Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 1 Lecture 10 – Psyco 350, B1 Fall, 2011 N. R. Brown.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 1 Lecture 10 – Psyco 350, B1 Fall, 2011 N. R. Brown."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 1 Lecture 10 – Psyco 350, B1 Fall, 2011 N. R. Brown

2 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 2 Outline Interference In the Real-World –Hindsight Bias –Misinformation Effect Implicit Memory –Introduction –Dissociating Implicit & Explicit Memory –Transfer Appropriate Processing Implicit Learning

3 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 3 Testing Biased Guessing Hypothesis Introduce modified recognition test. Predictions for recognition accuracy: –Biased Guessing: Modified Misleading = control –Memory Change: Modified Misleading < control misleading info should  memory for original info regardless of test Initial EventPost-EventReco Test Control“Stop”---“Stop” or “Yield Standard – Accurate“Stop” “Stop” or “Yield” Standard -- Misleading“Stop”“Yield”“Stop” or “Yield” Modified – Misleading“Stop”“Yield”“Stop” or “Detour”

4 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 4 Rationale for Biased Guessing Prediction Control Condition: “S”  no “Y”; test: “S” or “Y” “S,” no “Y” no “S,” no “Y” “S,” no “Y” no “S,” no “Y” “S,” “Y” no “S,” “Y” Standard Test: “S”  “Y”; test: “S” or “Y” Modified Test: “S”  “Y”; test: “S” or “Z” “S,” no “Z” no “S,” no “Z”

5 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 5 McCloskey & Zaragoza (1985): Method Stims: –79 slides of an office theft –4 s / slide –4 critical items: coffee jar, magazine, pop can, tool –Post-slide narrative 735-words long misinformation for 2 items; neutral for 2 items

6 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 6 McCloskey & Zaragoza (1985): Method Procedure: view slides 10 minute filler read narrative 10 minute filler 36-item 2IFC recognition test: “ The man slide the calculator beneath the ___ in his tool box” standard test: hammer vs screwdriver modified test:hammer vs wrench

7 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 7 McCloskey & Zaragoza (1985): Method Procedure: view slides 10 minute filler read narrative 10 minute filler 36-item 2IFC recognition test: “ The man slide the calculator beneath the ___ in his tool box” standard test: hammer vs screwdriver modified test:hammer vs wrench On Slide In Narrative Never encountered

8 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 8 McCloskey & Zaragoza (1985): Results Standard Test: –replicates Misinformation effect: Misled << Control Modified Test: –consistent w/ Biased Guessing: Misled  Control access to original info unimpaired by post-event info. Consistent w/ Coexistence & Source Monitoring Accounts MisledControl Standard hammer vs screwdriver 37%72% Modified hammer vs wrench 72%75%

9 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 9 Misinformation w/ Modified Procedure: Belli (1992) Materials: –44 slides (mother & child arguing) –4 crit slides (coffeemaker, blender, toaster) –500 word narrative w/ 2 misleading statements 2IFC modified reco test SlideNarrativeTest Controltoaster ---toaster vs blender Mod Misinfo toaster coffemaker toaster vs blender

10 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 10 Misinformation w/ Modified Procedure: Belli (1992) view slides  Exp1 5-min delayExp3 5-day delay  read narrative  10 min delay  reco test Design – manipulates timing of misinformation

11 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 11 Belli (1992): Results W/ 5-min delay:Mod Misled = Control consistent w/ Biased Guessing W/ 5-day delay:Mod Misled < Control (at lease) consistent w/ Coexistence & RI ControlMod Mis Exp 1 ns : 5-min delay95% Exp 3*: 5-day delay80%70%

12 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 12 Blocking Hypothesis: Belli’s Explanation Post-event information impairs access to original traces when: original trace is weak post-event information is strong Original trace Trace for misinfomation Effect of mis-info on modified test strong noM&Z weak no???? weakstrongyesBelli

13 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 13 Misinformation Effect: My Take Memory impairment, coexistence, & source monitoring errors are not mutually exclusive As the work on Hindsight bias indicates, new information can: –modify existing information –coexist w/ existing information –block access to existing information Biased guessing is a problem in 2IFC situation – particularly when target & misinformation are of equal strength Nonetheless, bias to select foil in standard condition, indicates that post-event information is (some times) accepted as true & incorporated into event representation.

14 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 14 Inhibitory Processes Inhibition – well established at neural level. increased activation of one unit, decreases activation in others. Inhibition also observed in visual attention/object perceptions Inhibition Processes in Memory Performance: retrieval of ITEM I decreases the likelihood that ITEM J will be retrieved. Assumption: Inhibition is an active process Has the flavor of repression/suppression, but functions to increase memory efficient not to “protect the self.”

