enhanced security than the packet filtering and routing functions of the Microsoft Windows® 2000 Routing and Remote Access. To provide the most comprehensive security for your internal network, use ISA Server, not the Routing and Remote Access service, to configure packet filtering and routing on an ISA Server computer.

5 After completing this module, you will be able to: Secure the ISA Server computer. Explain the use of perimeter networks. Explain the use of packet filtering and IP routing. Configure packet filtering and IP routing. Configure application filters.

6  Securing the Server Best Practices Setting System Security

7 ISA Server is an important component of an overall security strategy, but network security consists of many elements. Using security best practices will also help you to secure your network effectively. ISA Server includes the ISA Server Security Configuration Wizard, which you can use to apply system security settings to a single ISA Server computer or to all of the servers in an array. The ISA Server Security Configuration Wizard uses security templates that are included with Microsoft Windows 2000 Server to configure the operating system for different levels of security. You can set the appropriate level of system security, depending on how ISA Server functions in your network.

8 Best Practices Stay Informed About Security Issues Install the Latest Service Pack and Security Updates Do Not Run Unnecessary Services or Accept Unnecessary Packets Audit Security-Related Events and Review the Associated Log Files Document All Aspects of Your Network Configuration Understand the Network Protocols that You Use With ISA Server Maintain Physical Security

9 Because the ISA Server computer is often directly connected to the Internet, it is important that you adequately secure that computer. The following list presents security best practices to use as guidelines when securing computers in your network, and particularly the ISA Server computer: Best Practices

10 Slay informed about security issues pertaining to Windows 2000 and ISA Server. For security bulletins and other security-related information, see the Microsoft Security Web site at You may also want to subscribe to security-related mailing lists. Stay Informed About Security Issues

11 Install the latest service pack and security updates. Before installing any service packs or updates, test them thoroughly in a lab environment. Install the Latest Service Pack and Security Updates

12 Do not run unnecessary services on the ISA Server computer, and configure ISA Server with rules that allow only required network traffic to pass through the ISA Server computer. Do Not Run Unnecessary Services or Accept Unnecessary Packets

13 Audit security-related events and frequently review the associated log files. Note: For more information about Windows 2000 auditing, see Module 9, "implementing Security in Windows 2000," in Course 2152, Implementing Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional and Server. For more information about monitoring ISA Server security, see Module 8, "Monitoring and Reporting," in Course 2159A, Deploying and Managing Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server Audit Security-Related Events and Review the Associated Log Files

14 Document all aspects of your network configuration. Maintaining documentation helps you to detect intrusion and recover from intrusion incidents. Document All Aspects of Your Network Configuration

15 Understand the network protocols that you use with ISA Server. A thorough understanding of these protocols will help to ensure that you configure ISA Server properly. Understand the Network Protocols that You Use With ISA Server

16 Maintain physical security. Anyone with physical access to the ISA Server computer can gain complete control of the computer. Maintain Physical Security

17 Best Practices Setting System Security Domain Controller Templates Hisecdc.inf Securedc.inf Security Level Dedicated Limited Services Basicdc.infSecure Server Templates Hisecws.inf Securews.inf Basicsv.inf

18 When configuring the security settings of the ISA Server computer, you can use the ISA Server Security Configuration Wizard to increase the security of several components of Windows Securing the ISA Server computer is especially important when that computer is directly connected to the Internet.

19 You can select from one of the following security levels in the ISA Server Security Configuration Wizard: Dedicated. Use this setting when an ISA Server computer is functioning as a dedicated firewall with no other applications. Limited Services. Use this setting when the ISA Server computer is functioning as a combined firewall and cache server. An ISA Server computer can also be protected by an additional firewall. Secure. Use this setting when the ISA Server computer performs other functions, such as running a Web server, a database server, or a mail server. Caution: The ISA Server Security Configuration Wizard changes several operating system settings to pre-configured values. To change all of these settings back to the original values, you must document or export the settings before running the wizard and then reconfigure all of the values. ISA Server includes no automatic method of reverting back to the original values.

20 Applying Security Templates The security template that the ISA Server Security Configuration Wizard applies depends on the security setting that you select and the type of computer that you are using. To run the ISA Server Security Configuration Wizard, the systemroot\security\templates folder must contain the required template. If the required template is missing, the ISA Server Security Configuration Wizard fails to run. To add a missing template, you must copy it from the Microsoft Windows 2000 Server compact disc to the Templates folder on your computer.

21 ISA Server uses the templates listed in the following table. Security levelFor a serverFor a domain controller DedicatedHisecws.infHisecdc.inf Limited ServicesSecurews.infSecuredc.inf SecureBasicsv.infBasicdc.inf Note: For more information about security templates, see Module 9, "Implementing Security in Windows 2000," in Course 2152, Implementing Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional and Server.

