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Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I 101/21/07 Intelligent Design Theory and the Poverty of Anti-Scientific Thought George.

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Presentation on theme: "Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I 101/21/07 Intelligent Design Theory and the Poverty of Anti-Scientific Thought George."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I 101/21/07 Intelligent Design Theory and the Poverty of Anti-Scientific Thought George Kampis Wayne G. Basler Chair ETSU, Spring Semester 2007

2 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I2 Wayne G. Basler

3 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I3

4 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I4

5 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I5 Basler lectures 2007 Spring

6 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I6 This lecture A medley/variant of several earlier works and talks A medley/variant of several earlier works and talks Kampis, G and Mund, K (eds.): Evolution and Religion in Hungary, Typotex, Kampis, G and Mund, K (eds.): Evolution and Religion in Hungary, Typotex, Metanexus LSI „3Cultures” Group (a Templeton Grant) Metanexus LSI „3Cultures” Group (a Templeton Grant) ID debates in Hungary ID debates in Hungary Lecture on Hungarian national TV channels Lecture on Hungarian national TV channels May 9., Tuesday, Duna TV, 22: May 9., Tuesday, Duna TV, 22: May 13., Saturday, Duna TV, 10: May 14., Sunday, m1, 10: May 14., Sunday, m2, 01:30 Lecture downloadable from the Net: Lecture downloadable from the Net:

7 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I7 Summary ID and evolution theory are not alternatives ID and evolution theory are not alternatives ID not scientific ID not scientific Evolution not theory Evolution not theory

8 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I8 Charles Darwin

9 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I9 The ID controversy

10 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I10 Con books

11 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I11 Intelligent design Evolving but essentially… Evolving but essentially… Irreducible complexity Irreducible complexity Specified complexity Specified complexity Intelligent designer Intelligent designer An intellectual debate? Insider’s business ? An intellectual debate? Insider’s business ? Quote Johnson, and we can go home, Quote Johnson, and we can go home, "This isn't really, and never has been a debate about science. It's about religion and philosophy." -- Phillip E. Johnson, World Magazine, November 30, 1996

12 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I12 ID and creationism Varieties of creationism: Varieties of creationism: 6-day (young Earth), flat Earth (?) 6-day (young Earth), flat Earth (?) Invisible hand creation/continuous special creation Invisible hand creation/continuous special creation Fine tuned/open universe creationism Fine tuned/open universe creationism Panspermia creationism Panspermia creationism …… …… ID ID ID has a clear identity, pretends to be science, an alternative „from within” ID has a clear identity, pretends to be science, an alternative „from within”

13 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I13 What is really at stake Future of education and the credibility of „regular” science Future of education and the credibility of „regular” science Dover (Penn) 2005 Dover (Penn) Judge's 139-page opinion: Judge's 139-page opinion: Kansas 2005 Kansas 2005

14 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I14 Science in defense I. Evolution „just a theory” Does not explain X Hence alternatives are legitimate

15 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I15 Science in defense II. Steve Fuller testimony: Steve Fuller testimony: Steve Fuller: Steve Fuller: „Tory history”: science is essentially a social phenomenon. Anything that people do is OK, so let’s proliferate ideas rather than suppressing them. „Tory history”: science is essentially a social phenomenon. Anything that people do is OK, so let’s proliferate ideas rather than suppressing them. Science as we know it is nothing but one system of thought Science as we know it is nothing but one system of thought

16 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I16 Where to go from here? Darwin on trial, science in defense – inadequate situation Darwin on trial, science in defense – inadequate situation Dover trial: ID’s origin and sociology, not method or content Dover trial: ID’s origin and sociology, not method or content The Royal Society: The Royal Society:

17 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I17 Offensive without offending

18 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I18 Faith based and evidence based Duplex veritas Lord of the Gaps, busy God for human needs

19 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I19 Philosophy of science I. R. Carnap (Vienna Circle) W.v.O. Quine D.C. Dennett

20 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I20 Philosophy of science II. Theory and explanation Theory and explanation Empirical language – theoretical language Empirical language – theoretical language Factstheories (ie. verified true knowledge) 2 crisises: protocol sentence debate, verificationism debate (e.g.induction). 2 crisises: protocol sentence debate, verificationism debate (e.g.induction). 2 conclusions: facts yes, foundations no; 2 conclusions: facts yes, foundations no; verification no („just a theory”), explanation yes verification no („just a theory”), explanation yes

21 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I21 Philosophy of science II. Theory and explanation Theory and explanation Empirical language – theoretical language Empirical language – theoretical language Factstheories (ie. verified true knowledge) 2 crisises: protocol sentence debate, verificationism debate (e.g.induction). 2 crisises: protocol sentence debate, verificationism debate (e.g.induction). 2 conclusions: facts yes, foundations no; 2 conclusions: facts yes, foundations no; verification no („just a theory”), explanation yes verification no („just a theory”), explanation yes

