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ENCI 579 51 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Soil Definition (Engineering) –“refers to all unconsolidated material in the earth’s crust, all material above.

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Presentation on theme: "ENCI 579 51 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Soil Definition (Engineering) –“refers to all unconsolidated material in the earth’s crust, all material above."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENCI 579 51 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Soil Definition (Engineering) –“refers to all unconsolidated material in the earth’s crust, all material above the bedrock” mineral particles (gravel, sand, silt, clay) organic material (top soil, marshes) –Aggregates mineral particles of a soil –specifically, granular soil group gravel, sand, silt

2 ENCI 579 52 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Granular Soil Group (Aggregates) –Physical weathering action of frost, water, wind, glaciers, plant/animals.. particles transported by wind, water, ice soils formed are called granular soil type “grains are similar to the original bedrock” –Larger grain sizes than clays –Particles tend to be more or less spheres/cubes –Bound water is small compared to overall mass

3 ENCI 579 53 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Granular Soil Group (Aggregates) –ability to achieve greater densities well graded granular material –increased soil strength –lower permeability –reduced future settlement These improvements dictate the use of aggregates in pavement layers where wheel loads are greater

4 ENCI 579 54 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Aggregates for asphalt concrete include: –coarse aggregates aggregate particles larger than the 4.75 mm sieve –fine aggregates aggregate particles smaller than the 4.75 mm sieve –mineral filler aggregate particles smaller than the 75 um sieve

5 ENCI 579 55 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Mineral Filler –provides the fines that are important in producing a dense-graded strong material –however the amount of mineral filler must be limited covering them would require excess asphalt cement strength of the concrete mix would be reduced as the mixture would depend on friction between smaller particles, which is less than between larger particles –limestone dust is the most common material

6 ENCI 579 56 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Aggregate Properties –Well graded-dense including mineral filler –Hard-resistance to wear and traffic polishing –Sound-resistance to breakdown due to freeze/thaw cycles –Rough Surfaced-crushed rough surfaces higher friction strength better adhesion to asphalt cement –Avoid cubical-thin elongated particles that break easier

7 ENCI 579 57 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Aggregate Properties (cont’d) –Free from Deleterious Substances clay, dust, dirt, lightweight pieces lower quality of asphalt film on the particle breaking of some particles –Hydrophobic “water hating” siliceous aggregates such as quartz are hydrophilic greater affinity for water than asphalt cement due to surface charges stripping, asphalt coating comes away from the particle in the presence of water

8 ENCI 579 58 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Stripping Tests –Visual tests (Saskatchewan Highways) –samples saturated under vacuum / % stripped –Strength Tests ASTM D1075, Effect of water on Compressive Strength of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures –samples are submerged for 4 days ASTM D4876, Effect of Moisture on Asphalt Concrete Paving Mixtures –samples are submerged under vacuum 80% saturation AASHTO T 283, Modified Lottman Test –80% saturation / freeze thaw

9 ENCI 579 59 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates

10 ENCI 579 510 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates

11 ENCI 579 511 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates

12 ENCI 579 512 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates

13 ENCI 579 513 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates

14 ENCI 579 514 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Superpave Aggregate Properties –three critical distress mechanisms rutting fatigue cracking low temperature cracking –central role in overcoming permanent deformation ie. Rutting –lesser role in pavement fatigue and low temperature cracking

15 ENCI 579 515 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Consensus Aggregate Properties –pavement experts agreed that these aggregate properties were critical to well performing mixes and wide agreement in their use and specified values –criteria are based on traffic levels and position within pavement structure

16 ENCI 579 516 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Source Aggregate Properties –pavement experts agreed that there were other critical aggregate properties that were dependant on local sources and experience and were left to local agencies to specify