22 Use the ISA Server Security Configuration Wizard to apply system security settings to an ISA Server computer. To run the Wizard: 1. In ISA Management, in the console tree, expand your server or array, and then click Computer or Computers. 2. In the details pane, right-click the applicable server, click Secure, and then follow the on-screen instructions to complete the wizard.

23 Viewing Configuration Changes When you run the ISA Server Security Configuration Wizard, ISA Server creates a log file of all of the changes. ISA Server names this file securwiz.log and places it in the ISA Server installation directory. You can review this file to see the actions that the wizard performed.

24  Examining Perimeter Networks Perimeter Networks Three-Homed Perimeter Network

25 You can deploy ISA Server as a firewall that acts as a secure gateway to the Internet for internal clients. ISA Server protects all of the communication between the internal computers and the Internet. In a simple firewall design, the ISA Server computer has two network interface cards, one connected to the local network and one connected to the Internet. In more complex designs, such as a design that includes a perimeter network with one or more published servers, you may also need to configure the ISA Server computer for IP routing.

26 Perimeter Networks Firewall Internet Perimeter Network Internal Network

27 A perimeter network, also known as a DMZ, demilitarized zone, or screened subnet, is a small network that you set up separately from an internal network and the Internet. Perimeter networks allow external users to gain access to specific servers that are located on the perimeter network, while preventing direct access to the internal network.

28 Perimeter Network Uses A perimeter network is commonly used for deploying an organization's publicly accessible servers, such as e- mail servers and Web servers. Permitting access to the perimeter network docs not allow access to other company data that may be available on computers in the internal network. Even if an external user penetrates the perimeter network security, only the perimeter network servers are compromised.

29 Perimeter Network Configurations Typically, a perimeter network uses one of the following configurations: Back-to-back perimeter network configuration. Uses two ISA Server computers on either side of the perimeter network to protect the network. Note: For more information on how to make server resources in a back-to-back perimeter network available, see Module 7, "Configuring Access to Internal Resources," in Course 2159A, Deploying and Managing Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server Three-homed perimeter network configuration. Uses the same ISA Server computer with the perimeter network to protect the internal network. The ISA Server computer is three-homed, which means that it is connected to three networks: the Internet, the perimeter network, and the internal network.

30 Three-Homed Perimeter Network Internet Perimeter Network Internal Network Enable IP Routing and Packet Filtering ISA Server Computer ISA Server Computer

31 In a three-homed perimeter network configuration, a stand-alone ISA Server computer or an array of ISA Server computers connects the Internet, the perimeter network, and the internal network. ISA Server treats both the Internet and the perimeter network as external networks, which requires that you enable IP routing to move network packets between the networks.

32 Setting Up the ISA Server Computer To set up an ISA Server computer in a three-homed perimeter network configuration, install and configure each network adapter as follows: 1. Connect one network adapter to the internal network. Include all of the internal IP addresses in the local address table (LAT). 2. Connect the second network adapter to the perimeter network. Do not add the IP addresses of the perimeter network to the LAT. 3. Connect the third network adapter to the Internet. Do not add any IP addresses from the Internet to the LAT. Note: Placing certain types of servers, especially File Transfer Protocol (FTP) servers, into three-homed perimeter network configurations may create security risks. For more information about these risks, see "Three-homed perimeter network configuration" in ISA Server Help.

33 Configuring the Perimeter Network The Microsoft Web Proxy service and the network address translation component of the Microsoft Firewall service move network packets between only an internal network and an external network or vice versa. Because ISA Server treats both the Internet and your perimeter network in a three-homed perimeter network configuration as external networks, you must use IP routing to move network packets between the Internet and the perimeter network.

34 To set up a three-homed ISA Server computer in a perimeter network, perform the following actions: Enable IP routing. Enable packet filtering. Create the appropriate IP packet filters to allow routing of the correct IP packets to each of the servers in the perimeter network.

35 For example, to make a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server on the perimeter network available to users on the Internet, you must enable IP routing and packet filtering. You then need to create an IP packet filter that configures the ISA Server computer to route all of the required packets from the Internet to the mail server.

36  Examining Packet Filtering Controlling Network Traffic Understanding Packet Filtering Using IP Routing and Packet Filtering Guidelines for Using Packet Filtering and IP Routing

37 You can control the flow of IP packets to and from the external network interface of an ISA Server computer by using packet filtering and IP routing. By using packet filtering, you can allow IP packets or can block IP packets that are destined for the ISA Server computer or for specific computers on your perimeter network or internal network. You can also use packet filtering to block packets that originate from your internal network. When you enable routing on a Windows 2000 computer, that computer routes all traffic between the Internet and your internal network. In this case, the computer acts as a router, which is a device that connects separate networks by forwarding packets between them.

38 By enabling both packet filtering and IP routing in ISA Server, you gain the benefits of strict policy enforcement by using packet filters and establish the correct routing behavior for protocols that use secondary network connections after establishing a primary connection. Important: You can enable packet filtering only if you install ISA Server in Firewall mode or in Integrated mode.

