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CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Introduction to Indian Highways.

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Presentation on theme: "CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Introduction to Indian Highways."— Presentation transcript:

1 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Introduction to Indian Highways

2 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad History of Road Development in the World 2

3 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Mountain Trails 3

4 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Roman Roads 4

5 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Roman Road Construction 5

6 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Ancient Greek Roads – grooves and large stone blocks 6

7 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Macadam Road 7

8 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad India Grand Trunk Road 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi). 8

9 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Plank Road – Western US E arly 20 th Century Plank roads were typically constructed of wood planks two inches thick and eight feet long, which were nailed to four- inch-square stringers at a 90-degree angle. 9

10 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 10

11 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad History of Road Development in India Ancient Period (3500 BC) Mughul Period (15 th Century) British Period (17 th & 18 th Century) Free India (1950 onwards) 11

12 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Types of Ancient Indian Roads Indus Valley Civilization (Harrapa and Mohenjedaro):  Roads with brick drains on both sides. Mauryan rule in the 4th century constructed  Rajpath (high roads)  Banikpaths (merchant roads). Ashoka Regime:  Road networks with horticulture and rest houses at 4.8 – 6.4km along the roads. Mughul Period  Trunk roads between Northwest to Eastern part and also linking coastal and central part of India British Period  Trunk roads, bridges, PWD was formed, construction of Grand Trunk Road 12

13 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Indian Roads India has a large road network of over million kilometers of roadways (2.1 million miles). It is 3 rd largest road network in the world. At 0.66 km of highway per square kilometer of land the density of India’s highway network is higher than that of the United States (0.65) and far higher than that of China's (0.16) or Brazil's (0.20). 13

14 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Golden Quadrilateral It connects India's four largest metropolises: Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.four largest metropolisesDelhiMumbai ChennaiKolkata Four other top ten metropolises: Bangalore, Pune, Ahmedabad, and Surat, are also served by the network. BangalorePuneAhmedabad Surat The largest highway project in India, initiated by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, it is the first phase of the National Highways Development Project (NHDP),highwayAtal Bihari Vajpayee National Highways Development Project It consists of building 5,846 km (3,633 mi) of four/six lane express highways. Cost : 60,000 crorecrore 14

15 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Impact of Transportation Economic Development Social Development Spatial Development Cultural Development Political Development 15

16 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Classification of Highways National highway act ( 1956 ) Depending on weather All weather roads Fair weather roads Depending on the type of Carriage way Paved roads Unpaved roads Depending upon the pavement surface Surfaced roads Un surfaced roads

17 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Based on the Traffic Volume  Heavy  Medium  Light Based on Load or Tonnage  Class 1 or Class 2 etc or Class A, B etc Tonnes per day Based on location and function ( Nagpur road plan )  National Highway (NH)  State Highway (SH)  Major District Road (MDR)  Other District Road (ODR)  Village Roads (VR) Classification of Highways

18 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Based on modified system of Highways classification Primary  Expressways  National Highways Secondary  SH  MDR Tertiary  ODR  VR

19 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Classification of Roadways Expressways 200 Km National Highways 78,651 Km State Highways 1,56,181 Km Major District Roads & Rural and Other Roads 44,55,510 Km Total = 46,90,542 Kms

20 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Expressways  Heavy traffic at high speed (120km/hr)  Land Width (90m)  Full access control  Connects major points of traffic generation  No slow moving traffic allowed  No loading, unloading, parking.

21 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad National Highways India has a huge network of national highways. The national highways have a total length of 78,651 kms. Indian highways cover 2% of the total road network of India and carry 40% of the total traffic. The entire highway network of India is managed by the National Highway Authority of India which is responsible for development and maintenance of highways. Longest highway in India is NH7 (2,369 km), which stretches from Varansi in Uttar Pradesh to Kanyakumari in the southern most point of Indian mainland. Shortest National Highway is the NH 47A (5.9 km (3.7 mi)), which connects Kundanoor Junction in Kochi city to the Kochi port at Willingdon Island.NH 47AKochi

22 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad NH 7 (2,369 km)

23 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad National Highways in India

24 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad State Highways They are the arterial roads of a state, connecting up with the national highways of adjacent states, district head quarters and important cities within the state. Total length of all SH in the country is 1,56,181 Kms.

25 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Major District Roads Important roads with in a district serving areas of production and markets, connecting those with each other or with the major highways.

26 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Other district roads Roads serving rural areas of production and providing them with outlet to market centers or other important roads like MDR or SH.

27 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Village roads They are roads connecting villages or group of villages with each other or to the nearest road of a higher category like ODR or MDR. India has 44,55,510 Km of MDR+ODR+VR out of the total 46,90,542 Kms of all type of roads.

28 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad Urban Road Classification  ARTERIAL ROADS  SUB ARTERIAL  COLLECTOR  LOCAL STREET  CUL-DE-SAC  PATHWAY  DRIVEWAY

29 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 29 Water Bound Macadam (WBM) roads  The British engineer John Macadam introduced what can be considered as the first scientific road construction method.  WBM stands for Water Bound Macadam, and the term WBM road was derived in the memory of an engineer by name Macadam who designed and formulated this road section.  This road is laid by binding the in-situ layers of boulders, stones, fine aggregates and fillers.  The filler is made from the mixture of sand combined with either moorum quarry dust, or soil that is available in that locality.  The filler is mixed with water and is used to fix stone boulders and the layers of coarse stones of varying sizes by compacting with a road roller to form the base of a road. The road can be used in this form itself.  As an improvement, you can apply concreting or black topping above the WBM to make it better.

30 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 30 Spreading

31 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 31 Trenching

32 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 32 Sloping

33 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 33 Camber Formation

34 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 34 Loading

35 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 35 Culverts and headwalls

36 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 36 Foamed bitumen gravel Emulsion treated gravel Waterbound Macadam Hysen Cells Base courses

37 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 37 Water bound Macadam on High Volume Road

38 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 38 Completed WBM Road

39 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 39 Alternative cost effective low-cost sealing options Scarce wearing course material, requires innovative approaches to reducing the maintenance cost of Gravel roads

40 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 40 Blacktop roads

41 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 41 Slurry bound macadam

42 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 42 Concrete Block Paving

43 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 43 Modern roads The modern roads by and large follow Macadam's construction method. Use of bituminous concrete and cement concrete are the most important developments. Various advanced and cost effective construction technologies are used. Development of new equipment's help in the faster construction of roads. Many easily and locally available materials are tested in the laboratories and then implemented on roads for making economical and durable pavements. Scope of transportation system has developed very largely. Population of the country is increasing day by day. The life style of people began to change. The need for travel to various places at faster speeds also increased.

44 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad 44 Modern roads This increasing demand led to the emergence of other modes of transportation like railways and travel by air. While the above development in public transport sector was taking place, the development in private transport was at a much faster rate mainly because of its advantages like accessibility, privacy, flexibility, convenience and comfort. This led to the increase in vehicular traffic especially in private transport network. Thus road space available was becoming insufficient to meet the growing demand of traffic and congestion started. In addition, chances for accidents also increased.

45 CE 2020: Construction Materials Dr. B. Munwar Basha IIT Hyderabad


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