Presentation on theme: "1 ISE 311 - 9 Macroergonomics The analysis, design, and evaluation of work systems. Concerned with the ‘human-organization’ interface. Top-down approach."— Presentation transcript:
1 ISE Macroergonomics The analysis, design, and evaluation of work systems. Concerned with the ‘human-organization’ interface. Top-down approach concerned with: Personnel subsystems Technology subsystems Organizational structure External environment Key issues of concern: How do organizational constraints affect how people work with machines (i.e., human-machine systems) What factors come into play when people work together in groups?
2 ISE Six Ergonomics Guidelines 1. Plan the work, then work the plan. 2. Reward results. 3. Optimize system availability. 4. Minimize idle capacity. 5. Use filler jobs or filler people. 6. Communicate information.
3 ISE In-class assignment Assume you are planning to start a new fast-food business designed to be both customer-friendly AND worker-friendly. Your mission statement includes, among other things, a pledge to use the principles of macroergonomics as a guiding force for the business. 1.Work in groups. a. Approach the problem from the perspective of specific guidelines outlined in chapter 8. b. As we discuss each guideline, you will be given a chance to work together to develop recommendations for the business. c. Your deliverables include a list of one or more ideas and suggestions.
4 ISE G1. Plan the work, then work the plan Plan the Work 1. List goals. 2. Set goal priorities. 3. Make a “to do” list. 4. Set activity priorities. Work the Plan 1. Start with A’s, not with C’s. 2. Do it now. 3. Cut big activities into bits.
5 ISE G2. Reward results Get people to work hard and smart. Types of motivation: Positive Internal (self-motivation) External Financial Nonfinancial Negative
6 ISE G3. Optimize system availability Availability = Uptime ÷ Total Time Strategies to improve availability: Increase uptime. longer production runs increase reliability (MTBF) Decrease downtime. decrease voluntary downtime increase maintainability (MTR) Make loss of availability less costly. preventive maintenance partial function
7 ISE G4. Minimize idle capacity Fixed Costs Annual cost of many machines and people varies little with output. Solutions: Operate more hours/year. Use pools. Revise work schedules. Encourage off-peak use. Variable Costs Some team members are more expensive than others. In the U.S. the expensive part of the team is usually human labor. Solutions: Duplicate components. Idle low-cost components (use double tooling). Do not use one on one.
8 ISE G5. Use filler jobs or filler people Problem: Match worker time to job requirements. Strategies: 1. Adjust the workload but keep the workforce constant. a. Break longer jobs into shorter jobs. b. Do short, low-priority jobs during idle time. c. Use scheduling to decrease idle time. d. Assign more work to subordinates than they have time to do.
9 ISE Strategies (continued) 2. Adjust the Workforce a. Use staggered work times. b. Use temporary workers. c. Use part-time workers.
10 ISE G6. Communicate information Provide job instruction or training. Provide command and control: short messages that trigger behavior patterns.