39 Controlling Network Traffic Web Proxy Service Firewall Service -- Proxy Firewall Service -- Routing

40 You can use ISA Server to control the flow of IP packets between different networks, typically your internal network and the Internet. ISA Server controls IP packets by using the following services and methods:

41 Web Proxy service The Web Proxy service receives outgoing Web requests from internal Web Proxy clients and then forwards these requests to Web servers on the Internet. The packets are never directly exchanged between the internal Web Proxy client and the Web server on the Internet. Note: The Web Proxy service can also process incoming Web requests for internal Web servers, which is called Web publishing. For more information about Web publishing, see Module 7, "Configuring Access to Internal Resources," in Course 2159A, Deploying and Managing Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server 2000.

42 Firewall service — proxy The Firewall service processes requests from internal Firewall clients and SecureNAT clients that use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) protocol or the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) protocol to gain access to external network resources. The Firewall service intercepts IP packets, changes the IP header information, and then sends the packets to the external server. The IP packets appear to the external server as if they originated from the ISA Server computer.

43 Firewall service — routing The Firewall service can also route IP packets between networks. Routing forwards network packets between different networks without changing the IP addresses and ports in the IP packet header. The Firewall service also uses rules to determine whether to route a packet. You define these rules by creating IP packet filters.

44 Understanding Packet Filtering Internal Network ISA Server Packet Filter ProtocolDirection UDPIncoming Destination / Port / 53 Source / Port Any / Any Type Allow Perimeter Network

45 Packet filtering allows you to control which packets an ISA Server computer accepts on an external network interface. Important : ISA Server treats all network interfaces that are not configured with an IP address that is in the LAT as external. If one or more of the IP addresses that are associated with a network interface are in the LAT, ISA Server treats the network interface as internal and does not apply packet filters.

46 IP Packet Headers You control IP packets by using the following IP packet header information: Source IP address and port Destination IP address and port IP protocol information When you create a packet filter that allows bi-directional traffic, ISA Server also dynamically opens the appropriate ports that allow packets to return to the IP address and port of the original packet.

47 For example, you create a packet filter that allows incoming packets to UDP port 53 on a server on your perimeter network, and a computer on the Internet sends a packet to the server. ISA Server automatically allows outgoing network packets to pass from UDP port 53 on your perimeter network to the IP address and port number that initiated the connection. Important: Dynamic packet filters that allow packets to return to the IP address and port of the original packet are in effect for only the duration of the session. Also, you cannot modify a dynamic rule.

48 Types of Packet Filters You control which packets are allowed to traverse an external network interface of the ISA Server computer by using the following types of packet filters:

49 Allow filters Used to define which packets the external network adapter accepts. ISA Server accepts packets that meet the conditions of an Allow filter only.

50 Block filters Used to define exceptions to Allow filters. ISA Server drops packets that meet the conditions of a Block filter, even though they may also meet the conditions of an Allow filter. For example, you can create an Allow filter to permit incoming SMTP traffic to a mail server. You can then create a Block filter to deny access to the mail server for an IP address that was the origin of a previous intrusion attempt. You can also use packet filters to override protocol rules that allow client connections.

51 Using IP Routing and Packet Filtering Situations That Require IP Routing Servers in a three-homed perimeter network Protocols other than UDP and TCP Situations That Require Packet Filtering Services running on the ISA Server computer Applications running on the ISA Server computer Servers in a three-homed perimeter network Protocols other than UDP and TCP

52 In some situations, you must use IP routing, packet filtering, or both IP routing and packet filtering.

53 Situations That Require IP Routing Use IP routing for the following situations: Servers in a three-homed perimeter network. ISA Server treats both three-homed perimeter networks and the Internet as external networks and routes packets between them. When you allow users on the Internet to connect to a server on a three-homed perimeter network, you must configure ISA Server to perform IP routing between these networks. Note: Allowing external users to gain access to resources on servers on a back-to-back perimeter network requires different configuration steps. For more information about making servers in a back-to-back perimeter network available to the Internet, see Module 7, "Configuring Access to Internal Resources," in Course 2159A, Deploying and Managing Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server 2000.

54 Protocols other than UDP and TCP. The Web Proxy service handles outgoing requests that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Hypertext Transfer Protocol-Secure (HTTP-S), or FTP protocols. The Firewall service handles requests from any application that uses the UDP and TCP protocols. For all other protocols, ISA Server must route the packets.

55 Situations That Require Packet Filtering Use packet filtering for the following situations: Services running on the ISA Server computer. When a service is running on an ISA Server computer, you must create an IP packet filter that allows incoming packets for the port associated with that service. For example, if the ISA Server computer is also functioning as an external Domain Name System (DNS) server, you must allow incoming DNS query packets. To allow the DNS query packets, create an IP packet filter that allows incoming packets to the ISA Server computer on TCP and UDP port 53.

