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Morphology Word formation and structure Morpheme:free, bound Affix: prefix, suffix, etc. Inflection Derivation Mental Lexicon
How do A and B differ? AB tabledeactivation purplecats runloudly brightblackbird manycareful oftalking => B words are morphologically complex.
Free Morphemes Can stand alone as words tableact purplecat runloud brightblack manybird ofcare talk
Bound Morphemes (Cannot stand alone as words) Prefix de-activate, de-contaminate un-happy, un-lucky re-establish, re-assure dis-own, dis-member
Suffix cat-s, universitie-s excite-ment, amaze-ment burglar-ize, steril-ize care-ful, will-ful loud-ly, nice-ly, angri-ly round-er, tall-er talk-ing, sleep-ing
Derivation vs. Inflection Derivation creates new words. => Can change category and/or meaning Inflection produces grammatical variants of the same word. => Never changes category or meaning
Inflection cat (N)cats (N) talk (V)talked (V) big (Adj)bigger (Adj)
Inflection only changes grammatical form. Number (N): cat/catsdecision/decisions Case (N): Jane/Jane’sMark/Mark’s Tense (V): shout/shouted/shouting Agreement (V): They run./(S)he runs.
Derivation Category Change act (V)=>active (Adj) amaze (V) =>amazement (N) sterile (Adj)=>sterilize (V care (N) =>careful (Adj) loud (Adj)=>loudly (Adv)
Derivation can also change meaning. accept + able read + er instrument + al
Derivation takes place before inflection. act+iv+ate+d *act+ed+iv+ate compart+ment+al+ize+d compart+ment+al+iz+ation *compart+ment+al+ize+d+ation
Mental Lexicon Morphemes and word formation processes are part of the mental lexicon. Derived words are stored in the mental lexicon.
Creative Word Formation Possible because we have a mental lexicon. shush shush-er shush-ee un-shush-able
-er:V=>N –(N refers to the agent of V) -ee:V=>N –(N refers to the patient of V) -able:V=>Adj –(Adj expresses the possibility of V) un-:Adj1=>Adj2 –(Adj2 expresses the opposite of Adj1)
More New Words bogosity: => degree to which something is bogus bogos + -ity -ity: Adj=>N –(N expresses state or degree of Adj) –clarity, agility, ability
Even More Creative ambimoustrous: => capable of operating a mouse with either hand ambi- + mouse(tr) + -ous On analogy with ambidextrous ambi + dexter + ous
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