Presentation on theme: "How does gender, age, and distraction influence a child's ability to self regulate and delay gratification? By Anna Fazio and Chanel Carter."— Presentation transcript:
How does gender, age, and distraction influence a child's ability to self regulate and delay gratification? By Anna Fazio and Chanel Carter
Albert Bandura He is most widely known for his theory of modeling behavior, however, Bandura also studied the impact of self control, and self efficacy, which is the basis of our research.
Early Life Bandura was born December 4, 1925 in Mundare, Canada. Youngest and only boy of 6 children – Graduated from the University of British Columbia with a degree in Psychology – Received his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the University of Iowa – Began teaching at Stanford University – Served as President of the APA – Received the APA’s Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions – Received the Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology from the American Psychological Association. Still currently teaching at Stanford University.
Early life cont. Attended a very small school with only 2 teachers. Through this deficiency he realized most of his education needed to be self directed and on his own. Learned a lot about the importance of self direction and how to be independent learner
Start to Psychology Bandura quickly became fascinated with psychology after enrolling at the University of British Columbia Started out as a biology major While working nights and commuting with a group of classmates, Bandura found himself arriving at school much earlier than his classes started. To pass the time, he began taking "filler classes" during these early morning hours, which led to him eventually stumble upon psychology. Bandura explained, "One morning, I was wasting time in the library. Someone had forgotten to return a course catalog and I thumbed through it attempting to find a filler course to occupy the early time slot. I noticed a course in psychology that would serve as excellent filler. It sparked my interest and I found my career."
Influence Two psychologists, Dollard and Miller significantly influenced his work. Their concept was that people need a much more substantial influence such as response consequences to direct their behaviors and learning.
Social Learning Theory Presents what people learn from what they experience or watch others experience. Bandura renamed this theory to the Social Cognitive Theory because of his understanding of motivational factors that make up a person's behavior, rather than the environmental factors, that most psychologists credit. Focused more on how people acquire certain behaviors from watching other people as well as TV shows.
Self Efficacy 1. Self Observation: individual looks into themselves, their behavior, and their actions. 2. Judgment: use understandings and surroundings, and combine that to their own personal standards or societal standards. 3. Self Response: act of determining whether or not the action was in sync with their own positive standards. If so, the person rewards himself, if not, punishes himself
Walter Mischel Studied Delayed Gratification Explored self control in children through his marshmallow experiment, which laid the groundwork for his modern study of self control
Mischel and Marshmallows 1960s Mischel and colleagues presented a marshmallow in front of a Pre-K child. They told the child that if he/she could wait to eat the marshmallow until they got back, he/she could have two. If the child could not wait, then he/she can ring a bell and the researcher would return, but without another treat.
His Conclusions Delaying gratification = will power Pre-Schoolers with strong self control were able to sacrifice the immediate pleasure of a yummy marshmallow in order to enjoy two marshmallows later. Much like ex smokers sacrifice the enjoyment of a cigarette in order to obtain good health and avoid the risk of lung cancer. Mischel's experiments led him and colleagues to develop a framework to explain the human ability to delay gratification. Proposed Hot and Cool System to explain why willpower succeeds or fails.
Hot and Cool Systems -Cool system- cognitive nature. Thinking system that incorporates knowledge about sensations, feelings, actions and goals (reminding yourself why you shouldn't eat the marshmallow). Cool system is reflective. -Hot system is impulsive and emotional. Responsible for quick reflexive responses to certain triggers (like eating the marshmallow immediately without thinking of the long term implications) -When willpower fails, exposure to a “hot” stimulus essentially overrides the cool system, leading to impulsive actions.
Long Term Effects -When Mischel revisited his marshmallow-test subjects as adolescents, he discovered that the teenagers who were able to wait to eat the marshmallow were more likely to score higher on the SAT and parents were more likely to rate them as being good planners, good at handling stress, respond to reason, exhibit self control in frustrating situations, and master concentration when there are distractions. -Children who were less successful in the marshmallow test had poor self control as adults. Later researchers examined brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging. They observed different brain patterns between those with low and high self control.
Distractions The more successful child in delaying gratification, typically distracted themselves to resist temptation. This included dancing around, singing, talking, rolling on the floor, etc.
Our experiment Imitated marshmallow experiment with play-doh Question: How does gender, age, and distraction influence a child's ability to self regulate and delay gratification? Hypothesis:The younger boys would have a more difficult time resisting their desire to give in to play with the play-doh.
Procedure -Took a boy and girl from Pre-K, Kindergarten, and First grade. -Told the child that if they could refrain from touching the play- doh for 8 minutes, then they can take the play-doh home. However if they do, they cannot take it home. -We came back in 8 minutes and if the play-doh was untouched, the child mastered the test and got to take it home.
Comparison of Experiments Mischel ExperimentCarter/Fazio Experiment 600 participants6 participants Only preschool studentsPre-k, Kindergarten, 1 st grade students Used marshmallowUsed play-doh Gave students 15 minutesGave students 8 minutes Distraction Free environmentDistracting Environment Followed up years laterNo follow up
If we could do it all over again... Test more students Have a less distracting environment Longer time limit Use marshmallows instead of Play- doh Hidden camera
Conclusions Neither boy or girl from any grade gave in to their strong desire to touch the play-doh, as a result of having high self efficacy, self regulation, and self control. (Bandura) All children succeeded in delaying gratification. Their hot system did not override their cool system, as they were able to control any emotional, impulsive responses. (Mischel)
27 Some Basic Premises of Social Learning Theory The primary focus is on learning that occurs within a social context Reinforcement plays a role in learning but is not entirely responsible for learning. Cognitive processes play a crucial role in learning. People can learn through observation Learning can occur without a change in behavior.
28 RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM Human development reflects an interaction among an “active” ( thinking ) person, behavior, and the environment. A person is not solely shaped by the environment. The links among these are BIDIRECTIONAL. Any one can influence the other.