56 Applications running on the ISA Server computer. When you run an application on the ISA Server computer that needs to connect to the Internet, you must create one or more IP packet filters that allow the appropriate outgoing packets. An application running on the ISA Server computer cannot use the Firewall service to connect to the Internet because configuring the ISA Server computer as a Firewall client is not supported. Instead, the application must establish a direct connection to the Internet, which requires you to create packet filters that allow the appropriate network traffic.

57 For example, to allow an client application that is running on the ISA Server computer to connect to an SMTP server, create an IP packet filter that allows packets to pass from the ISA Server computer to TCP port 25 on a remote SMTP server. Important: Do not create packet filters for outgoing traffic from internal clients that pass through the Firewall service or the Web Proxy service. Because ISA Server automatically and dynamically opens the ports that are required to handle such communications based on the protocol rules that you configured, no packet filters are required provided that all client requests use the TCP or UDP protocol.

58 Servers in a three-homed perimeter network. When you allow users on the Internet to connect to a server on a three-homed perimeter network, you must create IP packet filters to open the ports that are required for ISA Server to accept and route packets to services that are running on the server in the perimeter network. For example, to allow external clients to connect to an SMTP server in a perimeter network, create an IP packet filter that allows incoming packets for TCP port 25 on the SMTP server.

59 Protocols other than UDP and TCP. Because ISA Server routes all requests from SecureNAT clients that use protocols other than TCP or UDP, you must configure the appropriate packet filters to allow this traffic to pass through the ISA Server computer. For example, to allow clients to use the Ping utility, which uses the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) protocol, create an IP packet filter that allows the predefined filter "ICMP all outbound" for internal clients.

60 Guidelines for Using Packet Filtering and IP Routing Packet Filtering and IP Routing Not Enabled Packet Filtering Enabled and IP Routing Not Enabled Packet Filtering and IP Routing Enabled Packet Filtering Not Enabled and IP Routing Enabled

61 Use the following guidelines when using packet filtering, IP routing, or both.

62 Packet Filtering and IP Routing Not Enabled When you do not enable packet filtering or IP routing, ISA Server does not apply packet filters to incoming network traffic, which lowers the protection of the ISA Server computer. Use this combination of settings only to optimize performance and when the external interface of the ISA Server computer is connected to a network that you have control over, for example, when using ISA Server to forward traffic from a branch office by using a leased line.

63 Packet Filtering Enabled and IP Routing Not Enabled When you enable packet filtering, ISA Server drops all of the IP packets on external network interfaces unless they are explicitly allowed by static or dynamic rules. The ISA Server computer also does not forward packets directly. Use this setting when: All client connections use the UDP or TCP protocol. You do not need to forward packets between the Internet and a three-homed perimeter network configuration.

64 Packet Filtering and IP Routing Enabled When combining packet filtering and IP routing, you gain the security benefits of packet filtering, the ability to route protocols other than TCP or UDP, and the ability to route between the Internet and a three-homed perimeter network. Use this configuration in situations that require both security and routing.

65 Packet Filtering Not Enabled and IP Routing Enabled You cannot configure ISA Server to route packets without enabling packet filtering because of the low level of security that such a configuration would provide. If your network configuration requires a router, evaluate the Routing and Remote Access service in Windows 2000.

66  Configuring Packet Filtering and IP Routing Enabling Packet Filtering and IP Routing Creating IP Packet Filters Configuring Packet Filter Options

67 You must enable packet filtering and IP routing to forward IP packets from one external network to another external network. You can then create IP packet filters to allow incoming packets for specific ports and services. To increase the security of your ISA Server computer, you can configure packet-filtering settings.

68 Enabling Packet Filtering and IP Routing IP Packet Filters Properties General OKCancel Use this page to control packet routing and packet filtering properties. Packet FiltersIntrusion DetectionPPTP Enable packet filtering Apply Enable Intrusion detection Enable IP routing Select to enable packet filtering. Select to enable IP routing.

69 When you enable packet filtering, ISA Server monitors the IP packets that pass through the external network adapter on the ISA Server computer. In addition to packet filtering, you must enable IP routing to forward IP packets from one external network to another external network, such as the Internet and a three-homed perimeter network. You must also enable IP routing when client computers use network protocols other than the TCP and UDP protocols.

70 To enable packet filtering and IP routing: 1. In ISA Management, in the console tree, expand your server or array, expand Access Policy, right-ciick IP Packet Filters, and then click Properties. 2. On the General tab. ensure that the Enable packet filtering check box is selected. 3. Click the Enable IP routing check box, and then click OK.

71 Creating IP Packet Filters Name the Filter Select the Filter Mode Select the Filter Type Select Local IP Address Select Remote Computer(s) StartStart FinishFinish Configure Filter Settings

72 Before you create an IP packet filter, you must identify the associated protocols and ports for the specified packets. You must also identify the IP addresses or IP address ranges of the computers for the source and destination.

