3Today’s Lecture Syntactic Analysis Some Modern Approaches Case Grammar Startificational GrammarTagmemicsBrief Review of All Syntactic Analysis Approaches
4Case Grammar Originator: Charles Fillmore Publication ‘The Case of the Case’ (1968)Reaction against Transformational Generative GrammarA start of a new grammar theory though there is no fixed theory for itOther major contributors: Anderson (1971), (1977); Chafe (1970); Nilsen (1972), (1973); cook (1973); Mackenzie (1981) ...etc.
5Case Grammar Charles Fillmore Fillmore (1968b:382) explicitly stated: “I believe that human languages are constrained in such a way that the relation between arguments and predicates fall into a small number of types. In particular I believe that these role types can be identified with certain elementary judgments about the things that go around us: judgments about who does something, who experiences something, where something happens, what it is that changes, what it is that moves, where it starts out, and where it ends up. Since judgments like these are very much like the kinds of things grammarians have associated for centuries with the use of grammatical cases, I have been referring to the case roles as case relationships, or simply cases.”
6Case GrammarFillmore divided the basic structure of a sentence in to a verb and one or more noun phrasesS = V + NP (s)Each of these noun phrases is associated with verb in particular case relationshipExampleThe peon opened the gate. (subject is agent) DeepThe gate was opened by the peon. (subject is goal) CaseThe key opened the gate. (subject is instrument) Relations
7Case GrammarAccording to Fillmore, the manifestations of the case relations are language specific. We select the verbs according to case environments or ‘case frames’ provided by the sentence.Example:The verb ‘open’ can have following four case frames[-O] The gate opened.[-O + A] The peon opened the gate.[-O+ I] The key opened the gate.[-O+ I+ A] The peon opened the gate with a key.Can be combined as [-O (I) (A)]
8Case GrammarCharles Fillmore (1968) proposed that the deep structure of any sentence consists of a MODALITY (it includes modalities on the sentence as a whole as negation, tense, mood etc.) and a PROPOSITION (a set of relationships involving verbs and nouns).So at very first level sentence is broken in to proposition (P) and Modality (M) parts and later in cases parts
9Case Grammar M P V O I A past open K NP K NP K NP -ed det N det N det No the gate with a key by the peon(M: modality, P: prepositional, V: verb, O: objective case, I: instrumental case, A: agentive case, K: case marker, Det: determiner, NP: noun phrase)
10Case GrammarIn Fillmore's new version of 1970 (Cook 1970b: 18-19), the list of cases and their definitions reads as follows:A Agentive instigator/ doer of the action, animate(The peon opened the gate.)E Experiencer affected by the action, animate(He felt the energy.)I Instrumental force or object causing action or state(The key opened the gate.)O Objective semantically most neutral case; which is affected by the action or sate indicated by the verb( The peon opened the gate.)
11Case Grammar S Source the origin or starting point (France is the origin of perfumery products.)G Goal the object or end point(He moved to a new house.)L Locative spatial orientation of the action(Islamabad is beautiful.)T Time temporal orientation of the action(It was raining in the morning.)C Comitative accompaniment role, animate(I went there with my friend.)B Benefactive: benefactive role, animate(She bought me a new dress.)
12Case GrammarWhat it’s good for???The influence of case grammar on contemporary linguistics has been significant, to the extent that numerous linguistic theories incorporate deep roles in one or other form, such as the so-called Thematic structure in Government and Binding theory. It has also inspired the development of frame-based representations in AI research.During the 1970s and the 1980s, Charles Fillmore developed his original theory onto what was called Frame Semantics. Walter A. Cook, SJ, a linguistics professor at Georgetown University, was one of the foremost case grammar theoreticians following Fillmore's original work.
13Stratificational Grammar structural framework developed by Sydney Lamb in the 1960sOutline of Stratificational Grammar (1966)It aims to provide an account of the structure of language, the relationship between meaning and speech.
14Stratificational Grammar Stratificational Grammar, system of grammatical analysis in which language is viewed as a network of relationships and linguistic structure is considered to be made up of several structural layers, or strata. (Encyclopedia Britannica online)The framework is called stratificational because one of its chief features is its treatment of linguistic structure as comprising several structural layers or strata
15Stratificational Grammar The basic idea:Language does not have only two levels of deep and surface structures, rather it has several levels/strataEach stratum has a different kind of structure or syntaxAll languages have 3 major strata: Semology (Semantics), Phonology, Grammar)Some strata include:Phoneme as the unit on the Phonemic strata.Lexeme as a unit on the Lexical strata.Morpheme as the unit on the Morphemic strataSememe as the unit on the Semantic strata.