17 ENCI 579 517 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Superpave consensus aggregate properties –Coarse aggregate angularity ensures a high degree of internal friction and rutting resistance percent by weight of aggregates larger than 4.75 mm with one or more fractured faces –Fine aggregate angularity ensures a high degree of fine aggregate internal friction and rutting resistance percent air voids in loosely compacted aggregates smaller than 2.36 mm

18 ENCI 579 518 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates

19 ENCI 579 519 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Superpave consensus aggregate properties

20 ENCI 579 520 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates

21 ENCI 579 521 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Superpave consensus aggregate properties –Flat and Elongated Particles percentage by mass of coarse aggregates that have a maximum to minimum dimension ratio greater than five particles are undesirable because of their tendency to break during construction and under traffic procedure uses a proportional caliper device to measure the dimensional ratio of a representative sample of aggregate particles percentage of flat + percentage of elongated particles

22 ENCI 579 522 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Flat and Elongated Particles

23 ENCI 579 523 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Flat and Elongated Particles

24 ENCI 579 524 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Superpave consensus aggregate properties –Clay content percentage of clay material contained in the aggregate fraction that is finer than the 4.75 mm sieve sand equivalency test is used in which a sample is mixes with a flocculating solution forcing clay particles into suspension after a settling period the height of suspended clay and sedimented sand is measured sand equivalent is the ratio of sand to clay readings

25 ENCI 579 525 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Clay Content

26 ENCI 579 526 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Clay Content

27 ENCI 579 527 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Superpave source aggregate properties –Toughness percent loss of material from an aggregate blend larger than 2.36 mm using a Los Angeles Abrasion Test estimates the resistance of coarse aggregate to abrasion and mechanical degradation during handling, construction and in service maximum loss values typically range from 35 to 45 percent

28 ENCI 579 528 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Superpave source aggregate properties –Soundness percent loss of material from from an aggregate blend during the sodium or magnesium sulfate soundness test can be used on both coarse and fine aggregates resembles freeze/thaw in the field test result is total percent loss over various sieve intervals for a required number of cycles maximum loss values typically range from 10 to 20 percent for five cycles

29 ENCI 579 529 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Superpave source aggregate properties –Deleterious materials defined as mass percentage of contaminants such as clay lumps, shale, wood, mica, and coal in a blended aggregate performed on both coarse and fine aggregates mass percentage of material lost as a result of wet sieving is reported as the percent of clay lumps and friable particles values range as low as 0.2 percent to 10 percent depending on the exact composition of the contaminant

30 ENCI 579 530 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Superpave aggregate properties –Gradation Chart the 0.45 power gradation chart is used in which sieve sizes are raised to the power 0.45 on the horizontal axis (normal sieve gradation graph already in use) maximum density gradation is a straight line from the maximum aggregate size to the origin maximum size is defined as one sieve size larger that the nominal maximum size nominal maximum size is defined as one sieve size larger than the first sieve to retain more than 10 %

31 ENCI 579 531 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Superpave source aggregate properties –Gradation Chart (cont’d) specifies two new features to the gradation chart Control Points placed on the nominal maximum sieve, an intermediate sieve (2.36 mm), and the smallest sieve (75 um) through which the gradation must pass Restricted Zone placed on the maximum density line between an intermediate sieve and the 0.3 mm sieve through which the gradation cannot pass. Gradations that pass through the restricted zone are called “humped gradations”

32 ENCI 579 532 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Superpave source aggregate properties –Gradation Chart (cont’d) Humped gradations indicate an: oversanded mixture and/or a mixture that contains too much fine sand in relation to total sand restriction zone discourages the use of fine natural sand and encourages the use of a clean manufactured sand

33 ENCI 579 533 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Superpave source aggregate properties –Gradation Chart (cont’d) –Results : mixtures that poses compaction problems during construction “tender mixes” offers reduced resistance to rutting gradations that follow to close to the maximum density line for fine aggregates often have inadequate VMA to allow enough asphalt for adequate durability

34 ENCI 579 534 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Gradation Chart

35 ENCI 579 535 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates Gradation Chart


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