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Presentation on theme: "EMERGENCE IN 1980S/GOALS PROGRAMS BOOT CAMPS Intermediate Sanctions."— Presentation transcript:


2 Emergence of Intermediate Sanctions Context of 1970s and 1980s  Pragmatic concerns  Conceptual/Sentencing concerns  Filler for gap between probation/incarceration  Probation not “tough” enough  RAND report on felony probation

3 Goals of IMS Sold differently to conservatives and liberals  Liberals  Keep some folks out of prison (diversion)  Better match crime/sentence (justice model)  Conservatives  Save money (diversion)  Get tougher on probationers (reduce recidivism)

4 Corrections Continuum Fines, Restitution, Community Service Probation House arrest- with or w/o EM Intensive Supervision Probation/Parole Halfway houses  RCCFs  Day Reporting Centers  Restitution Centers Boot Camps

5 Monetary/Service Sanctions VICTIMCOMMUNITY MONETARYRestitution ($)Fine/Day Fine SERVICEService restitution Community Service

6 Restitution Historically very old, resurgence first with victim’s rights movement, then RJ Restricted to compensation as direct result of crime  Physical injuries, $ loss, counseling, HIV testing… Used on up to 30% of probationers  Victims typically apply through prosecutor  Restitution centers  Indigent?  Effectiveness

7 Community Service Community service order  Rarely used as “stand alone” (condition of probation)  Only 6% of felony sentences as “add-on”  Not used widely in U.S. until late 1960s Rebirth under restorative justice  For harms that cannot be repaired through restitution No effect on recidivism (not studied much) Diversion?

8 Fines/Day Fines Never caught on in U.S. for street crime  Why? Where are fines used in U.S.? Contrast with Europe  In Germany, 81% of adult criminal cases result in fine as only punishment Upsides of Fines?  Flexible, add-on easily, could divert ($, social ties) Downside?

9 Home Confinement House arrest/home confinement as another “old” punishment Re-invented in the 1980s  Sexier with electronic monitoring  Passive vs. Active phone line; Remote location monitor  GPS technology  “drive by”  Key issue = who responds and how Effective? Fair?

10 RCCF Half-way house one of the earliest forms of corrections History  Modern Forms: Residential Community Corrections Facility  Traditional Halfway house + Expanded services More public, larger, state level facilities  Day reporting centers  Restitution Centers

11 Correctional Boot Camps Emergence in the early 1980s  Recycling of many old ideas (labor/discipline)  Goals  Reduce prison crowding (save money)  Reduce recidivism  Provide additional sentencing option Nature of boot camps  Short, military style, physical labor/drill  Young, lower risk offenders  Deterrence based, though some have treatment

12 Boot Camp Article Meta-analysis of Boot Camps  Literally a study of studies  Compute effect size for every boot camp evaluation study  Effect size = how much effect did it have  Their measure of effect size = odds ratio CONTROL GROUP RECIDIVISM ---------------------------------- = ODDS RATIO BOOT CAMP RECIDISM 1 = no effect, less than one is bad effect, greater than one is good (reduce crime) effect

13 Boot Camp Findings Average odds ratio across all of the studies was roughly 1  The average does hide some meaningful variation  27 studies found no differences  8 comparisons favored control group, 9 favored the boot campers  Key question?  Factors that might explain variation in effectiveness

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