Presentation on theme: "Greenhouse summer and winter LISIANTHUS (EUSTOMA) Lovely product Not so easy to grow Competition on the market Market prefers mostly double varieties In."— Presentation transcript:
Greenhouse summer and winter LISIANTHUS (EUSTOMA) Lovely product Not so easy to grow Competition on the market Market prefers mostly double varieties In Europe singles are preferred by the growers
LISIANTHUS Lisianthus can be grown throughout the year by using the correct varieties i.e. Slow growing varieties for the summer and fast growing varieties for the winter. Mainly double flowering varieties are grown. Lisianthus require a good, well drained soil – can be sandy, and they require regular deep watering and regular feeding. It is best to use overhead irrigation until buds are formed and then change over to drip irrigation. Overhead irrigation cools off the plants during hot periods. Lisianthus are grown from seeds. It is not advisable to try and grow the seedlings yourself because they are very slow in the beginning. It takes between 10 to 14 weeks to produce a seedling from sowing to planting out. From planting out to flowering takes also 10 to 14 weeks depending on the time of the year. In warm areas it is recommended to plant out seedlings from end of February till April for flowering during the winter months when prices are usually at their best. Lisianthus can be grown as a single stem plant or they can be pinched to form two to three stems per plant – this is the most used system After flowering the plants can be cut back and re-started for a second flush of flowers. However the second flush is usually not as good as the first one as far as the stem length is concerned. Also the disease pressure is greater. It is recommended that Lisianthus are grown on sterilized soil. Or crop rotation is essential. Plant 48 plants per square meter Plant every two to three weeks for continued production
Helianthus annuus- Sunflower This crop can be grown year round in the lowveld. Outside during the summer and indoors during the winter. Crop time is about 70 to 90 days after sowing (depending on the time of the year) Sow indoors from mid-April onwards on a weekly basis. Plant 60 seeds per sq. meter which will result in a plant density of about 48 per meter. Best recommended variety at present is Pro-cut orange. One stem per seed Sunflowers are not gross feeders but require a well drained soil
Greenhouse - summer crop TRACHELIUM A typical summer crop which requires long days to flower. Plant in October to flower about February/March A second flush can be produced but then additional lighting is required
Trachelium Trachelium is a lovely filler and can be grown successfully during the summer as it is a long day flowering plant. For Autumn, Winter and Spring flowering additional lighting is required i.e. as used for Chrysanthemums.(16 hour light per day) Because Trachelium plants grow tall and are bushy, support nets are necessary. Usually nets with 64 blacks per meter are used (Chrysanthemum nets). Trachelium can produce a number of “flushes” if lighting is provided. It is not often grown commercially because of growers preferring to grow easier varieties. Plant 24 plants per square meter and the crop time is about 12 weeks after planting out. Seedlings take 10 weeks to produce.
Greenhouse - summer crop CELOSIA CRISTATA A quick crop Celosia cristata Bombay Series is an excellent cut flower but the cost of seed is too high
Indoor and Outdoor Summer crop CELOSIA cristata Kurume or Chief Series Quick to flower Needs regular watering and feeding Also suitable for greenhouse growing
Celosia cristata Celosia cristata has become a popular flower with florists because of their bright colours and excellent vase life. Celosia is an real summer flower and prefers higher temperatures, however in the Lowveld these plants can be grown almost year round. Celosia Bombay types are real upmarket flowers and fetch usually good prices. They are relatively easy to grow and can either be sown direct into the beds or planted out as seedlings. Seeds are available in pelleted form which make them easy to plant direct. Unfortunately the seed price does not warrant planting these Celosias are planted close together and produce a single stem per plant. 64 plants per sq.meter. It takes 3 weeks to produce a seedling and after planting out another 12 weeks to flowering In case of direct sowing the production time will also be about 12 weeks Celosias are not gross feeders but they require a good well drained soil and regular watering Celosia Kurume or Chief types are available in scarlet, orange and rose, there is also a yellowish one but not recommended. Culture is the same as for Bombay types. Plant or sow every two weeks
Kangaroo Paw – summer crop ANIGOZANTHOS Greenhouse culture Australian native Can be grown from seeds or tissue cultured plants Must do a trial planting If interested I will get more details
Greenhouse & outdoor - winter crop – Antirrhinum (Snapdragon Long strong stems Wide range of colours Plant from mid February till May– flowers from April till September Can also be grown outdoors A second flush is possible
