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Reporter : Chin-Tzu Chang Advisor : Cheng-Chien Wang Date : 2014-06-16.

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Presentation on theme: "Reporter : Chin-Tzu Chang Advisor : Cheng-Chien Wang Date : 2014-06-16."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reporter : Chin-Tzu Chang Advisor : Cheng-Chien Wang Date :

2 Outline 1. Introductions 2. Experimental 2.1 Material and compounding 2.2 Mixing and cure characteristic determination 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusion 2

3 Introductions NR Modified ENR Tg Oil resistance Permeability Polarity Review of the Literature ENR Silica Tensile strength Tear strength Epoxidized natural rubber Natural rubber

4 Introductions Rice Husk Ashes (RHA) white rice husk ash (WRHA) black rice husk ash (BRHA) silica and carbon Evaluate RHA Commercial silica Commercial carbon

5 Experimental Material and compounding Epoxidized natural rubber (ENR50) S Sulfur Zinc oxide ZnO Stearic acid N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole-2-sulphenamide (CBS)

6 Experimental Material and compounding Tetrametylthiuram disulphide (TMTD) ‘N-isopropyl-N-phenylenediamine (IPPD) γ -mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (A-189)

7 Experimental Material and compounding Table 2. Chemical property of WRHA and BRHA Table 3. Physical properties of WRHA, BRHA, silica and carbon black Table 1. Typical formulations

8 Experimental Mixing and cure characteristic determination laboratory size two roll mixing mill ENRFillerSiliane ENR FillerSiliane Curing agents various filler of compounds

9 Results and discussion Fig. 1. Typical torque-time curves of WRHA-filled ENR vulcanizates.

10 Results and discussion Fig. 2. Typical torque-time curves of BRHA-filled ENR vulcanizates.

11 Results and discussion Table 4. Cure time (t 90 ), scorch time and maximum torque of WRHA-tilled ENR vulcanizates with coupling agent Table 5. Cure time (t 90 ), scorch time and maximum torque of BRHA-tilled ENR vulcanizates with coupling agent

12 Results and discussion Fig. 3. The effect of filler loadings on tensile strengths of WRHA and BRHA-filled ENR vulcanizates.

13 Results and discussion Fig. 4. The effect of filler loadings on tear strengths of WRHA and BRHA-filled ENR vulcanizates.

14 Results and discussion Fig. 5. The hardness of WRHA and BRHA-filled ENR vulcanizates.

15 Results and discussion Table 8. Cure time (t 90 ), scorch time and maximum torque of WRHA, BRHA, silica and carbon black-filled ENR vulcanizates with and without coupling agent (20 phr)

16 Results and discussion Table 9. Physical properties of WRHA, BRHA, silica and carbon black-filled ENR vulcanizates with and without coupling agent (20 phr)

17 Conclusion 1. The main objective of this study is to gauge the possibility of utilizing the low-cost rice husk ashes (RHA) as alternative filler materials in epoxidized natural rubber (ENR). 2. It has been shown that with white RHA, apart from exhibiting better physical properties than black RHA, properties are not much more inferior when compared to the commercial carbon black or silica-filled vulcanizates. 3. As a whole, this study indicates that the potential of RHA, especially the white RHA, can be exploited further by controlling particle size and particle size distribution, improving filler dispersion and also its surface functionality.

18 樣品打滑 材料除水 腔體內的清潔 檢查溫度參數 發生打滑便暫停混摻,將材料取出並重新啟 動 ( 累積混摻時間 ) 。

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