22 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I22 Facts and explanations Fact: cant’ pump up 30 ft water from above Fact: cant’ pump up 30 ft water from above Explanation: Pascal’s Law Explanation: Pascal’s Law Fact: evolution (species origin by descent w/ modification) Fact: evolution (species origin by descent w/ modification) Explanation: evol. theory Explanation: evol. theory Facts: empirical and theoretical (cf. how voltage meter works) Facts: empirical and theoretical (cf. how voltage meter works) Explanations in science: Explanations in science: –phenomena by phenomena (!) –express our best knowledge (e.g. compatible with same/other facts) –open to criticism and revision

23 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I23 Research programs I. Lakatos (Budapest and LSE, London) I. Lakatos (Budapest and LSE, London) Expands a body of knowledge, gives rise to new generalizations and insights Expands a body of knowledge, gives rise to new generalizations and insights Imre Lakatos

24 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I24 „Darwinism” is actually 2 things Knowing that evolution happened and knowing how it happened (unfortunately, both go back to Darwin in Origin) Knowing that evolution happened and knowing how it happened (unfortunately, both go back to Darwin in Origin) „Knowing that” and „knowing how” (G. Ryle) „Knowing that” and „knowing how” (G. Ryle) I. A phenomenon grounded in facts I. A phenomenon grounded in facts II. An explanation that constitutes a successful research program (cf. Darwinian medicine, or Dobzansky’s dictum) II. An explanation that constitutes a successful research program (cf. Darwinian medicine, or Dobzansky’s dictum) cf. gravity (I. Aristotle II. Newton, and…) cf. gravity (I. Aristotle II. Newton, and…) G. Ryle

25 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I25 Evolution as theory Explanation of life’s forms, function, structure and diversity Explanation of life’s forms, function, structure and diversity Genetics, population genetics, population dyamics, embriology and development („evo-devo”), physiology, ecology, and… and… Genetics, population genetics, population dyamics, embriology and development („evo-devo”), physiology, ecology, and… and… Vulnerable, undergoes continual revision, incomplete Vulnerable, undergoes continual revision, incomplete Problems: origin of complexity, open-ended evolution, directionality, internal constraints, adaptationism/exaptation, great transitions, statis vs saltation, micro-and macroevolution, neutrality, etc etc. Problems: origin of complexity, open-ended evolution, directionality, internal constraints, adaptationism/exaptation, great transitions, statis vs saltation, micro-and macroevolution, neutrality, etc etc.

26 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I26 Evolution as a fact Independent of any „evolution theory”, based on natural selection on not Independent of any „evolution theory”, based on natural selection on not Separate, solid and immutable Separate, solid and immutable Expresses the unity of life via common descent Expresses the unity of life via common descent

27 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I27 Evolution as a fact Independent of any „evolution theory”, such as natural selection Independent of any „evolution theory”, such as natural selection paleontology: fossil record paleontology: fossil record I don’ cover this here.

28 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I28 Evolution as a fact Independent of „evolution theory”, such as natural selection Independent of „evolution theory”, such as natural selection paleontology: fossil record paleontology: fossil record unused organs and other errors (Darwin, Dennett, „plagiarism”) unused organs and other errors (Darwin, Dennett, „plagiarism”) The „Easter egg” problem

29 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I29 Evolution as a fact Independent of „evolution theory”, such as natural selection Independent of „evolution theory”, such as natural selection paleontology: fossil record paleontology: fossil record unused organs and other errors (Darwin, Dennett, „plagiarism”) unused organs and other errors (Darwin, Dennett, „plagiarism”) biogeography (Darwin, Humboldt, MacArthur, J. Diamond…) biogeography (Darwin, Humboldt, MacArthur, J. Diamond…)

30 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I30 Spatiotemporal patterns of variation prove migration with modification -> unity of all life

31 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I31 Discovery: Species are not discrete/disjunct The fundamental unity is the variant individual Variations can be (often are) continuous between species (and higher taxa) Spatial diversity is a memory of populational modification in the composition of individual variants

32 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I32 The alternative to descent with modification is….

33 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I33 The alternative to descent with modification is…. A Santa Claus theory! A Santa Claus theory! (The Santa Claus problem: „How can the Santa put all the boxes to the right place at the right door, every door?”) (The Santa Claus problem: „How can the Santa put all the boxes to the right place at the right door, every door?”)