15 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 15 Retrieval Induced Forgetting Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork (1994) Aim: Demonstrate that retrieval can produce forgetting Materials: category-instance pairs COLOR-red; PET-dog; FRUIT-apple 6 pairs/category:

16 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 16 Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork (1994): Procedure 3-Phase Procedure: Study – each pair presented once for 5 s Retrieval Practice –complete category-stem w/ list instance FRUIT– ap__ –Each category-stem presented 3 times 20 minute delay Test Phase –given each category name  recall all instances

17 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 17 Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork (1994): Results Practice Effect: PIPC >> UIUC UIUC > UIPC –if not rehearsed, being an instance of a practiced category hinders recall. Interpretation: UIPC inhibited during practice in order to make retrieval of practiced items easer. % Correctly Recalled Instances 81.0%40.3%56.0% Practiced Instance from Practiced Categories Unpracticed Instances from Practiced Categories Unpracticed Instances from Unpracticed Categories

18 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 18 Inhibitory Processes Inhibitory Processing still not well studied. Parameters still being explored –range –strength –duration Alternative accounts of retrieval-inducted forgetting being explored. –Retroactive Interference –Associative Inference (deferential spreading activation)

19 Psyco 350 Lec #11– Slide 19 (Episodic) Memory Basic: Implications for Forgetting Probability of recall decreases, as # of ERs linked to a cued concept increases. [interference] Other possible mechanisms: decay knowledge revision & biased reconstruction inhibition

20 Second Half Material Begins Here Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 20

21 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 21 Implicit Memory “Any form of memory that does not require consciousness and can operate without a person being aware that he is using his memory.” – Radvansky, p. 112 People “show evidence of memories for experiences that they cannot consciously retrieve.” Anderson, p. 298 “Memory without awareness” – Neath & Supernant, p 139

22 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 22 Implicit Memory Strategy for studying implicit memory: –Demonstrate that prior experience affects performance on tasks that do not require retrieval or recognition of those prior experiences. Such test are called Indirect tests.

23 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 23 Types of Memory Tests Test Direct (explicit) Indirect (implicit) recall, cued recall recognition, recency frequency Word-related Test Judgments fragment completion fame word-stem completion truth perceptual ID liking lexical decision r-w estimation word-association general-knowledge category-instance generation

24 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 24 Common Indirect Tests Fragment Completion _e_e_c_ recency Stem Completion fre_ _ _ _ _ _ frequency Anagrams: ticilipm implicit Lexical Decision word/non-word? TREB Perceptual Identification read word (identify object) presented VERY briefly (e.g., 25 ms)

25 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 25 Evidence for Implicit Memory on Indirect Tests Indirect tests typically use improved performance as the measure of implicit memory Priming = the improvement in performance on a subsequent occasion due to processing on a previous occasion

26 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 26 Priming Effects Exp condition = a prior exposure to stim Control = “no” prior exposure to stim Priming: fragment, stem, anagram: dv – % complete: exp > control Perceptional Identification: dv -- % correct: exp > control Lexical Decision: dv – RT: exp < control

27 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 27 Dissociating Implicit & Explicit Memory Dissociation: One variable affects one task differently than it affects another _______________________________________ Tulving, Schacter, & Stark (1982) Design: Delay X Test Type. 1 hr fragment completion (indirect) 1 week recognition (direct)

28 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 28 Tulving, Schacter, & Stark (1982) Phase 1Intentional Study (96 words) 1 hr delay  Phase 2 Recognition 48 words Frag Completion 48 words 1 week delay  Phase 3 Frag Completion 48 words Recognition 48 words

29 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 29 Tulving, Schacter, & Stark (1982) Results: Reco  w/ dealy frag unaffected by delay Delay causes a dissociation between reco & frag tests. Implication: Test tap different “forms” of memory.

30 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 30 (Double) Dissociating Implicit & Explicit Memory Jacoby (1983) Aims: Using same materials demonstrate: explicit memory  w/ depth of processing implicit memory  w/ perceptual similarity Materials selected so that: as depth of processing , perceptual similarity 

31 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 31 Jacoby (1983) Design: Encoding Task X Test. (Antonym) Generation recognition Read (antonym in context)perceptual ID (40 ms) Read (target alone)

32 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 32 Jacoby(1983): Two perspective on Encoding Tasks Predictions: Recognition: deeper processing should produce better performance. Percp ID: priming should become stronger as study and test materials become more similar. TaskexampleLOPperc similarity Generate hot  deeplow Read in context hot – COLD mid Read no context COLD shallowhigh

33 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 33 Jacoby (1983): Results w/out prior exposure (control): perc ID = 60% In all conditions: –Perc ID > 60% –priming _________________________ Reco  with Depth of Processing Perc ID  perc similarity (Perc ID  LoP) Evidence for 2 types of memory

34 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 34 Jacoby (1983): Results w/out prior exposure (control): perc ID = 60% In all conditions: –Perc ID > 60% –priming _________________________ Reco  with Depth of Processing Perc ID  perc similarity (Perc ID  LoP) Evidence for 2 types of memory

35 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 35 Transfer Appropriate Process: Theory Assumes: Performance depends of match between processing at study and processing at test. Analogous to encoding specificity. Two-types of Processes –Data-driven (perceptual) – processing of physical features. –Conceptually-driven (semantic) – processing for meaning

36 Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 36 Transfer Appropriate Processing: Two Types of Indirect Test Data-driven (Perceptual): fragment completion stem completion anagram completion lexical decision perceptual identification Conceptually-driven (Semantic): word association doctor  ?? category-instance generation “name a mammal” general knowledge “The capital of the US is …?”


Download ppt "Psyco 350 Lec #10– Slide 1 Lecture 10 – Psyco 350, B1 Fall, 2011 N. R. Brown."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google