73 To create a new IP packet filter: 1. In ISA Management, in the console tree, expand your server or array, expand Access Policy, click IP Packet Filters, and then in the details pane, click Create a Packet Filter. 2. In the New IP Packet Filter Wizard, type a name that describes the filter, and then click Next. 3. On the Filter Mode page, select Allow packet transmission or Block packet transmission, and then click Next: 4. On the Filter Type page, select Custom or Predefined to specify the type of filter to create, and then click Next. Important: Before creating a custom filter, always confirm that ISA Server does not include a predefined filter that meets your requirements. 5. If you select a custom filter, on the Filter settings page, enter the following information, and then click Next.

74 For this settingDo the following IP protocolSelect Custom protocol, Any, ICMP, TCP, or UDP. If you select Custom Protocol, provide the protocol number.

75 For this settingDo the following NumberType the number of the IP protocol.

76 For this setting Do the following DirectionSpecify the direction for the communication. The settings available in the wizard will vary depending on the IP protocol that you select. For most protocols, you can specify Inbound, Outbound, or Both. Because the UDP protocol is connectionless and requires no session establishment, the options differ for this protocol. If you select the UDP protocol, select Send only (the ISA Server computer or computer on a perimeter network only sends packets), Send/Receive (the ISA Server computer or computer on a perimeter network sends packets and can receive responses), Receive only (the ISA Server computer or computer on a perimeter network only receives packets), Receive/Send (the ISA Server computer or computer on a perimeter network receives packets and can send responses), or Both (full, bi-directional communications).

77 For this settingDo the following Local portClick All ports to apply the rule to all ports, click Dynamic ( ) to apply the rule to the ports that client applications typically use to establish connections with servers, or click Fixed port to select a specific port, such as the port on which a server listens. If you select Fixed port, type the port number in the Port number box. Note: A local port is a port on the ISA Server computer or the computer on the perimeter network. This option is available with only the TCP and UDP protocols.

78 For this settingDo the following Remote portClick All ports to apply the rule to all remote ports. Click Fixed port to select a specific port, such as the port on which a remote server listens. If you select Fixed port, type the port number in the Port number box. Note: A remote port is a port on the computer that communicates with the ISA Server computer or the computer on the perimeter network. This option is available with only the TCP and UDP protocols.

79 For this settingDo the following TypeClick All types to apply the rule to all ICMP types. Click Fixed Type to apply the rule to only a specific ICMP type, and then type a type number. Note: This option is available with only the ICMP protocol. The ICMP protocol identifies types by a type field in an ICMP packet, such as Destination Unreachable (Type 3).

80 For this settingDo the following CodeClick All Codes to apply the rule to all ICMP codes. Click Fixed Code to apply the rule to only a specific ICMP code, and then type a type number. Note: This option is available with only the ICMP protocol. The ICMP protocol identifies message codes by a code field in the ICMP packet that depends on the ICMP type. For example, an ICMP packet with Type 3 can include Code 4, which indicates Fragmentation Needed. The code numbers that are used depend on the ICMP type.

81 Note: For a list of registered protocol numbers, see the Information Sciences Institute Web site at numbers For a list of ICMP types, see the Information Sciences Institute Web site at parameters For a list of ICMP codes, see RFC 792, "Internet Control Message Protocol" under Additional Readings on the Student Materials compact disc. numbers parameters

82 6. On the Local Computer page, select the IP address or IP addresses to apply the filter to, and then click Next. 7. On the Remote Computer page, select the remote computer or computers to apply the filter to, and then click Next. 8. On the Completing the New IP Packet Filter Wizard page, review your choices, and then click Finish.

83 Configuring Packet Filter Options Configure Logging of Packets from Allow Filters Configure PPTP Through the ISA Firewall Enable Filtering of IP Fragments Enable Filtering of IP Options

84 You can increase the security of your ISA Server computer and gain additional information about packet filtering by configuring packet filter options. You configure packet-filter options in the IP Packet Filter Properties dialog box. Packet filter options enable you to:

85 Configure logging of packets from Allow filters. Enable this option only for troubleshooting packet filters. By default, ISA Server logs information about IP packets that it drops due to Block filters. When you select Log packets from Allow filters, ISA Server also records information about packets that were forwarded because of an Allow filter. Enabling this option causes an additional workload for the ISA Server computer and can create large amounts of logging information. Note: For more information about ISA Server logs, see Module 8, "Monitoring and Reporting," in Course 2159A, Deploying and Managing Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server 2000.

86 Configure PPTP through the ISA firewall. Select the PPTP through ISA firewall check box on the PPTP tab to enable client computers to establish outgoing connections by using the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). When you enable PPTP, ISA Server allows traffic that uses IP protocol 47, and it creates a packet filter called SecureNAT PPTP. When you enable PPTP through the ISA Firewall, all users with SecureNAT clients can establish PPTP connections through ISA Server.

