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Fatigue at sea: from old to new Horizons Wessel van Leeuwen, Stockholm University, Sweden Zhiwei Zhao, Dalian Maritime University, China Jørgen Riis Jepsen,

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Presentation on theme: "Fatigue at sea: from old to new Horizons Wessel van Leeuwen, Stockholm University, Sweden Zhiwei Zhao, Dalian Maritime University, China Jørgen Riis Jepsen,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fatigue at sea: from old to new Horizons Wessel van Leeuwen, Stockholm University, Sweden Zhiwei Zhao, Dalian Maritime University, China Jørgen Riis Jepsen, University of Southern Denmark Stress Research Institute

2 The HORIZON project 90 healthy experienced bridge and engineer watch keepers Employed through a manning agency 1 day of introduction and training 1 week voyage (North Sea & English Channel) Either 4/8 or 6/6 On site for full 7 days in accommodation Caffeine is regulated and no alcohol

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4 Measures included: Sleepiness ratings Stress ratings Wake, work, sleep diaries Electroencephalograpy (EEG) Reaction time (PVT task) Navigational performance Debriefing interviews Karolinska Sleepiness Scale 1 extremely alert 2 very alert 3 alert 4 rather alert 5 neither alert nor sleepy 6 some signs of sleepiness 7 sleepy, no effort to stay awake 8 sleepy some effort to stay awake 9 very sleepy, great effort to stay awake, fighting sleep

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6 Key questions How sleepy were participants whilst on watch? Did participants fall asleep on watch? How much sleep did participants get off watch? Was there performance affected?

7 Sleepiness higher in 6/6

8 Sleep on watch more frequent in 6/6

9 Overtime work increases sleepiness 4/8 6/6

10 Sleep off watch

11 Conclusions More sleep on watch, less sleep off watch in 6/6 compared to 4/8 Most severe sleepiness reached at the end of night watches Unexpectedly high amounts of participants falling asleep on watch But no effects on navigational performance

12 Naturalistic performance unaffected, but….

13 An illustration of sleep on watch Clocktime

14 20:29 An illustration of sleep on watch

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16 Martha fatigue predicting tool – based on the results of project Horizon Stress Research Institute16

17 17 Regulation of alertness

18 Historical development 1995: three process model of alertness regulation (TPMA) published in the literature 2004: sleep wake predictor (SWP): the first implementation publically available 2011: MARTHA: SWP adjusted for seafaring based on HORIZON results 18 Regulation of alertness

19 MARTHA: The New Horizon Stress Research Institute19 A Research Project sponsored by the TK Foundation

20 Enhance FRM by investigating long term aspects of fatigue (web surveys, diaries, actiwatches) Investigate cultural differences in interpretation of regulatory frameworks on hours of work and rest (interviews with managers) Evaluate effectiveness of FRM in the context of shipping operations (experimental shipboard) 20 Project aims

21 The main partners 21 PartnerMain Interest Southampton Solent University (SSU) Project management Co-ordinate shipboard data collection (Europe) Stress Research Institute, Stockholm (SRI) Research design Fatigue measures Web surveys University of Southern Denmark: (USD) Company interviews Questionnaires and interviews Dalian Maritime University (DMU) Chinese seafarers University of Southampton (SMMI) Performance measures PhD supervision InterManager (IMGR)Shipping Companies Dissemination

22 The main partners 22 The main partners Kick off meeting on 2nd July 2013

23 Time schedule MARTHA Research design –Sep 2013 – Dec 2013 Interview and diary studies –Jan 2014 – Jun 2014 Analyses interview and diary studies –Jul 2014 – Dec 2014 Shipboard studies –Jan 2015 – Dec 2015 Analyses shipboard studies –Apr 2015 – Dec

24 Why? –Not much known about long term fatigue, especially not in the context at sea –Optimize FRM for seafarer-context – to be used for aim 3 How? –web surveys –diaries –Actiwatches When? –first half of Project aim 1: enhance FRM

25 Why? –How do organisational practices affect seafarer fatigue? –Differences between Europe and China? How? –Interview with managers and seafarers –Compare Europe with China  legislation interpreted differently?  different FRMS strategies might be needed When? –first half of Project aim 2: Investigate cultural differences

26 26 Cultural differences can be disastrous Obeying TCAS or ATC?

27 Why? –Is it effective to train seafarers on sleep and fatigue and the use of the MARTHA software? How? –Compare a FRM group with a control group  is the FRM group indeed coping better with fatigue? –Again using Chinese and European groups When? –Jan-Dec Project aim 3: Investigate effectiveness of FRMS

28 28 More information

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