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1 MODULE 2 Meaning and discourse in English THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECH AND WRITING Lecture 11.

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Presentation on theme: "1 MODULE 2 Meaning and discourse in English THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECH AND WRITING Lecture 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 MODULE 2 Meaning and discourse in English THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECH AND WRITING Lecture 11

2 2 Esonero - Lun.15 Dicembre AL MZ Practice exam Wednesday 4 December ore 15

3 3 Dialogue 1 “They’re going to..” uhm- filler +- hesitation a trial thing- “thing” substitute astonishing - expression of attitude isn’t it- repetition, asking for agreement

4 4 Dialogue 2 “I remember very vaguely” oh- attitude/filler this … this- repetition history … history- repetition +- hesitation yes- agreement

5 5 Dialogue 3 “were you watching …?” +- hesitation put up with- prepositional expression watch …watch- repetition I watched it on Saturday- repetition supporters- repetition were booing them- repetition

6 6 Dialogue 4 “and she goes …” eh- filler +- hesitation ah- agreement/filler yes- agreement lovely- attitude

7 7 Dialogue 5 “there was no ele- …” ele-- filler +- hesitation there was no electricity - reformulation really- reinforcement terrible- attitude terrible- repetition

8 8 Characteristics of speech (1) MARKERS OF INTERACTION I think perhaps isn’t it? etc. Tag questions MARKERS OF AGREEMENT yes, of course, OK

9 9 Characteristics of speech (2) FILLERSer, erm, well, ah shows that S wants to continue speaking REPETITION OF WORDS yes … yes yes, I do reduplication reinforces message EXPRESSION OF ATTITUDE good, wonderful shows speaker involvement PAUSE, HESITATION, REFORMULATION There was no ele + There was no electricity

10 10 Characteristics of speech (3) INCOMPLETE SENTENCES SIMPLE SYNTAXless subordination fewer passives lighter noun phrases SIMPLE MONOSYLLABIC VOCABULARY a lot of, thing, do, got, go, nice, really, get MONOSYLLABIC AND FEWER CONNECTORS and, but, if, then, so, ‘cos

11 11 Characteristics of speech (4) WEAK VERBShave a chat get ready go shopping the force of the message is in the noun or adverb PREPOSITIONAL EXPRESSIONS feel down, on the up, in = trendy prepositions replace adjs and nouns PHRASEOLOGYout of the question we learn language in chunks

12 12 Transient v Permanent More transient note on fridge door conversation More permanent college report recorded political speech

13 13 Formal v informal More formal Oral presentation essay More informal to friend Phone call

14 14 Interactive v non-interactive More interactive SMS chat Less interactive poster lecture

15 15 Context dependent ? More context -dep. Oral directions Instruction leaflet Less context dep. Fictional work Poetry recital

16 16 SCRIPTED SPEECH A note Scripts and subtitles tend to ignore some characteristics of speech. This is because they are considered not fundamental to the message Actors may then include these characteristics during performance Modern dramatists such as Harold Pinter and David Mamet have taken greater interest in the details of speech. Which ones?


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