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Wood Plastic Composites An Overview

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Presentation on theme: "Wood Plastic Composites An Overview"— Presentation transcript:

1 Wood Plastic Composites An Overview

2 Presentation Outline Introduction to Wood Plastic Composites
Historical Development Milestones in Commercialization Technology Status Benefits of wood plastic composites Applications Future markets & business opportunities

3 Wood Plastic Composite ( WPC )
Definition Wood Plastic Composite ( WPC ) Any composite that contains wood & thermoset or thermoplastic Thermoset : Epoxy , Phenolics Thermoplastics: PE, PP, PVC, PS

4 Introduction High Performance products First Generation WPCs
Recycled woodchips / flour & binder Designed for undemanding applications New Generation WPCs High Performance products Good mechanicals High dimensional stability Complex shapes Extruded products with high dimensional tolerance

5 Introduction “The new generation WPCs are produced by mixing wood flour or fiber & plastics to produce a material that can be processed like a conventional plastic & has the best features of wood & plastic”

6 Plastic Lumber Recycled Plastics Extruded profiles May / may not include wood flour Application – Sleepers on rail roads

7 Historical Perspectives
1900 : Bakelite ( Gear shift knobs for Rolls Royce) 1920: Birth of the WPC industry Marriage of plastic processing & forest products industry

8 Initial Impediments to Growth
Forest Product Industry Viewpoints Alien to Plastic materials Few common material & equipment suppliers Only exposure to vinyl sidings Lack of Market Knowledge & application areas Plastic Industry Viewpoints Conversant with mineral fillers & reinforcements Aversion to wood & natural fibers

9 Wood as a filler: Plastic Industry’s Viewpoints
Low bulk density of wood flour vis-a vis plastics ( 0.5) Low specific gravity of wood Low thermal stability of wood Tendency to absorb moisture

10 The Turn Around The last decade saw
Greater awareness from both sides Success of several WPC products Greater understanding of wood filler Developments in compounding equipments Development in additives Emerging opportunities in large volume building application sector

11 Forest Products Industry: Change in Perception
WPCs :Products with little maintenance Low maintenance : USP Of WPCs Forest Product companies : Suppliers of WPCs Synergize knowledge of wood flour & core competence in building products

12 Milestones in The Commercialization Of WPCs
Year Company Product 1975 G.O.R., Italy Woodstock patent 1983 American Woodstock Lear Corporation 50% WF/PP sheets for thermoforming for auto interiors 1990 Strandex Corporation Highly filled WPC extruded profiles& shapes 1991 AERT Later TREX 50 % WF/PE for deckboards, picnic tables etc 1993 Andersen Corporation WF reinforced PVC sub sills for French doors & window lines

13 Technology Status of WPCs
Market Potential Global market size : 320,000MT in 2000 Expected Volume : More than double in 2005 Wood Filled Composites Natural Fiber Filled Composites

14 Technology Status Of WPCs Material Attributes
Thermoplastic Material End-Use PE Virgin & recycled Exterior building components PP Virgin Automotive Profiles PVC Building profiles & decking & windows

15 Technology Status Of WPCs Polymer Attributes
Selection of Thermoplastic matrix * Inherent properties of polymer * Product requirements * Availability * Cost

16 Technology Status Of WPCs Attributes of wood
Wood flour : Particulate, l/d 2:1 to 4:1 Wood fiber : Reinforcing, l/d greater than 24:1 Commonly used species : Pine, Maple Oak Typical particle size : 10 to 80 mesh Price : Indian Rs. 15 to 20/- per Kg Price : Imported Rs. 35 to 45/-per Kg

17 Technology Status Of WPCs Manufacture & Processing
Two stage Process: Compounded pellets & shaping Commonly Used processing Techniques Sheets & profile extrusion Thermoforming Compression Molding Injection Molding New Trend In-Line Compounding & Processing

18 Salient Features of Extrusion of WPCs
Two stage Process - compound & shaping Two Extruders in tandem Twin screw Compounding and shaping

19 Extrusion of WPCs

20 New Developments In Equipments
American Maplan Corp : Counter rotating TSE, conical & parallel for direct extrusion Woodtruder American Davis Standard ( Crompton): First Stage drying extruder & side arm extruder for injection of polymer melt into the main extruder. Up to 80 % wood flour Wilmington Machinery: 375 tons two stage injection molding for foamed WPCs

21 Manufacturing Wood / PP Composites

22 Machinery For Wood PP Composites

23 Additive Developments Aid Growth of WPCs
Tailor-made lubricants Non stearate & compatibilizer package Special HALS Antimicrobials Blowing agents

24 Wood Filled PP

25 Application Benefits Improved dimensional stability - increased strength Lower processing temperatures - less energy used Increased heat deflection temperature - reduced thermal expansion Up to 30% reduced cycle time for injection moulded products - increased productivity Approximately % lower specific gravity lighter products Reduced shrinkage - lower internal shear in pultrusion application Low volumetric cost

26 Conventional Fillers Vs Wood Filler
AWF Wood Flour Weight Savings Specific Gravity 40% Filled Resin - Polypropylene Flexural MOE Versus % Wood Flour

27 Wood Filled PP Products

28 Wood Filled PP Products

29 Wood Filled PP Products

30 Foaming Expands Possibilities For Wood Fibre / PP Composites

31 Foaming Expands Possibilities For Wood Fibre / PP Composites

32 Breakthrough Technology “Plastic Steel from Wood Filled PP”
Expanded Oriented Wood filled PP Low temperature die drawing Synthetic Hardwood Technologies USA Automotive side beams Wood look – alike Product Flexural Modulus ( M Pa ) PP EOW PP

33 ‘Plastics Steel’ Die Drawing Makes From Wood Filled PP
Ram extrusion of PP / wood filled creates light weight wood-like material, even stronger than wood

34 Wood Fibre Adds Stiffness & Value To Tight Tolerance Tubes

35 Polypropylene Developments
Wood Filled Repol PP for Door Trims

36 PVC / Wood Composites

37 Outlook For The Future Innovation in processing & product performance
USA: 50 % growth rate of WPCs for building products ASTM Standards for building products based on WPCs Automotive : 15 % growth rate Innovation in processing & product performance

38 Summary

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