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RLRR RLRR FillerMean Rating (N=32) African6.406 Singer6.250 Blake6.219 Buettner25.969 Saper5.938 Kinstler25.688 Buettner5.375 Kinstler5.219 Hopper4.969.

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Presentation on theme: "RLRR RLRR FillerMean Rating (N=32) African6.406 Singer6.250 Blake6.219 Buettner25.969 Saper5.938 Kinstler25.688 Buettner5.375 Kinstler5.219 Hopper4.969."— Presentation transcript:

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5 FillerMean Rating (N=32) African6.406 Singer6.250 Blake6.219 Buettner25.969 Saper5.938 Kinstler25.688 Buettner5.375 Kinstler5.219 Hopper4.969 Horton4.844 Paint4.812 Pastel4.719 Drut3.688 Drut23.469 Freud3.406 Monahan3.344 Tibet3.312 Sutherland 3.031 Horton22.938 Rodwell2.875

6 A painted portrait differs from a photo in that the artist intentionally selects only certain regions for fine detail (i.e., narrow versus broad brushwork) and the contrast level of edges. Although artists and art critics have claimed that these choices guide the viewer’s eyes, this claim has not been thoroughly tested. In past studies of viewers gazing at original works of art, interpretation is complicated because regions of fine and coarse detail also differ in other ways (e.g., whether they are foreground or background). Here we monitored the gaze of participants viewing photos and paintings of the same portrait view, inspired by Rembrandt’s portraits (e.g., Self Portrait with Beret, 1659). The paintings were created by a non-photorealistic rendering technique to mimic Rembrandt’s style (DiPaola, 2007). In each painting, four regions of interest were selected for systematic variation in level of detail: left versus right eye region in finer detail and left versus right collar region in finer detail. Both original and mirror image views were tested to control for side biases. Participants viewed each portrait for a 5 sec period — in the context of viewing many portraits rendered in a wide range of styles —assigning ratings of artistic merit to each portrait. Analysis of the gaze patterns showed that fewer fixations were made overall when viewing paintings than photos, and that viewer’s eyes were both attracted to and dwelt longer in the eye region of a portrait that was rendered in finer detail. Even regions of the paintings that were rarely fixated directly (i.e., collar regions below each face) nevertheless guided the gaze of viewers, specifically enhancing the salience of eyes rendered in fine detail on the same side of the portrait. This implies that Rembrandt and other master portraitists use an effective implicit theory of gaze direction. - Riebe, DiPaola, Enns, Working Abstract Following the masters: Viewer gaze is directed by relative detail in painted portraits

7 Total Fixation Frequency (all image types) 12 13 14 15 16 17 Total Fixation Frequency Filler ArtInput PhotosOppositeSame-side Focus Regions in Critical Images - critical art has fewer fixations (fewer saccades) overall than either filler art or photos - reducing detail and selectively emphasizing detail “quiets” the eye FOCUS BlurFOCUS Blur SHARP soft SHARP soft

8 Total Dwell Time (all image types) 3800 3850 3900 3950 4000 4050 4100 4150 4200 Total Fixation Time (ms) Filler ArtInput PhotosOppositeSame-side Focus Regions in Critical Images - photos have slightly longer total fixation dwell times than either filler art or critical art (across all fixations) - very small effect (~ 50 ms) FOCUS BlurFOCUS Blur SHARP soft SHARP soft

9 First Fixation Time to either Eye Region (ROI 1, 2) “Attention-getting” 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 Time of First Fixation Original Photo Sharp Edge on Side of Blur Focus Blur Sharp Edge on Side of Focus - focused eye region attracts first fixation faster than blurred eye region -100-200 ms effect! - fixation to blurred eye region is especially slow when there is a sharp edge on same side as the blur FOCUS BlurFOCUS Blur SHARP soft SHARP soft

10 First Fixation Duration in Eye Regions (ROI 1, 2) “Attention-holding” 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 First Fixation Duration Original Photo Sharp Edge on Side of Blur Focus Blur Sharp Edge on Side of Focus -focused eye region holds first fixation longer than blurred eye region, more so when sharp edge on same side - 20 - 40 ms effect! - background: attended/remembered regions are fixated longer - sharp edge is an attractant that is stronger when its on opposite side of current fixation FOCUS BlurFOCUS Blur SHARP soft SHARP soft

11 Frequency of Fixations in Eye Regions: Repeated “Attention-getting” 2.5 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.3 4.5 Fixation Frequency Original Photo Sharp Edge on Side of Blur Focus Blur Sharp Edge on Side of Focus - eyes in critical art attract more looks than eyes in photos - focused eye region attracts repeated fixation more than blurred eye region, but only when sharp edge on opposite side of focused eye -more back-forth competition from opposite side attractor than from same side?? FOCUS BlurFOCUS Blur SHARP soft SHARP soft

12 Proportion Dwell Time in Eye Regions (ROI 1, 2).10.15.20.25.30.35.40 Proportion of Time in Eye Regions Original Photo Sharp Edge on Side of Blur Focus Blur Sharp Edge on Side of Focus - eyes in critical art attract more looking time than eyes in photos -focused eye region attracts more overall gaze than blurred eye region, but only when sharp edge on opposite side of focused eye -more back-forth competition from opposite side attractor than from same side?? FOCUS BlurFOCUS Blur SHARP soft SHARP soft

13 Frequency of Successive Saccades in Eye Regions (ROI 1, 2) Stay Move.6.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 Input PhotoFocus RegionBlur Region Critical Images Frequency of Next Saccade FOCUS Blur - eyes in critical art attract more successive looks in same region than eyes in photos - focused eye region attracts more successive fixations than blurred eye region

14 Probability Moving from one Eye Region to another vs Staying in Same Region.20.25.30.35.40.45.50.55.60 Proportion Saccades to New Region Original Photo Sharp Edge on Side of Blur Focus -> Blur Sharp Edge on Side of Focus Blur -> Focus Focus -> Blur Blur -> Focus - move vs stay probability is 50% in photos - move from blur -> focused eye more likely when sharp edge on opposite side of focused eye FOCUS BlurFOCUS Blur SHARP soft SHARP soft


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