2DefinitionA group of process that use heat to melt a metallic bonding agent, but not the base metal. The adhesion quality of the bonding agent binds the parts together when cooled.
3Three Common Processes SolderingBrazingBraze welding
4Non-fusion welding Advantages & Disadvantages What are the advantages of non fusion welding.What are some of the disadvantages of fusion welding.Lower temperatureEasy assemblyWeld dissimilar metalsAllows disassembly/realignmentJoin metals of different thicknessesJoint different types of metal_______Lower tensile strengthNot efficient method for thick metalNot efficient method for large parts
5Four Requirements of Non fusion Welding Clean metalAppropriate filler rodCorrect fluxHeat
6Non-fusion Requirements 1. Clean Metal Non-fusion processes bond metal by adhesion.Can you think of one critical condition that is required for adhesion to be successful?What is adhesion?Requires a clean surface--not a polished surface.CleanPolishedAdhesion is the tendency of dissimilar particles and/or surfaces to cling to one another.GrindingWhat is the best method to use?
7Non-fusion Requirements 2. Appropriate Filler Material Different filler materials are available for non fusion welding.Brazing:Brazing rod are available as bare rods or flux coated.Soldering:Solder can be solid or flux core.Flux core can be acid or rosin.Can be tin, silver or zinc alloy.barstrippastepowderliquidIs filler material available in other forms?Yes
8Non-fusion Requirements 3. Flux Three purposes of flux.Chemically clean the metalShield from oxidation and atmospheric contaminationPromote wettingFlux must be compatible with the metal and filler material.What are the three common forms that are used for fluxes?Pastepowderliquid
9Non-fusion Requirements 4. Heat Sufficient heat (BTU”s) must be available to raise the base metal temperature above the melting point of the filler rod.The decision on heat source to use is based on the mass of metal that must be heated, the welding process and the availability of equipment.
11Controlling Heat Metals are excellent conductors of heat Heat applied to joint moves away from the joint.The greater the mass of metal that must be heated--the greater the heat requirement.Excessive heat will cause the flux to burn.Contaminates the joint.Joint must be re cleanedManipulation of the heat source may necessary to heat both pieces evenly.
13DefinitionA nonfusion process that uses a metal alloy that melts below 840 oF.
14Soldering Relies upon capillary action. What is capillary action? What are the requirements for capillary action?Solder is divided into two categories;SoftHardis the ability of a liquid to flow against gravity where liquid spontaneously rises in a narrow space such as a thin tube or is drawn in between to closely spaced surfacesRequires very small gap between metal surfaces, clean surfaces and flux.Soft solderingLead or lead replacement solderLower tensile strengthCopper pipe and sheet metalStained glassHard solderingStrongerSilver based soldersDescribe soft soldering?How is hard soldering different from soft soldering?
15Soldering Process The joint area is cleaned and fluxed. A heat source is used to raise the temperature of the base metal above the melting of the filler metal (<840 oF).The filler metal is added to the joint.Filler material should melt from the heat of the metal, not the heat source.The filler metal flows into the joint and adheres to the surfaces.The heat source is removed and the filler metal solidifies, bonding the surfaces together.
16TinningTinning is the process of applying a thin layer of filler rod to the surface of the metal.When would the tinning process be used?Soldering seams. Makes it easier to get the filler material to fill the joint and bond the metals together.
17BrazingA process that uses a metal alloy that melts above 840 oF, but less than the melting point of the base metal.Brazing relies on capillary action to draw the filler metal into the joint or to keep it in the joint.
18Brazing Process The joint area is mechanically cleaned and fluxed Flux can be applied before the joint is assembled, or during the brazing process.The joint is assembled.May require clamping.A heat source is used to raise the temperature of the base metal above the melting of the filler metal (>840 oF).Must insure the joint is not overheated.If this occurs the flux will burn and contaminate the joint.When the joint becomes contaminated it must be recleaned and refluxed before the welding can continue.The filler metal is added to the joint.The filler metal flows into the joint and adheres to the surfaces.The heat source is removed and the filler metal solidifies, bonding the surfaces together.
19Brazing JointsThe tensile strength of brazing filler material is less than steel.The strength of the weld is increased if the joints are modified to increase the surface area.Tensile strength of brazing rod is ~40,000 psi.Tensile strength of steel electrode is 36,000 to 50,000 psi.
20Braze welding Process: The joint area is cleaned and fluxed. A heat source is used to raise the temperature of the base metal to the melting temperature of the filler metal.If excessive heat is added to the joint, the flux will burn.When this occurs the process must start over.The filler metal is added to the joint.The filler metal adheres to both surfaces forming a bead.The puddle must be heated until the key hole collapses.The heat source is removed and the filler metal solidifies, bonding the surfaces together.Braze weldingA process that uses a metal alloy that melts above 840 oF, but less than the melding point of the base metal.Braze welding is the same process as brazing except it does not use capillary action and a visible bead is formed.
21Braze Welding Key HoleWhen the brazing rod is melted in the puddle, it will bridge across at first--form a key holeSufficient heat must be added to cause the key hole to collapse.Failure to collapse the key hole will result in a joint that has incomplete penetration.
22Braze Welding JointsThe five (5) standard joints can be used for braze welding.Name them.The five (5) standard welding positions can be used for braze welding.Name them.ButtLapTCorneredge_____flathorizontalvertical upvertical downoverhead