1 Dr. H.B. “Bernie” Luft PhD, P.Eng. BENEFITS from NEW and ADVANCED COILED TUBING MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIESDr. H.B. “Bernie” Luft PhD, P.Eng.Vice President – TechnologyGlobal Tubing LLC
2 INTRODUCTION & AGENDAIMPROVED COILED TUBING FATIGUE PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY CAN BE ACHIEVED WITH THE USE OF INNOVATIVE AND ADVANCED COILED TUBING MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES - FATIGUE TEST RESULTSCAN IMPROVED FATIGUE PERFORMANCE BENEFITS EXTEND TO COILED TUBING WITH MECHANICAL DAMAGE?WHY THE INCREASE IN COILED TUBING FATIGUE PERFORMANCE?
3 DIFFERENTIATING FEATURES OF NEW COILED TUBING MILLING TECHNOLOGY ADVANCED MILLING SYSTEMS WITH DIGITAL MILL CONTROLSMill operations permissivesFault and alarm enunciatorsAdvanced variable frequency ERW systemStrategic control of ERW welding heat input and temperature monitoringAutomatic real-time control of ERW welding power and electrical characteristicsDigital IR capture of each ERW seam weldDigital archive of coiled tubing milling parameters for all strings producedSuperior data traceability and accessibilitytube manufacturing repeatability Dedicated electric power supplyADVANCED HEAT TREATING TECHNOLOGYEnhanced full body stress relief induction heating and temperature controlImproved control of ERW seam annealing post weld heat treatment (PWHT)NEW AND HIGH TECHNOLOGY CT STRIP BIAS JOINT WELDINGFriction stir welding (FSW) of bias weld joints – elimination of filler metalSTEEL SUPPLYProprietary micro-alloysAdvance and proprietary steel production practices
4 FRICTION STIR WELDING (FSW) TECHNOLOGY USED IN ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY STRIP/SKELP “BIAS WELD” CONNECTIONS (patent pending)Solid-state joining process – Parent metals are “stirred” together with a rotating toolBase metals are softened by frictional and deformation heat, stirred & metallurgically bonded togetherFigures courtesy of Smith International, Inc.Key AdvantagesAutogenous weld - no filler metalLow heat input, base metal not molten, smaller Heat Affected Zone (HAZ)Reduces problems due to “hot spot” fatigue crack initiation(e.g. out of 30 tests to date, not one case fatigue initiated at bias/ERW intersection)Better joint reliability, quality and hardness controlExpect reduced susceptibility to preferential corrosion (e.g. sulphide stress cracking, galvanic corrosion, etc.)Reduced environmental impactSafer to manufacture
6 TYPICAL IMPROVEMENTS IN LOW CYCLE FATIGUE (NB) OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY COILED TUBING PRODUCTS (1-1/2 X on 48” radius bend form)
7 INCREASED COILED TUBING FATIGUE PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY ACHIEVED WITH INNOVATIVE AND ADVANCED COILED TUBING MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES – TYPICAL RESULTSDOES FATIGUE PERFORMANCE BENEFITS EXTEND TO COILED TUBING WITH - MECHANICAL DAMAGE?WHY THE INCREASE IN COILED TUBING FATIGUE PERFORMANCE?
8 IF COILED TUBING FAILS PREMATURELY, WHAT ARE THE MAJOR CAUSES IF COILED TUBING FAILS PREMATURELY, WHAT ARE THE MAJOR CAUSES? (Recently published COILED TUBING FAILURE STATISTICS, , SPE PP, T. Padron, BJ Services)Operator Error, 10%Manufacturing defect, 9%(ERW Lack of fusion “cold weld”)Other Causes(Erosion, Wear , etc)Plow marksCorrosion-Fatigue13%Mechanical Damage35%Corrosion20%DentsScrapesPitting
9 FATIGUE DE-RATING FACTOR FOR COILED TUBING WITH MECHANICAL DAMAGE 0.20.40.60.811.21.42Qdd-TUdd-BAmc-ball-TU-48mc-cyl-TU-48mc-co-TU-48wx-TUstat-BAwx-BAimp-TULMmc-ball-TU-72mc-cyl-TU-72mc-co-TU-72edm-ball-TU-72edm-cyl-TU-72edm-co-TU-72sdjip-fit0.10.30.50.70.91.5The University of Tulsa Consortium DataaDifferent damage detailsN/NB0.3500.4690.7500.2260.3350.4740.493N = CT fatigue cycles with surface damage NB = Baseline CT fatigue cycles without damageQ = Damage parameter N/NB = Fatigue de-rating factor
10 INCREASED CT STRING LIFE of ADVANCED COILED TUBING with MECHANICAL DAMAGE (1-1/2 X ( 38.1 X 3.4 mm) LOW and HIGH PRESSURE)wxMilled (cut) defect%WT = Depth of damage, %wall thicknessW/X = Aspect ratioTRIPS to Failure(34.5)Pressure, psi (MPa)
11 INCREASED COILED TUBING FATIGUE PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY ACHIEVED WITH INNOVATIVE AND ADVANCED COILED TUBING MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES – TYPICAL RESULTSFATIGUE PERFORMANCE BENEFITS EXTEND TO COILED TUBING WITH MECHANICAL DAMAGE?WHY THE INCREASE IN COILED TUBING FATIGUE PERFORMANCE?