34 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I34 The alternative is…. A Santa Claus theory! A Santa Claus theory! (The Santa Claus problem: „How can the Santa put all the boxes to the right place at the right door, every door?”) (The Santa Claus problem: „How can the Santa put all the boxes to the right place at the right door, every door?”) Can we believe in the Santa if it’s about putting organisms and variants to their place? Can we believe in the Santa if it’s about putting organisms and variants to their place? Of course we don’t believe in Santa.

35 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I35 The alternative is…. Darwin chap 11 We are thus brought to the question which has been largely discussed by naturalists, namely, whether species have been created at one or more points of the earth's surface. Undoubtedly there are many cases of extreme difficulty in understanding how the same species could possibly have migrated from some one point to several distant and isolated points, where now found. Nevertheless the simplicity of the view that each species was first produced within a single region captivates the mind. He who rejects it, rejects the vera causa of ordinary generation with subsequent migration, and calls on the agency of a miracle. (p. 352) Darwin chap 11 We are thus brought to the question which has been largely discussed by naturalists, namely, whether species have been created at one or more points of the earth's surface. Undoubtedly there are many cases of extreme difficulty in understanding how the same species could possibly have migrated from some one point to several distant and isolated points, where now found. Nevertheless the simplicity of the view that each species was first produced within a single region captivates the mind. He who rejects it, rejects the vera causa of ordinary generation with subsequent migration, and calls on the agency of a miracle. (p. 352) Darwin chap 14 When we can feel assured that all the individuals of the same species, and all the closely allied species of most genera, have within a not very remote period descended from one parent and have migrated from some one birthplace, and when we better know the many means of migration, then, by the light which geology now throws, and will continue to throw, on former changes of climate and of the level of the land, we shall surely be enabled to trace in an admirable manner the former migrations of the inhabitants of the whole world. (pp ) Darwin chap 14 When we can feel assured that all the individuals of the same species, and all the closely allied species of most genera, have within a not very remote period descended from one parent and have migrated from some one birthplace, and when we better know the many means of migration, then, by the light which geology now throws, and will continue to throw, on former changes of climate and of the level of the land, we shall surely be enabled to trace in an admirable manner the former migrations of the inhabitants of the whole world. (pp ) Essential idea: If (1) the "means of migration" are known, then (2) geographical and geological evidence (distribution, climate, land level, etc.) can be read to show "the former migrations" which show that (3) each species had a single center of origin, usually a distantly related species. Essential idea: If (1) the "means of migration" are known, then (2) geographical and geological evidence (distribution, climate, land level, etc.) can be read to show "the former migrations" which show that (3) each species had a single center of origin, usually a distantly related species.

36 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I36 „There is grandeur in this view of life” There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved. There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved. Darwin, 6th ed (1872), chap.15, last paragraph.

37 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I37 Conclusions so far (and practical advice) Bringing it all together Bringing it all together ID not scientific (ie. not explanation): not our best knowledge, not research program (no progress), not by phenomena ID not scientific (ie. not explanation): not our best knowledge, not research program (no progress), not by phenomena Evolution not a „theory” (but there is evolution theory) Evolution not a „theory” (but there is evolution theory) Practical advice (to follow up…) Practical advice (to follow up…) ID not a partner (obstruction), don’t go into (too much ) details. ID not a partner (obstruction), don’t go into (too much ) details. Mistake: ID can be ignored. Would be dishonest, and dangerous. Mistake: ID can be ignored. Would be dishonest, and dangerous. Mistake: ID is for the uneducated Mistake: ID is for the uneducated

38 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I38 Common misbeliefs about evolution Life on Earth is about humans… Wrong. Life on Earth is about humans… Wrong. –Whig history It takes a miracle to… and hence impossible to… Wrong It takes a miracle to… and hence impossible to… Wrong –Miracles are not Isolated examples can refute a theory… Wrong Isolated examples can refute a theory… Wrong –„Inference to the best explanation” Origin cannot be an accident… Wrong Origin cannot be an accident… Wrong –Homeobox genes and „macromutations” Everbody has a right to (a different) opinion… Wrong Everbody has a right to (a different) opinion… Wrong –Science (as a body of knowledge) is not democratic, the scientific process is Science takes away meaning and morality… Wrong Science takes away meaning and morality… Wrong –Takes away external support. Are you afraid of yourselves?

39 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I39 Miracles happen all of the time F.J. DysonJ. Littlewood

40 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I40 A small step for the organism.. … but a giant leap for the species.

41 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I41 To sum up--- I. Facts II. Explanations I. Facts II. Explanations Evolution is strong on I. Evolution is strong on I. Evolution theory is doing well on II. Evolution theory is doing well on II.

42 01/21/07 Intelligent Design and Poverty of Thought, ETSU Basler Lectrure I42 Thank you!


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