Antirrhinum (Snapdragon) Antirrhinum has become a popular and rewarding cut flower for late autumn, winter and spring production Best time to plant is From mid-February till May Snaps require a good well drained soil and good ventilation. It is best to plant seedlings because the seeds of antirrhinum are very small and difficult to handle There are various varieties available as well as colours and in general the variety “Rocket Series” is used. It is the most economical to purchase as seedlings plus that it is a prolific producer of quality flowers. The best quality flowers are obtained during the cooler months of the year i.e. from April till August As far as disease is concerned, rust gives the most problems but by keeping its foliage dry during the night it is easily controlled. Drip irrigation is recommended. Antirrhinum flowers must be transported upright in buckets or containers. When lying flat the tips of the flowers curl up in search of light. Plant 24 plants per square meters and pinch the plants about 3 to 4 week after planting out in order to make them branch out and produce up to 5 stems per plant – a second flush follows. It takes about 6 weeks to produce a seedling and thereafter 8 to 12 weeks to flowering
Greenhouse and outdoor winter Matthiola (Stocks) Becoming popular again Double flowers – best prices Also produces singles Quick crop in the greenhouse
Stocks – Matthiola incana Stocks are sweet scented flowers with a good vase life. Colours are from Carmine red, Pink shades, white and creamy yellow as well as purple. Modern varieties produce much larger flower spikes than the old types but unfortunately all stocks produce about 50% double flowering plants and 50% single flowering plants. This is a genetic fact. Breeders have however managed to produce varieties which can be segregated by means of a temperature treatment which works well overseas but is more difficult in warm climates Stocks produce a single stem and plants are pulled out when harvested. Seed germinates easily and can be sown direct where they are to flower, most growers however plant out seedlings especially early in the season when it is still warm. Planting time is from February till May thus giving a long production period. Plant density is 64 to 80 plants per square meter. From sowing to seedling takes about 4 weeks and from planting out to flowering on average 10 to 12 weeks An ideal flower for winter production in the Lowveld Plant every three weeks for continuity
INDOOR AND OUTDOOR PRODUCTION OF CUT FLOWERS Summer and winter varieties Best under 30 to 40% shade net – protection against heavy rain and hail Requires more insect and disease control Requires more water and does not produce the same quality as those grown indoors
Indoor and Outdoor – summer crop CALLISTEPHUS - Asters Available in single and double flowered varieties Aster Single Rainbow Upright Mixed Aster Matsumoto Series – double flowers
Aster(Annual) – Callistephus sinense Annual Asters are always popular and the Aster Single Rainbow Upright Mixed can be grown year round. The double, aster Matsumoto is very day length sensitive and requires additional lighting in order to produce good stem length. In general asters can be sown direct but here again growers seem to prefer to plant seedlings (plugs). A strict crop rotation program must be adhered to since they leave some soil borne fungi in the soil. Plant 64 plants per square meter and each plant produces one stem. Cropping time from planting to harvest is about 90 days. Seedling (plug) production takes 3 weeks As mentioned Asters can be grown outdoors as well as indoors, naturally the indoor grown crops are of a better quality. Plant or sown every three weeks to stay in production
Outdoor–summer or winter crop CARTHAMUS Best variety – Zanzibar Orange Easy to grow – large seeds – plant direct in flower beds Can be picked when still green or when showing flower tuft
Carthamus ( Annual) A very nice filler which can be grown year round, either indoors or outdoor. Soil must be fertile and drain well Flowers last well and are popular for mixed bunches. Sow direct into flower beds as the seeds are big and easy to sow. Plant 60 seeds per square meter. Harvest stems when the flower buds are properly formed or a bit later when the small orange feathery plume appears. These days the green bud option is more popular. When planted close together it produces a nice upright stem – one stem per plant
Outdoor-summer or winter crop CRASPEDIA GLOBOSA A crop which flowers almost year round Can be marketed fresh or dried Excellent filler
Craspedia globosa One can plant Craspedia once a year because the plants will last at least 12 months and will produce continuously those knobkierie-like flowers on tall stems. Seedlings can be planted any time of the year and Craspedia is mostly grown outdoors in the open Plant 24 plants per sq.meter and they do not like too much water
Outdoor – summer crop HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Cocktail Series Produces long stems with colourful buds Fairly new on the market
Hibiscus sabdariffa An interesting crop. A tall growing plant with straight upright stems. Round inflated fruits are formed on the stem and when fully developed the stems are cut and used in flower arrangements. Can be planted from September till February. Cropping time about 4 months from sowing Cost 26 cents per seed. Seed are large enough to plant direct where they are to grow. Plant 24 plants per meter (30seeds)