12 ASSESSMENT OF LONGITUDINAL (ERW) SEAM WELD ON FATIGUE CRACK INITIATION Frequency Distribution of CT Pin Hole Initiation in Conventional ERW Weld Seams – High & Low Pressure Data Lumped (Source: University of Tulsa CT Materials Research Consortium, TUCTMRC)(ERW Seam)Consistent & Uniform ERW Flash Possible with HCT Technology(favourable flash profile reduces notch acuity - lower stress raiser)Reduced susceptibility to lack of ERW fusion – “cold weld” defectsFrequency Distribution of GT Pin Hole Initiation in ERW Weld Seams – High & Low Pressure (Source: Global Tubing (GT) Fatigue Testing Data Base)
13 SELECTION OF COILED TUBING STRIP Crack1 mmHRCHRC20 μm50 μm20 μmHIC Cracking in Banded Microstructures (Ref. K.E. Szklarz et al, NACE Paper No , (2007))LongitudinalTransverseGlobal Tubing (GT) strip suppliedby Unites States Steel (USS)Fine grained, equiaxed pearlite/ferriteOnly Slight banding/segregation,islands of pearliteClean micro-structure,(e.g. negligible inclusions)Special micro-alloy designs50 μm20 μm20 μmExample of GT-80 Microstructures – Minimal Segregation or “Banding” (Mag. 500X)
14 EVALUATION OF “GT” COILED TUBING GRADES FOR SOUR ENVIRONMENTS GT BASE METAL TESTINGNACE Standard TM Method B(Solution A, 0.5 wt% glacial acetic acid in de-ionized water, 24C, 99.5% pH=2.8 start-3.75 finish)Strip/Skelp size: 0.109” (2.77 mm) wall thickness36 samples tested 12 specimens)Hardness range: 79.6 – 86.3 HRBApplied stress: 80, 90, 100% of yield(4.8 – 6 X104 psi (33.1 – 41.4 MPa))Duration of applied stress: 30 days (720 hrs)Specimens examined at 10X and 50X magnificationRESULTS: All 36 tests PASSED (no cracking)ONGOING SOUR SERVICE TESTING:NACE Standard TM Method A on FSW WeldsFull body bend fatigue machine (BFM) testing ofpre-immersed fatigue specimensTests performed by United States Steel (USS)National Association of Corrosion Engineers(NACE) Standard Proof Ring Test Cell for SSC
15 SUMMARYTEST RESULTS INDICATE THAT NEW AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY CT MANUFACTURING CAN DELIVER BENEFITS FOR CT OPERATIONS IN THE WESTERN CANADA BASIN:EXPECT tubing with -Improved baseline fatigue lifeImproved CT string operational life (damaged strings)Improved performance in sour conditions
16 Thank you for your time.QUESTIONS?Your New Choice for Coiled Tubing
17 GT FATIGUE TESTING – BEND FATIGUE MACHINE (BFM) “Broken Arrow” (BA) Bend Fatigue Machine originally used by Tulsa University to develop “Cerberus” CT Fatigue Prediction modelSame “BA” Bend Fatigue Machine now locatedat Global Tubing (GT) laboratory to develop GTmanufactured coiled tubing fatigue data
18 Electrical Substation BENEFITS from NEW and ADVANCED COILED TUBING MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIESOffice BuildingHwy 90Service BuildingMill BuildingElectrical SubstationWinder BuildingRail AccessFriction Stir Welding (FSW)TechnologyAdvanced ERW Seam Welding TechnologyAdvanced ERW Control TechnologyWeld Scan Isotherm Technology