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Dr. H.B. “Bernie” Luft PhD, P.Eng.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. H.B. “Bernie” Luft PhD, P.Eng."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. H.B. “Bernie” Luft PhD, P.Eng.
BENEFITS from NEW and ADVANCED COILED TUBING MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES Dr. H.B. “Bernie” Luft PhD, P.Eng. Vice President – Technology Global Tubing LLC

2 INTRODUCTION & AGENDA IMPROVED COILED TUBING FATIGUE PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY CAN BE ACHIEVED WITH THE USE OF INNOVATIVE AND ADVANCED COILED TUBING MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES - FATIGUE TEST RESULTS CAN IMPROVED FATIGUE PERFORMANCE BENEFITS EXTEND TO COILED TUBING WITH MECHANICAL DAMAGE? WHY THE INCREASE IN COILED TUBING FATIGUE PERFORMANCE?

3 DIFFERENTIATING FEATURES OF NEW COILED TUBING MILLING TECHNOLOGY
ADVANCED MILLING SYSTEMS WITH DIGITAL MILL CONTROLS Mill operations permissives Fault and alarm enunciators Advanced variable frequency ERW system Strategic control of ERW welding heat input and temperature monitoring Automatic real-time control of ERW welding power and electrical characteristics Digital IR capture of each ERW seam weld Digital archive of coiled tubing milling parameters for all strings produced Superior data traceability and accessibility tube manufacturing repeatability Dedicated electric power supply ADVANCED HEAT TREATING TECHNOLOGY Enhanced full body stress relief induction heating and temperature control Improved control of ERW seam annealing post weld heat treatment (PWHT) NEW AND HIGH TECHNOLOGY CT STRIP BIAS JOINT WELDING Friction stir welding (FSW) of bias weld joints – elimination of filler metal STEEL SUPPLY Proprietary micro-alloys Advance and proprietary steel production practices

4 FRICTION STIR WELDING (FSW) TECHNOLOGY USED IN ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY STRIP/SKELP “BIAS WELD” CONNECTIONS (patent pending) Solid-state joining process – Parent metals are “stirred” together with a rotating tool Base metals are softened by frictional and deformation heat, stirred & metallurgically bonded together Figures courtesy of Smith International, Inc. Key Advantages Autogenous weld - no filler metal Low heat input, base metal not molten, smaller Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) Reduces problems due to “hot spot” fatigue crack initiation (e.g. out of 30 tests to date, not one case fatigue initiated at bias/ERW intersection) Better joint reliability, quality and hardness control Expect reduced susceptibility to preferential corrosion (e.g. sulphide stress cracking, galvanic corrosion, etc.) Reduced environmental impact Safer to manufacture

5 TYPICAL MICROSTRUCTURES of FRICTION STIR BIAS WELDS
HARDNESS SURVEY (HRB) : BM = TMAZ/HAZ = FSZ = TMAZ/HAZ = BM = 88.4 BM = Base Metal HAZ = Heat Affected Zone FSZ = Friction Stir Zone TMAZ = Thermo-Mechanical Affected Zone 0.125” (3.2 mm) Steel Strip Consistently Fine-Grained Microstructure (Polygonal Ferrite Microstructures : 3% Nital 1000X)

6 TYPICAL IMPROVEMENTS IN LOW CYCLE FATIGUE (NB) OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY COILED TUBING PRODUCTS (1-1/2 X on 48” radius bend form)

7 INCREASED COILED TUBING FATIGUE PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY ACHIEVED WITH INNOVATIVE AND ADVANCED COILED TUBING MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES – TYPICAL RESULTS DOES FATIGUE PERFORMANCE BENEFITS EXTEND TO COILED TUBING WITH - MECHANICAL DAMAGE? WHY THE INCREASE IN COILED TUBING FATIGUE PERFORMANCE?

8 IF COILED TUBING FAILS PREMATURELY, WHAT ARE THE MAJOR CAUSES
IF COILED TUBING FAILS PREMATURELY, WHAT ARE THE MAJOR CAUSES? (Recently published COILED TUBING FAILURE STATISTICS, , SPE PP, T. Padron, BJ Services) Operator Error, 10% Manufacturing defect, 9% (ERW Lack of fusion “cold weld”) Other Causes (Erosion, Wear , etc) Plow marks Corrosion-Fatigue 13% Mechanical Damage 35% Corrosion 20% Dents Scrapes Pitting

9 FATIGUE DE-RATING FACTOR FOR COILED TUBING WITH MECHANICAL DAMAGE
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 2 Q dd-TU dd-BA mc-ball-TU-48 mc-cyl-TU-48 mc-co-TU-48 wx-TU stat-BA wx-BA imp-TU LM mc-ball-TU-72 mc-cyl-TU-72 mc-co-TU-72 edm-ball-TU-72 edm-cyl-TU-72 edm-co-TU-72 sdjip-fit 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.5 The University of Tulsa Consortium Data a Different damage details N/NB 0.350 0.469 0.750 0.226 0.335 0.474 0.493 N = CT fatigue cycles with surface damage NB = Baseline CT fatigue cycles without damage Q = Damage parameter N/NB = Fatigue de-rating factor