Outdoor – summer crop LIATRIS SPICATA Forms a rhizome which can be planted the following season Seeds sown in September will flower in March/April. One stem per plant per year
Liatris spicata Grown from seeds but forms a tuberous root which can be used again the following season. Best time to sow is from April till May for transplanting about June/July in frost free area. Flowering about 6 months after planting. When lifting the tuberous roots, these can be stored in a cold room at -2 C for several months, just like they do with lilies. Tubers can be taken out of cold storage and planted regularly so that a constant supply of flowers is attained during spring and summer Plant spacing 24 per meter
Outdoor - winter or summer crop AMMI VISNAGA Excellent filler Can be grown almost year round in most areas with moderate temperatures Tall growing- may need support nets
Ammi visnaga (Lace Flower) Grows up to 150 cm tall and need support around the beds. Can be grown outdoors in spring and summer and in the greenhouse during the winter. The seeds are relatively fine and it will be best to plant seedlings (plugs) which take about 4 weeks to produce. Production from transplanting to flowering will be about 10 to 12 weeks depending on the time of the year Plant 36 plants per meter and each plant will produce a number of stems
Outdoor – winter crop BUPLEURUM GARIBALDI An excellent filler Also called “Cats Eyes) Must be sown direct where they are to flower Needs cool soil to germinate
Bupleurum Garibaldii or Griffitti This product is best planted as a seedling because its seeds germinate erratic. Best time to plant out is in March till May for winter production. Grows relative easy and is better for outdoor production * Plant 24 plants per square meter
Outdoor – winter & spring crop DELPHINIUM Belladonna types Delph. Bellamosum – dark blue Delph. Belladonna – light blue Delph. Casa Blanca – white Plant seedlings in March for winter and spring production Will be too hot in the lowveld summer
Delphinium belladonna types Delphinium are best grown outdoor and seedlings should be planted from early March till end of April. Plant density 24 per meter. It takes about 10 weeks to produce seedlings and flowering will start about 90 days later Best colour is Bellamosum- dark blue, then Belladonna – light blue, and Casa Blanca-white Colour ratio: 70% dark blue, 20% light blue and 10% white
Outdoor – winter & spring crop DIANTHUS AMAZON SERIES Colours – Violet, Crimson and bi-colour Plus new colours coming soon F1 Hybrid vigour and plants produce lots of strong stems.
Dianthus Hybrids These “Sweet Williams” are best grown during the winter. They flower profusely and each plant will produce up to 6 stems. Plant from March till May – crop time from 60 to 90 days after planting. Plant 24 plants per square meter. They do not need support and produce strong sturdy stems. Plant every four weeks for continuity. Colours: Violet, Cherry Red, Bicoloured, and new colours in scarlet, orange and white. These plants can also produce a second flush of flowers but the size of stems etc is not up standard. Could perhaps be used for the funeral trade.
Outdoor – winter and summer EUPHORBIA MARGINATA Also called Snow on the Mountain Sow direct where they are to flower Not so easy to germinate but otherwise easy to grow
Euphorbia marginata A good filler but with the drawback of producing “milk” which sometimes irritates people. Best sown direct where they are to flower and sow fairly thickly as germination is sometimes erratic. Not withstanding the above negatives it is still a useful filler. Sow 1 gram seeds per meter. Sow very three weeks for continuity
Outdoor – winter & summer MOLUCELLA- Bells of Ireland The long stems with its green bells are excellent fillers. Seeds can sometimes germinate a bit irregularly
Molucella (Bells of Ireland) Excellent filler Sow seeds direct where they are to flower or plant seedlings. Seeds tend to germinate erratic. Plants 24 plants per meter and each plant will produce several stems. Keep foliage dry as they are susceptible to a leave rust. Preparing of flower stems takes some labour as the leaves which grow between the calyx has to be removed by hand. Still the price warrants this operation.
Outdoor – winter and summer ECHINACEA purpurea A perennial which is grown as a filler. The centres are very decorative when the petals are removed. Expect about two season’s production out of one planting
Outdoor – winter crop STATICE sinuatum Also called Limonium sinuatum. Excellent filler which can be used fresh or dried Available in mixtures or separate colours- Dark Blue, Light Blue, Lavender, Yellow, Rose White and Apricot shades
Statice sinuatum Statice are best supplied as seedlings in “200” trays. When planted out early in the season i.e. early January, flowering can be speeded up by placing the seedlings in the trays in a cool room at 5 C for 6 weeks. This will induced earlier flowering by 6 weeks. Untreated seedlings will flower much later. If no cool treatment can be given then planting out in April would be the best option It takes about 5 weeks to produce a seedling and flowering will be about 12 to 16 weeks after planting, depending on climate and night temperatures Can also be grown with good success in greenhouses
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