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Syntax (5) Dr. Ansa Hameed. Previously  Syntax: Syntactic Analysis  Immediate Constituent Analysis  Ultimate Constituent Analysis  Phrase Structure.

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Presentation on theme: "Syntax (5) Dr. Ansa Hameed. Previously  Syntax: Syntactic Analysis  Immediate Constituent Analysis  Ultimate Constituent Analysis  Phrase Structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Syntax (5) Dr. Ansa Hameed

2 Previously  Syntax: Syntactic Analysis  Immediate Constituent Analysis  Ultimate Constituent Analysis  Phrase Structure Grammar  Transformational Generative Grammar

3 Today’s Lecture  Syntactic Analysis  Some Modern Approaches  Case Grammar  Startificational Grammar  Tagmemics  Brief Review of All Syntactic Analysis Approaches

4 Case Grammar  Originator: Charles Fillmore  Publication ‘The Case of the Case’ (1968)  Reaction against Transformational Generative Grammar  A start of a new grammar theory though there is no fixed theory for it  Other major contributors: Anderson (1971), (1977); Chafe (1970); Nilsen (1972), (1973); cook (1973); Mackenzie (1981)...etc.

5 Case Grammar Charles Fillmore  Fillmore (1968b:382) explicitly stated: “I believe that human languages are constrained in such a way that the relation between arguments and predicates fall into a small number of types. In particular I believe that these role types can be identified with certain elementary judgments about the things that go around us: judgments about who does something, who experiences something, where something happens, what it is that changes, what it is that moves, where it starts out, and where it ends up. Since judgments like these are very much like the kinds of things grammarians have associated for centuries with the use of grammatical cases, I have been referring to the case roles as case relationships, or simply cases.”

6 Case Grammar  Fillmore divided the basic structure of a sentence in to a verb and one or more noun phrases S = V + NP (s)  Each of these noun phrases is associated with verb in particular case relationship Example  The peon opened the gate. (subject is agent) Deep  The gate was opened by the peon. (subject is goal) Case  The key opened the gate. (subject is instrument) Relations

7 Case Grammar  According to Fillmore, the manifestations of the case relations are language specific. We select the verbs according to case environments or ‘case frames’ provided by the sentence.  Example:  The verb ‘open’ can have following four case frames 1. [-O] The gate opened. 2. [-O + A] The peon opened the gate. 3. [-O+ I] The key opened the gate. 4. [-O+ I+ A] The peon opened the gate with a key.  Can be combined as [-O (I) (A)]

8 Case Grammar  Charles Fillmore (1968) proposed that the deep structure of any sentence consists of a MODALITY (it includes modalities on the sentence as a whole as negation, tense, mood etc.) and a PROPOSITION (a set of relationships involving verbs and nouns).  So at very first level sentence is broken in to proposition (P) and Modality (M) parts and later in cases parts

9 Case Grammar S MP VOIA past open KNP K NP K NP -ed det N det N det N o the gate with a key by the peon (M: modality, P: prepositional, V: verb, O: objective case, I: instrumental case, A: agentive case, K: case marker, Det: determiner, NP: noun phrase)

10 Case Grammar In Fillmore's new version of 1970 (Cook 1970b: 18-19), the list of cases and their definitions reads as follows:  A Agentive instigator/ doer of the action, animate (The peon opened the gate.)  E Experiencer affected by the action, animate (He felt the energy.)  I Instrumental force or object causing action or state (The key opened the gate.)  O Objective semantically most neutral case; which is affected by the action or sate indicated by the verb ( The peon opened the gate.)

11 Case Grammar  S Source the origin or starting point (France is the origin of perfumery products.)  G Goal the object or end point (He moved to a new house.)  L Locative spatial orientation of the action (Islamabad is beautiful.)  T Time temporal orientation of the action (It was raining in the morning.)  C Comitative accompaniment role, animate (I went there with my friend.)  B Benefactive: benefactive role, animate (She bought me a new dress.)

12 Case Grammar  What it’s good for???  The influence of case grammar on contemporary linguistics has been significant, to the extent that numerous linguistic theories incorporate deep roles in one or other form, such as the so-called Thematic structure in Government and Binding theory. It has also inspired the development of frame-based representations in AI research.Thematic structureGovernment and Binding theoryframe representationsAI  During the 1970s and the 1980s, Charles Fillmore developed his original theory onto what was called Frame Semantics. Walter A. Cook, SJ, a linguistics professor at Georgetown University, was one of the foremost case grammar theoreticians following Fillmore's original work.Frame SemanticsGeorgetown University

13 Stratificational Grammar  structural framework developed by Sydney Lamb in the 1960s  Outline of Stratificational Grammar (1966)  It aims to provide an account of the structure of language, the relationship between meaning and speech.