87 Enable filtering of IP fragments. Set this option to refuse and drop all fragmented IP packets. A well-known attack sends and reassembles fragmented packets in a way that may disrupt the operations of a computer. Important: Do not enable filtering of IP fragments if you want to allow video streams or quality audio streams to pass through the ISA Server computer.

88 Enable Filtering of IP Options. Set this option to refuse and drop all packets that have "IP Options" in the header. Some well-known attacks use IP options in the IP packet header. Enabling the filtering of IP Options guards against such attacks. Note: When configuring packet filters, you can also configure several aspects of intrusion detection. For more information about how to configure intrusion detection, see Module 3, "Enabling Secure Internet Access," and Module 8, "Monitoring and Reporting," in Course 2159A, Deploying and Managing Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server 2000.

89  Configuring Application Filters Application Filter Overview Configuring the SMTP Filter Configuring the Streaming Media Filter Configuring the HTTP Redirector Filter Configuring the H.323 Filter

90 Application filters provide an extra layer of security for the Firewall service. Unlike IP packet filters, which make forwarding decisions based on the header of each IP packet, application filters can examine entire transactions between a client application and a server application, such as an entire message. An application filter can also examine transactions that use more than one protocol. An application filter can perform protocol-specific or system-specific tasks, such as authentication and virus checking. ISA Server uses application filters to support protocols that are more complex, such as the FTP protocol.

91 Application filters operate in addition to packet filters and access rules. To enable network traffic to pass through ISA Server, you must also configure any required packet filters or protocol rules. Several application filters are installed with ISA Server. You can enable and configure these filters to meet the needs of your organization. In-house developers or third-party developers can also create additional application filters. Note: You can use application filters only if you install ISA Server in Firewall mode or in Integrated mode.

92 Application Filter Overview DNS Intrusion Detection Filter FTP Access Filter H.323 Filter HTTP Redirector Filter POP Intrusion Detection Filter RPC Filter SMTP Filter SOCKS V4 Filter Streaming Media Filter ISA Server

93 By default, ISA Server enables all of the application filters that are installed with ISA Server, except for the SMTP filter. Application filters register with the Firewall service and are automatically loaded when you start the Firewall service. ISA Server includes the following application filters:

94 DNS Intrusion Detection filter Detects DNS traffic that indicates some types of network intrusions that use DNS. Note: For more information about DNS intrusions, see Module 8, "Monitoring and Reporting," in Course 2I59A, Deploying and Managing Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server 2000.

95 FTP Access filter Enables ISA Server to support the FTP protocol.

96 H.323 filter Controls incoming and outgoing network traffic that uses the H.323 protocol. Applications that use the H.323 protocol provide multimedia services to clients, such as multimedia conferencing and Internet telephony.

97 HTTP Redirector filter Redirects Web requests from Firewall clients and SecureNAT clients to the Web Proxy service, directly to the requested Web site, or blocks such requests.

98 POP Intrusion Detection filter Detects traffic that indicates some types of network intrusions that use the Post Office Protocol (POP). Note: For more information about POP intrusions, see Module 8, "Monitoring and Reporting," in Course 2159A, Deploying and Managing Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server 2000.

99 RFC filter Enables the publishing of servers that use remote procedure calls (RPCs).

100 SMTP filter Screens and blocks messages based on the properties of attachments, such as users, domains, keywords, or SMTP commands.

101 SOCKS V4 filter Allows ISA Server to respond to clients that use the SOCKS protocol.

102 Streaming Media Filter Allows Firewall clients and SecureNAT clients to use protocols for gaining access to streaming media services, such as those provided by Microsoft Windows Media™ Technology (WMT) Server.

103 To enable or disable an application filter: 1. In ISA Management, in the console tree, expand your server or array, expand Extensions, and then click Application Filters. 2. In the details pane, right-click the appropriate application filter, and then click Properties. 3. On the General tab, select or click to clear the Enable this filter check box, and then click OK. Note: Developers can also create Web filters, which screen and route Web content. Web filters can monitor, evaluate, and intercept HTTP communication between an internal network and the Internet. Web filters load when you start the Web Proxy service. For more information about creating Web filters, see the documentation that is included with the ISA Server Software Development Kit (SDK).

104 Configuring the SMTP Filter SMTP Filter Properties General OKCancel SMTP Filter Attachments Vendor:Microsoft Version:3.0 RC 1 Description:Filters SMTP traffic SMTP CommandsUsers/Domains Enable this filter Keywords Cancel

105 After you create IP packet filters that allow incoming SMTP traffic to reach the mail server, you must enable the SMTP filter. The SMTP filter screens SMTP traffic that arrives on port 25 of the ISA Server computer. For example, you can configure the SMTP filter to check for buffer overrun attacks. A buffer overrun attack occurs when an SMTP command is specified with a line length that exceeds a specific value. Some third-party SMTP servers are vulnerable to such attacks, which may allow an intruder to run arbitrary commands on the mail server. You can also configure the SMTP filter to block specific SMTP commands. For example, you can block the VRFY command to prevent an intruder from using this command to gain information about users in the organization. In addition, the SMTP filter can screen incoming messages based on the user or the domain and can drop or redirect messages from the specific users or domains.

