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Effect of Platelet Filler and Void Contents to the Mechanical Properties of Composites Timothy A. Fay (Akkerman, Inc.) Tye B. Davis (Link Manufacturing,

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Presentation on theme: "Effect of Platelet Filler and Void Contents to the Mechanical Properties of Composites Timothy A. Fay (Akkerman, Inc.) Tye B. Davis (Link Manufacturing,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Effect of Platelet Filler and Void Contents to the Mechanical Properties of Composites Timothy A. Fay (Akkerman, Inc.) Tye B. Davis (Link Manufacturing, Inc.) Jin Y. Park (Minnesota State University) November 22, 2011

2 Presentation Outline Objectives of the Research Problem Description Conventional Approaches Evaluation Procedure of the Proposed Method Comparison and Discuss

3 Objectives of the Research Review conventional analytical approaches Consider the filler and void contents as analytical/design parameters for polymer composites Define the effects of platelet fillers and voids Propose effective methods to evaluate mechanical properties

4 Without an Analytical Model? Material Fabrication Properties by Testing Primitive Design Heterogeneous Materials Properties OK? Product NO YES

5 Need a reliable analytical method to obtain the properties of composites containing fillers/voids prior to the fabrication!

6 Analytical Modeling of Polymer Composite Materials Matrix Models Roving Layer Models CSM Layer Models

7 Micromechanical Structure of Pultruded FRP E-glass Roving + Matrix E-glass CSM + Matrix Resin + Filler + Voids + +

8 Composite Properties Matrix Properties (or Particle composites) Resin Voids Fillers Roving Layers Roving fibers CSM fibers CSM Layers Conventional Approach Our Approach

9 Clay Filler Particle

10 Why Fillers? More Stability (Reduce Void Content) More Stiffness/Strength What kind of Fillers? Ceramic, Boron Nitride, Graphite, Alumina

11 Analysis of Matrix (Mixture of Resin, Filler and Void) Volume fractions of resin, fillers and voids in Matrix Filler models (platelet and spherical models) Void model (spherical model) Properties of isotropic material containing inhomogeneities (micromechanical models) This approach can be used for particle composites

12 Matrix with Circular Platelet Filler Model Model #1 Unidirectional (theoretical) Model 3-D Random Model

13 Unidirectional Fillers: Macroscopically Transversely Isotropic Material Evenly distributed Fillers

14 Transversely Isotropic Materials [C ij ]=Stiffness Matrix

15 [C][C] [C’]=[T x ][C][T x ] T

16 Transformation Matrix about the x-axis by angle  Stiffness of Matrix having randomly (evenly) rotated platelet fillers about the x-axis Transformed Stiffness about the x-axis

17 Transformation Matrix about the y-axis by angle  Transformed Stiffness about the y-axis Stiffness of Matrix having randomly (Evenly) rotated platelet fillers about the y-axis

18 Stiffness Matrix Having Random 3-D Platelet Fillers

19 Extensional Modulus of the Matrix with 3-D Randomly Oriented Platelet Fillers Shear Modulus of the Matrix with 3-D Randomly Oriented Platelet Fillers where

20 Procedure to obtain Matrix Properties by Model #1 Obtain E x (= E y ), E z, xy (= yx ), zx G xy (=G yx ), G zx of transversely isometric matrix using Chamis (1984) and Halpin-Tsai (1969) Step 3 Include voids in the matrix using analytical models Step 1

21 Modified Mori-Tanaka Model - For spherical (or randomly oriented ellipsoidal) inclusions - For randomly oriented voids: G i = K i = 0

22 Platelet Filler & Spherical Void Model The matrix model is very close to the actual material structure The obtained properties agree well with the experimental results Randomly oriented ellipsoidal voids can be assumed as spherical inclusions [Que 1992]

23 Spherical Filler and Void Model Easy and Quick Method to Obtain Matrix properties Randomly oriented ellipsoidal voids can be assumed as spherical inclusions Is it really OK to assume the platelet shaped fillers as spherical inclusions?

24 Matrix Properties Volume fractions of the constituents were provided by Composites Lab, Material Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology

25 STACKING SEQUENCE OF VP25 STACKING SEQUENCE OF VS25 STACKING SEQUENCE OF VS50 Provided by Strongwell, Inc.

26 Composite Properties Matrix Properties Resin Voids Fillers Roving Layers Rovin g fibers CSM fibers CSM Layers

27 Properties of Roving Layers Volume Fractions of Fibers and Matrix in the Roving Layer Chamis (1984) and Halpin-Tsai (1969) Models Properties of CSM Layers Volume Fractions of Fibers and Matrix in the CSM Layer Tsai-Pagano (1968) Models

28 Properties of Pultruded Composites where

29 Properties of Pultruded Composites where

30 ASTM D 5379 Shear Test Specimens (4” x.75” x.25”)

31 G 12 exp /G 12 computed G 12 exp was determined by following ASTM D 5379

32 G 12 exp /G 12 computed Pl-Es-ChPl-Es-HTPl-MT-CHPl-MT-HTPl-SC-ChPl-SC-HT Micromechanical Models G 12 exp /G 12 computed Group VP25 Group VS25 Group VS50

33 Conclusions Analytical models for polymer composite matrix having platelet fillers and voids were successfully established. Conventional analytical equations can be modified for matrix models and particle composites. The assumption of platelet fillers and spherical voids is valid for the composites under consideration. All of the Analytically computed properties are higher than experimentally determined results.

34 All of the analytically computed properties are higher than experimentally determined values. Initial damage in resin-matrix Interfacial debonding Multi-stacks Why?/Future study

35 References Ma, H., Hu, G. and Huanr, Z., “A Micromechanical Method for Particulate Composites with Finite Particle Concentration, “ Mechanics of Materials, 36: 359–368, 2004 Geckeler, K. E. and Rosenberg, E., Functional Nanomaterials, American Scientific Publishers, Stevenson Ranch, CA, 2006 Mura, T. Micromechanics of Defects in Solids, Martiuns Nijhoff, Boston, MA., 1987 Technical Report: Material Properties, Southern Kaolin Clay Inc., TX Park, J. Y., Fay, T. A. and Davis, T. B., " A Study on Clay Particle Effect to the Mechanical Properties of Pultruded Composites under Shear Loading," ASME International Congress and Exposition, Seattle, WA, 2007 Park, J. Y. and Fay, T. A., “Mathematical Modeling of Nanocomposite Properties Considering Nanoclay/Epoxy Debonding,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 29: , 2010 ASTM Standard D 5379 (2002). ASTM


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