14 Stratificational Grammar  Stratificational Grammar, system of grammatical analysis in which language is viewed as a network of relationships and linguistic structure is considered to be made up of several structural layers, or strata. (Encyclopedia Britannica online)  The framework is called stratificational because one of its chief features is its treatment of linguistic structure as comprising several structural layers or stratastrata

15 Stratificational Grammar The basic idea:  Language does not have only two levels of deep and surface structures, rather it has several levels/strata  Each stratum has a different kind of structure or syntax  All languages have 3 major strata: Semology (Semantics), Phonology, Grammar)  Some strata include:  Phoneme as the unit on the Phonemic strata. PhonemePhonemic  Lexeme as a unit on the Lexical strata. LexemeLexical  Morpheme as the unit on the Morphemic strata MorphemeMorphemic  Sememe as the unit on the Semantic strata. SememeSemantic

16 Stratificational Grammar  In Stratificational Grammar, a sentence is realized as string of sounds, a tree of morphemes, and a constellation of meaning  Thus basic model is representation of realization

17 Stratificational Grammar  Example: The man killed a thief*. Declarative Past TheThing Agent Do Goal Thing (a thief) Animate kill Animate human male thief adult man

18 Stratificational Grammar Positive Point about Statificational Grammar  The originality of stratificational grammar does not reside in the recognition of three major components of a linguistic description. The stratificational approach to linguistic description is distinguished from others in that it relates grammar to semology and phonology by means of the same notion of realization that it employs to relate the lexemic and the morphemic stratal systems within the grammatical component.

19 Tagmemics  especially associated with Kenneth Lee Pike  Tagmemic theory is concerned primarily with grammatical analysis  an offshoot of structuralism  Structuralism ignored functions of a linguistic form and concentrated only on form. Tagmemics fuses together the form as well as the function of a linguistic entity

20 Tagmemics  According to this approach, utterances can be analyzed simultaneously at three interpenetrating levels, where each level represents a hierarchy of units. These levels are lexical (with the minimum unit being morpheme), phonological (having phoneme as the minimum unit), grammatical ( in which the minimum unit is tagmeme). 1. grammatical component: a series of syntactic statements concerning sentence, clause, phrase, and word level structures. 2. Lexicon: the formal unit of language 3. Phonological:the phonemic sentence a phonetic realization in the language.

21 Tagmemics  Pike rejected the idea of a sentence as being the minimum unit of grammar and recommended a hierarchical order and labeling.  It has three semi-autonomous but interlocking levels or modes -- phonology, grammar and lexicon.  It stresses the hierarchical ordering of grammatical units into ranks of levels -- morphemes, words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs, and discourses.

22 Tagmemics  Tagmemics, unlike a structural analysis asks for the function of the categories and not merely their naming.  It is a "slot and filler grammar"; a slot being a position in construction frame. The filler class is the co-relation between a grammatical function like subject and class of fillers like nouns that can fill that function.  But neither the slot nor the filler itself is important, it is the tagmeme which is significant. The slot is the function and filler being the category. A tagmeme, therefore, is the co-relation of a slot and the class of items that can occur in that slot.

23 Tagmemics  A tagmeme is defined as "the correlation of the grammatical function or slot with a class of mutually substitutable items occurring in that slot.” (Pike)  In other words, it is the relation between function and category.  we have sentence level tagmemes, clause level tagmemes, phrase level tagmemes, word level tagmemes and morpheme level tagmemes.

24 Tagmemics Sentence level tagmeme  e.g. Sentence: She saw John.  This sentence has 3 tagmemes Subject + verbal + object pronoun transitive verb noun  Here, the subject, verbal, and object slots are filled by a pronoun, a transitive verb and a noun respectively. The formula for such a sentence = SVO.

25 Tagmemics Various levels Tagmemes  Example: "The boy ate all his candy yesterday" has the following tagmemes: 1. Base -- transitive clause + intonation tagmeme T -- cl Int: F 2. Clause level tagmeme S: NP + Pr: tv + O: n+ Tense: past 3. Phrase level tagmeme Det: det + H: n 4. Word level tagmeme ate -- Nuc: Verb stem + Tense: past 5. Morpheme level Tagmeme eat

26 Tagmemics  Tagmemic has been most fertile as far as the description of exotic languages is considered. A number of Red Indian and African languages have been described on the tagmemic model. It seems that this model is particularly convenient in describing languages that have not been studied before.

27 Syntactic Analysis: Review  Model Sentence: John bought a red car.

28 Syntactic Analysis: Review  Immediate Constituent Analysis S SubjectPredicate NPVP NP VartAdjN John boughtaredcar

29 Syntactic Analysis: Review  Ultimate Constituent Analysis S SubjectPredicate NPVP NP V tenseartAdjN John buy pastaredcar

30 Syntactic Analysis: Review  Phrase Structure Grammar/Transformational Generative Grammar S NPVP VNP artAdjP Adj N Johnbought aredcar

31 Syntactic Analysis: Review  Case Grammar S MP VOA past buy KNP K NP -ed a car o John

32 Syntactic Analysis: Review  Stratificational Grammar Declarative Past (John)Thing Agent Do Goal Thing (a car) Animate buy Animate human male car adult man

33 Recap  Syntax  Paradigmatic View  Syntagmatic View

34 References  Ahmed, Moumene. Case Grammar and its Implications in Developing Writing Skills  _developing_writing_skills.pdf _developing_writing_skills.pdf  Edwards, Bruce. Tagmemics Discourse Theory.   Falk, Julia. Linguistics and Language  Hocket, F. C. A Course in Modern Linguistics. New Delhi: Oxford  Parsad, Tarni, A Course in Linguistics, 2012, New Dehli: PHI  Rajimwale, Sharad, Elements of General Linguistics,  Strang, Barbara. Modern English Structure. Edward Arnold  Tallerman. Understanding Syntax.  Valin, R. D. V. An Introduction to Syntax. Cambridge Press  Yule, George. The Study of Language. 1996


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