16Stratificational Grammar In Stratificational Grammar, a sentence is realized as string of sounds, a tree of morphemes, and a constellation of meaningThus basic model is representation of realization
17Stratificational Grammar Example: The man killed a thief*.Declarative PastThe Thing Agent Do Goal Thing (a thief)Animate kill Animatehuman male thiefadultman
18Stratificational Grammar Positive Point about Statificational GrammarThe originality of stratificational grammar does not reside in the recognition of three major components of a linguistic description. The stratificational approach to linguistic description is distinguished from others in that it relates grammar to semology and phonology by means of the same notion of realization that it employs to relate the lexemic and the morphemic stratal systems within the grammatical component.
19Tagmemics especially associated with Kenneth Lee Pike Tagmemic theory is concerned primarily with grammatical analysisan offshoot of structuralismStructuralism ignored functions of a linguistic form and concentrated only on form. Tagmemics fuses together the form as well as the function of a linguistic entity
20TagmemicsAccording to this approach, utterances can be analyzed simultaneously at three interpenetrating levels, where each level represents a hierarchy of units. These levels are lexical (with the minimum unit being morpheme), phonological (having phoneme as the minimum unit), grammatical ( in which the minimum unit is tagmeme).grammatical component: a series of syntactic statements concerning sentence, clause, phrase, and word level structures.Lexicon: the formal unit of languagePhonological:the phonemic sentence a phonetic realization in the language.
21TagmemicsPike rejected the idea of a sentence as being the minimum unit of grammar and recommended a hierarchical order and labeling.It has three semi-autonomous but interlocking levels or modes -- phonology, grammar and lexicon.It stresses the hierarchical ordering of grammatical units into ranks of levels -- morphemes, words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs, and discourses.
22TagmemicsTagmemics, unlike a structural analysis asks for the function of the categories and not merely their naming.It is a "slot and filler grammar"; a slot being a position in construction frame. The filler class is the co-relation between a grammatical function like subject and class of fillers like nouns that can fill that function.But neither the slot nor the filler itself is important, it is the tagmeme which is significant. The slot is the function and filler being the category. A tagmeme, therefore, is the co-relation of a slot and the class of items that can occur in that slot.
23TagmemicsA tagmeme is defined as "the correlation of the grammatical function or slot with a class of mutually substitutable items occurring in that slot.” (Pike)In other words, it is the relation between function and category.we have sentence level tagmemes, clause level tagmemes, phrase level tagmemes, word level tagmemes and morpheme level tagmemes.
24Tagmemics Sentence level tagmeme e.g. Sentence: She saw John. This sentence has 3 tagmemesSubject + verbal objectpronoun transitive verb nounHere, the subject, verbal, and object slots are filled by a pronoun, a transitive verb and a noun respectively. The formula for such a sentence = SVO.
25Tagmemics Various levels Tagmemes Example: "The boy ate all his candy yesterday" has the following tagmemes:1. Base -- transitive clause + intonation tagmemeT cl Int: F2. Clause level tagmemeS: NP + Pr: tv + O: n+ Tense: past3. Phrase level tagmemeDet: det + H: n4. Word level tagmemeate -- Nuc: Verb stem + Tense: past5. Morpheme level Tagmemeeat
26TagmemicsTagmemic has been most fertile as far as the description of exotic languages is considered. A number of Red Indian and African languages have been described on the tagmemic model. It seems that this model is particularly convenient in describing languages that have not been studied before.
27Syntactic Analysis: Review Model Sentence:John bought a red car.
28Syntactic Analysis: Review Immediate Constituent AnalysisSSubject PredicateNP VP NPV art Adj NJohn bought a red car
29Syntactic Analysis: Review Ultimate Constituent AnalysisSSubject PredicateNP VP NPV tense art Adj NJohn buy past a red car
30Syntactic Analysis: Review Phrase Structure Grammar/Transformational Generative GrammarSNP VPV NPart AdjPAdj NJohn bought a red car
31Syntactic Analysis: Review Case GrammarSM PV O Apast buy K NP K NP-ed a car o John
32Syntactic Analysis: Review Stratificational GrammarDeclarative Past(John)Thing Agent Do Goal Thing (a car)Animate buy Animatehuman male caradultman
34ReferencesAhmed, Moumene. Case Grammar and its Implications in Developing Writing Skills_developing_writing_skills.pdfEdwards, Bruce. Tagmemics Discourse Theory.Falk, Julia. Linguistics and LanguageHocket, F. C. A Course in Modern Linguistics. New Delhi: Oxford. 1958Parsad, Tarni, A Course in Linguistics, 2012, New Dehli: PHIRajimwale, Sharad, Elements of General Linguistics, 2006.Strang, Barbara. Modern English Structure. Edward ArnoldTallerman. Understanding Syntax.Valin, R. D. V. An Introduction to Syntax. Cambridge Press. 2001Yule, George. The Study of Language. 1996