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Today ’ s Topics Machine Shop Welding Processes for Steel & Aluminum Brazing Advantages & Alloys Welding & Brazing Examples © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Machine Shop Welding Processes Stick MIG/Flux Core Oxyacetylene TIG © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Stick Welding © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Stick – General Limited heat control: ON/OFF ≈ 1/8" steel Medium skill & practice required Excellent for plate, angle iron, shapes Very good penetration $400–600 for basic equipment Really for heavier work pieces of uniform thickness © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Stick Premium Rods – When Nothing Else Works Repair or “Premium″ rods available for unknown, hard-to-wet metals & cast iron No AWS Classification $50/lb, often 10lb minimum Available from: Castolin Eutectic, Stoody/Thermadyne, Haynes International/Hastelloy © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Stick Welding Aluminum Aluminum welding rods are available Thickness ≈ 1/8" steel Great for field repairs of pipe & tanks Excellent in wind Requires considerable practice Serious flux problem © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Stick Aluminum Flux Problems Flux very aggressive & nearly impossible to remove, burns through paint Maximum 1" weld bead before flux melts off ≈ 1/8" Al thickness Great for field repairs of pipe & tanks Excellent in wind Requires considerable practice Not for precise work © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Stick Aluminum Welding Rods Bottom Line: Limited shop applications Hard to use Better alternatives © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
ProcessSteelAluminum Stick >⅛" Stick Welding Process Capabilities Summary © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Wire Feed Welding MIG/FCAW has ″ON/OFF″ problem of stick welding, so limited control Easy to learn $600–800 for basic small machines Fast metal deposition Good penetration on steel For larger scale work pieces © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Wire Feed Welding © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Entry Level Miller 140 A Wire Feeder © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Wire Feed Welding Aluminum MIG (GMAW) welds Aluminum, uses argon cover gas No self-shielded process like FCAW Excellent for plate, tanks, heavy sections Easily & often automated See aluminum tanker trucks on the road with beautiful long weld beads © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Wire Feed Welding Aluminum Problems Aluminum removes heat rapidly Minimum 180 A power supply 140 A welders that run on 20 A/ 110 Volts won ’ t work properly © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Aluminum Wire Feed Welding Wire Problems Aluminum wire is soft, “birdnests” & cannot be pushed through cable Requires spool gun or push-pull gun Guns $500–1500 Waste of time without these guns Inexpensive guns are rarely work well © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Wire Feed Welding Aluminum – Spool Gun © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Wire Feed Welding Aluminum Push-Pull Gun © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Wire Feed Welding Aluminum – Preheating Every 100°F = 10 A welding Current Preheat to 350–400°F in oven or on hot plate Decreases HAZ width as work gets up to temp faster © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Wire Feed Welding Aluminum – Bad Practice Department Preheating work with oxyacetylene torch & sooting for temperature indication Idea is carbon sublimes at preheat temperature Adds carbon to weld, never good Risks liquation & heat treat modification Solution: Go to HF and buy laser temp probe for $50, or send job to pro! © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Wire Feed Welding Process Capabilities ProcessSteelAluminum Stick >⅛" MIG >180 A Supply & >⅛" Work Thickness © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Oxyacetylene Welding in the Machine Shop © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Oxyacetylene Welding in the Machine Shop Welds have very good appearance Excellent for steel Small torches, small wire for small work Requires 100+ hours to gain puddle control Excellent for tubing race car & airframes © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Oxyacetylene Welding Aluminum Welding rods may have internal, external, or separately applied flux Many rods have shelf life Pre-cleaning is critical Requires considerable practice for acceptable results © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Oxyacetylene Welding of Aluminum Conclusions OK if you are prepared to spend the time developing the torch skills Control not as good as TIG For medium to large work Many rods have shelf life Pre-cleaning is critical There are better alternatives © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Oxyacetylene Welding of Aluminum Conclusions ProcessSteelAluminum Stick >⅛" MIG(>180 A) >⅛" Oxyacetylene <¼" © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
TIG in the Machine Shop Think of TIG torch as an electric flame Control of heat input & weld puddle are best of all welding processes when used with foot control Requires practice & good hand/eye/foot coördination © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
TIG in the Machine Shop © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
What TIG Can Do Weld any pure metal with itself Weld most alloys except brass Apply silicon bronze braze filler metal to steel, stainless steel & cast iron Apply Aladdin aluminum rod to aluminum & white metal castings Use rods from 1/8" to 0.020" © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
TIG Power Supplies $200 for basic Harbour Freight for steel, but no foot control $2600 for Miller to do steel & aluminum includes foot control Many possible electronic features The more money, the more features, easier to get good results with less skill © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
$4000 TIG Power Supply © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
ProcessSteelAluminum Stick >⅛" MIG(>180 A) >⅛" Oxyacetylene <¼" TIG <¼" Welding Process Capabilities Summary © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Welding vs. Brazing & Soldering Welding joins via fusion Brazing & Soldering via adhesion or inter-atomic attraction © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Soldering vs. Brazing Solders considerably weaker than brazes Some brazes approach strength of welds Brazing can hide the braze & color-match the workpiece © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Soldering vs. Brazing Soldering under 840°F Brazing over 840°F Solders: Pb, Sn, Sb, Cd Braze Filler Metals: Ag, Cu, Sn, Cd, Zn, Al, Ni, Si, P © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Silver Solder Commonly used in jewelry A few percent silver plus lead & other elements Much weaker than silver braze © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Brazing Advantages over Welding Lower temperatures Joins dissimilar metals Joins most metals, carbides & ceramics Parts may be repositioned/salvaged Some materials that cannot be welded, can be brazed Lower skill, less expensive equipment No distortion & precise positioning © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Principal Brazing Alloys Brass Silver with & without cadmium Silicon-Bronze Sil-Fos © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Brass Brazing 1650°F or dull red heat 60% Copper/40% Zinc Borax water-based flux 56,000–60,000 psi Steel, stainless, cast iron Inexpensive & widely available © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Silver Brazing 1200°F 5–50% Silver, rest copper & zinc Higher the silver, lower the MP Many alloys available 40,000–130,00 psi f(clearance, surface roughness, alloy) Expensive, $50+/ounce Capillary attraction in small cracks © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Rôle of Cadmium Improves Wetting May lower melting point Cadmium fumes toxic may cause loss of brain cells Cadmium ions toxic in food © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Silver Brazing Steel © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Silver Braze Strength + Precise Registration © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Silicon Bronze Filler Metal Can be applied by brazing or with TIG torch Lower shrinkage vs. weld filler metals Steel, stainless steel, cast iron Golden sheen © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Sil-Fos Ag-P Brazing Alloys Special silver braze category No need to clean copper tubing Alloys with copper For critical or high-pressure lines Excellent vibration resistance Joints cannot be disassembled © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Aladdin 3-in-1 Aluminum Rod Aluminum, Zinc, White Metal Repair 720°F melting point 120°F below brazing temperature Weak joints Scrub with s/s brush under flame No flux Solder & solder welds © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Solder Welding Aluminum Propeller with Aladdin 3-in-1 Aluminum Rod © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
Conclusions There are many alternatives for joining metals in the shop. Choice depends on availability, metals, skills, cost, strength, appearance. TIG is not cheap, but very versatile. © 2012 Frank M. Marlow MetalArtsPress.com
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