106 The SMTP application filter can also screen messages based on attachments and keywords. For example, you can configure the SMTP application filter to reject messages that contain an attachment that indicates a known virus. Important: To screen messages for specific attachments, users, domains, or keywords, you must install the Message Screener. The Message Screener is an optional ISA Server component that you usually install on a separate computer on your network. For more information about how to configure servers in your network to enable content filtering of SMTP traffic, see Module 7, "Configuring Access to Internal Resources," in Course 2159A, Deploying and Managing Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server 2000.

107 To configure the SMTP filter: 1. In ISA Management, in the console tree, expand your server or array, expand Extensions, and then click Application Filters. 2. In the details pane, right-click SMTP Filter, and then click Properties. 3. Perform the following actions in the SMTP Filter Properties dialog box, and then click OK.

108 ToDo this Stop users from sending messages to the SMTP server On the Users/Domains tab, in the Sender's name box, type the e- mail address of the sender from whom messages will be rejected, and then click Add.

109 ToDo this Stop domains from sending messages to the SMTP server On the Users/Domains tab, in the Domain Name box, type the name of the DNS domain from which e- mail messages will be rejected, and then click Add.

110 ToDo this Configure attachments for the SMTP application filter On the Attachments tab, click Add. In the Mail Attachment Rule dialog box, select the Enable attachment rule check box, and then click one of the following: Attachment name. Type the name of the attachment. Attachment extension. Type a file extension. For example, to prohibit attachments with an.exe extension, type.exe Attachment size limit. Type the maximum size of the attachment. Some attacks involve overloading a mail server with large attachments. In the Action list, select Delete message, Hold message, or Forward messages to, and then type the forwarding address.

111 ToDo this Configure keywords for the SMTP application filter On the Keywords tab, click Add. Click Enable keyword rule. In the Keyword box, type the keyword string. Under Apply action if keyword is found in, select one of the following options to indicate which part of the message that the SMTP application filter checks for the keyword: Message header or body Message header Message body In the Action list, select Delete message, Hold message, or Forward messages to, and type the forwarding address.

112 ToDo this Disallow an SMTP commandOn the SMTP Commands tab, double-click the appropriate command. In the SMTP Command Rule dialog box, click to clear the Enable an SMTP command check box.

113 ToDo this Configure the SMTP application filter buffer overflow thresholds On the SMTP Commands tab, double-click the appropriate command. In the SMTP Command Rule box, select the Enable an SMTP command check box. In the Maximum Length box, type the maximum length of the command line for the SMTP commands.

114 Configuring the Streaming Media Filter Streaming Media Filter Properties General OKCancel Use this page to select WMT live stream splitting mode Live Stream Splitting Disable WMT live stream splitting Split live streams using a local WMT server Split live streams using the following WMT server pool: Apply WMT Server Address WMT server administrator account: User account: Password: Confirm password: Add… Remove Edit… Browse… Select one of these options to enable live stream splitting.

115 The Streaming Media filter enables Firewall Clients and SecureNAT clients to use popular streaming media protocols to gain access to media streaming servers. Streaming media technology allows the distribution of audio and video on the Internet as a continuous real- time stream. A server application transmits the media stream to a client application. The client application can start displaying the video or play the audio immediately or as soon as enough of the media stream is received and stored in the application's buffer.

116 The Streaming Media filter supports the following streaming media protocols: Microsoft Windows Media (MMS), which allows Microsoft Windows Media™ Player client access and server publishing. Progressive Networks Protocol (PNM), which allows RealPlayer client access and server publishing. Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), which allows RealPlayer G2 and QuickTime 4 client access and server publishing. In addition, the Streaming Media filter can improve the performance of the streaming media for clients by splitting the live streams.

117 Configuring Live Stream Splitting Configuring live stream splitting enables the Streaming Media filter to obtain the media stream from the Internet and then make it available on a WMT Server computer or WMT Server pool for access by clients. To allow SecureNAT clients or Firewall clients to take advantage of live stream splitting, no client configuration is required.

118 If you configure ISA Server to make streaming media available on a single WMT Server computer, the Windows Media Services, an optional component of Windows 2000 Server, must be installed on the ISA Server computer. If you transmit the live stream by using a pool of one or more WMT Server computers, this pool can be located anywhere on your internal network. Note: To use live stream splitting, you must install Windows Media Service on the ISA Server computer. If you use a WMT server pool, you need to install only the Windows Media Service administration tool on the ISA Server computer.