10 INCREASED CT STRING LIFE of ADVANCED COILED TUBING with MECHANICAL DAMAGE (1-1/2 X ( 38.1 X 3.4 mm) LOW and HIGH PRESSURE) w x Milled (cut) defect %WT = Depth of damage, %wall thickness W/X = Aspect ratio TRIPS to Failure (34.5) Pressure, psi (MPa)

11 INCREASED COILED TUBING FATIGUE PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY ACHIEVED WITH INNOVATIVE AND ADVANCED COILED TUBING MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES – TYPICAL RESULTS FATIGUE PERFORMANCE BENEFITS EXTEND TO COILED TUBING WITH MECHANICAL DAMAGE? WHY THE INCREASE IN COILED TUBING FATIGUE PERFORMANCE?

12 ASSESSMENT OF LONGITUDINAL (ERW) SEAM WELD ON FATIGUE CRACK INITIATION
Frequency Distribution of CT Pin Hole Initiation in Conventional ERW Weld Seams – High & Low Pressure Data Lumped (Source: University of Tulsa CT Materials Research Consortium, TUCTMRC) (ERW Seam) Consistent & Uniform ERW Flash Possible with HCT Technology (favourable flash profile reduces notch acuity - lower stress raiser) Reduced susceptibility to lack of ERW fusion – “cold weld” defects Frequency Distribution of GT Pin Hole Initiation in ERW Weld Seams – High & Low Pressure (Source: Global Tubing (GT) Fatigue Testing Data Base)

13 SELECTION OF COILED TUBING STRIP
Crack 1 mm HRC HRC 20 μm 50 μm 20 μm HIC Cracking in Banded Microstructures (Ref. K.E. Szklarz et al, NACE Paper No , (2007)) Longitudinal Transverse Global Tubing (GT) strip supplied by Unites States Steel (USS) Fine grained, equiaxed pearlite/ferrite Only Slight banding/segregation, islands of pearlite Clean micro-structure, (e.g. negligible inclusions) Special micro-alloy designs 50 μm 20 μm 20 μm Example of GT-80 Microstructures – Minimal Segregation or “Banding” (Mag. 500X)

14 EVALUATION OF “GT” COILED TUBING GRADES FOR SOUR ENVIRONMENTS
GT BASE METAL TESTING NACE Standard TM Method B (Solution A, 0.5 wt% glacial acetic acid in de-ionized water, 24C, 99.5% pH=2.8 start-3.75 finish) Strip/Skelp size: 0.109” (2.77 mm) wall thickness 36 samples tested 12 specimens) Hardness range: 79.6 – 86.3 HRB Applied stress: 80, 90, 100% of yield (4.8 – 6 X104 psi (33.1 – 41.4 MPa)) Duration of applied stress: 30 days (720 hrs) Specimens examined at 10X and 50X magnification RESULTS: All 36 tests PASSED (no cracking) ONGOING SOUR SERVICE TESTING: NACE Standard TM Method A on FSW Welds Full body bend fatigue machine (BFM) testing of pre-immersed fatigue specimens Tests performed by United States Steel (USS) National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) Standard Proof Ring Test Cell for SSC

15 SUMMARY TEST RESULTS INDICATE THAT NEW AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY CT MANUFACTURING CAN DELIVER BENEFITS FOR CT OPERATIONS IN THE WESTERN CANADA BASIN: EXPECT tubing with - Improved baseline fatigue life Improved CT string operational life (damaged strings) Improved performance in sour conditions

16 Thank you for your time. QUESTIONS? Your New Choice for Coiled Tubing

17 GT FATIGUE TESTING – BEND FATIGUE MACHINE (BFM)
“Broken Arrow” (BA) Bend Fatigue Machine originally used by Tulsa University to develop “Cerberus” CT Fatigue Prediction model Same “BA” Bend Fatigue Machine now located at Global Tubing (GT) laboratory to develop GT manufactured coiled tubing fatigue data

18 Electrical Substation
BENEFITS from NEW and ADVANCED COILED TUBING MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES Office Building Hwy 90 Service Building Mill Building Electrical Substation Winder Building Rail Access Friction Stir Welding (FSW) Technology Advanced ERW Seam Welding Technology Advanced ERW Control Technology Weld Scan Isotherm Technology

19 ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY USES FRICTION STIR WELDING (FSW)
FOR MANUFACTURING CT BIAS WELDS (patent pending) CT Strip Run-on/off tabs CT Strip Computer Control, Monitored & Archived Welding Parameters “BIAS WELD” Joint in Flat CT Strip


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