119 To configure live stream splitting for a streaming media filter: 1. In ISA Management, in the console tree, expand your server or array, expand Extensions, and then click Application Filters. 2. In the details pane, right-click Streaming Media Filter, and then click Properties. 3. On the Live Stream Splitting tab, click one of the following options, and then click OK.

120 ToThen Disable live stream splittingClick Disable WMT live stream splitting. Enable splitting of media streams by using the ISA Server computer Click Split live streams using a local WMT server. Enable splitting of media streams by using a WMT Server pool on your network Click Split live streams using the following WMT server pool, click Add, and then type the IP address of the WMT Server pool.

121 4. If you are enabling splitting of media streams by using a WMT Server pool, in the User account box, type the user name of the WMT Server administrator account. In the Password box and in the Confirm password box, type the account password, and then click OK. Note: The user account that you specify must be a member of the Netshow Administrators group on each WMT Server computer.

122 Configuring the HTTP Redirector Filter HTTP Redirector Filter Properties General OKCancel Response to HTTP requests: Options Redirect to local Web Proxy service Apply If the local service is unavailable, redirect requests to requested Web server Send to requested Web server Reject HTTP requests from Firewall and SecureNAT clients Select an option to redirect HTTP requests.

123 The HTTP Redirector filler forwards HTTP requests from Firewall clients and SecureNAT clients to the Web Proxy service on the ISA Server computer. By using the HTTP Redirector filter, HTTP requests are cached, even if users on a Firewall client computer or SecureNAT client computer do not configure their Web browser to use the ISA Server computer as a Web Proxy server. Redirecting HTTP requests improves client performance and allows you to apply site and content rules to Firewall clients and SecureNAT clients.

124 HTTP Redirector Filter Options You can configure the HTTP Redirector filter to perform one of the following actions: Redirect requests to the Web Proxy service. This option is the default option for the HTTP Redirector filter. When choosing redirection, you can also configure ISA Server to send the request directly to the Web server if the Web Proxy service is unavailable. Send requests to the Web server. Requests bypass the Web Proxy service and the objects are not cached. Choose this option if you do not want the ISA Server computer to cache HT'I P requests from Firewall clients or from SecureNAT clients. Discard HTTP requests. Discards alt HTTP requests from Firewall clients and SecureNAT clients. Choose this option when you want to require all clients that use the HTTP protocol to be configured as Web Proxy clients.

125 Note: When the HTTP Redirector filter passes a request from a Firewall client to the Web Proxy service, the client's authentication information is lost. Therefore, the Web Proxy service treats all HTTP and FTP requests that originate from Firewall clients as unauthenticated. If you configured the Web Proxy service to require authentication, ISA Server denies requests from Firewall clients. SecureNAT clients never send authentication information.

126 Configuring Redirection Options To configure the HTTP Redirector filter: 1. In ISA Management, in the console tree, expand your server or array, expand Extensions, and then click Application Filters. 2. In the details pane, right-click HTTP Redirector Filter, and then click Properties. 3. On the Options tab, click the appropriate option, and then click OK.

127 Configuring the H.323 Filter H.323 Filter Properties General OKCancel Gatekeeper location Call Control Apply Use this Gatekeeper LONDON Browse… Call direction Allow incoming calls Allow outgoing calls Use DNS gatekeeper lookup and LRQs for alias resolution Media Control Allow audio Allow video Allow T120 and application sharing Specify an H.323 Gatekeeper. Select one or more media options.

128 The H.323 filter enables users who use conferencing applications, such as Microsoft NetMeeting®, to communicate with others over the Internet by using video, audio, and application sharing. You can configure the H.323 filter to limit client access to certain media, such as denying access to video or data sharing. Note: To enable multiple H.323 sessions and to improve efficiency, you can configure an H.323 Gatekeeper, for more information on H.323 Gatekeepers, see Module 7, "Configuring Access to Internal Resources," in Course 2159A. Deploying and Managing Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server 2000.

129 To configure the filter: 1. In ISA Management, in the console tree, expand Extensions, and then click Application Filters. 2. In the details pane, right-click H.323 Filter, and then click Properties. 3. On the Call Control tab. select the Use this Gatekeeper check box, and then specify the computer that runs the H.323 Gatekeeper.

130 4. Select one or more of the following options, and then click OK: Allow incoming calls. Permits people in other organizations to call people in your organization over the Internet. Allow outgoing calls. Permits people in your organization to call people in other organizations over the Internet. Use DNS gatekeeper lookup and LRQs for alias resolution. Enables the use of DNS to look up H.323 aliases for outgoing calls. Allow audio. Permits audio calls. Allow video. Permits video calls. Allow T120 and application sharing. Permits T.120 data and application sharing.

131 Lab A: Configuring the Firewall

132 Review Securing the Server Examining Perimeter Networks Examining Packet Filtering and IP Routing Configuring Packet Filtering and IP Routing Configuring Application Filters


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