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Developing effective inclusive teacher education Deborah

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1 Developing effective inclusive teacher education Deborah

2 This presentation reports on a research study: Developing ITE for SEND and inclusive practices What models and approaches underpin effective inclusive teacher education?

3 Rationale……

4 An international commitment Across Europe and the World there is a widespread commitment to inclusive education across two interrelated domains: Reduction of segregated special education Placement of learners with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) in mainstream schools within their local communities and among their peers. Securing effective education for ALL Improving the capacity of the education system to adapt to an increasingly complex, diverse and heterogeneous learner population in pursuit of social justice. (UNESCO, 2009; OECD, 2010; Council of the European Union, 2010)

5 The quality of teachers as a deciding factor There is also is widespread acknowledgement of the fundamental importance of teachers to inclusive educational reform. The success of inclusive education depends to a large degree on the quality, skill and effectiveness of the teaching workforce. (EADSNE, 2012; OECD, 2010)

6 Developing effective inclusive teacher education is a priority There is clear evidence that Initial Teacher Education (ITE) and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is not having enough impact on teacher preparedness for inclusive education OECD teaching and learning international survey (TALIS) 23 countries (not including England) 93% of student teachers, 94% of teacher educators and 63% of teachers said diversity issues were covered in their ITE programmes. 47% of student teachers, 51% of teacher educators and 66% of teachers – current teacher education is not (or is only partially) effective in preparing the profession for diversity. Not much is known about what models and approaches are likely to be effective in moving inclusive teacher education forward.

7 Inclusive teacher education in England Survey of Newly Qualified Teachers (NQTs) Survey takes place in the February of the NQT year Gathers data on NQTs’ views of the quality of their ITE programmes. Data below is related to preparedness to teach learners with special educational needs and disabilities

8 Drawing on international evidence Effective models of teacher education tend to share the following characteristics Carefully structured integration of theory and practice. Subject matter pedagogy taught in the context of practice Close collaboration between universities and schools A national and cohesive strategy for ITE and CPD with values at the center Generous support for CPD A research orientation across the profession (student teacher and experienced teachers engaged in and with research) A focus on instructional techniques and outcomes for learners based in the authentic setting of the classroom High status and levels of autonomy in the teaching profession

9 Drawing on the smaller evidence base for effective inclusive teacher education There is evidence supporting the effectiveness of the following: Collaborative forms of practice and enquiry Experience of diverse learners High quality field experiences that enable students to understand the gritty challenge of inclusive teaching whilst carefully scaffolding the development of mastery (from ‘reality shock’ to self-efficacy) Critical deconstruction of diverting discourses (normative, medical, expertism, special pedagogy) and own belief systems

10 McIntyre’s model of effective inclusive teacher education Teacher education must take on a transformative role. Teacher education must be transformed Depends on relinquishing the theory into practice model Theoretical inputs should be developed in response to the real challenges student teachers are facing in schools in relation to the learners they are responsible for Partnerships between schools and universities should be remodeled to enable synchronous critical enquiry among teachers, students and teacher educators. McIntyre, 2009

11 Student teachers cannot transform the system alone They need collaborators in the venture! Student teachers cannot transform the system alone They need collaborators in the venture!

12 Breaking the cycle of traditionality Transforming the education system towards a more inclusive model depends on breaking the cycle of traditionality. The reality shock triggers a return to traditional modes of teaching and a dislike for reflection and theoretical depth. The theory into practice model is not effective since student teachers will quickly forget the alternative discourses and innovative practices they have learned about in favour of those used by their mentors or arising from memory of their own schooling Korthagen et al., 2006; Stoddard et al., 2006

13 The way forward

14 Taking it forward The study being reported today sought to take forward what was known or hypothesized about effective inclusive teacher education: Designing a potentially effective pedagogic framework (based on evidence/hypotheses in the literature) and then testing it out Located in a large partnership school that hosted several student teachers for placement every year School a strong commitment to developing inclusive practice and ITE 22 participants (student teachers, teaching assistants, teachers, mentor, assistant heads, SENCo, university tutor) 22 months Inclusive Action Research combined with other methods to....

15 The contribution Understand how effective inclusive teacher education could be developed Understand what conditions, processes, activities were helpful to the development of skill and confidence in the areas of SEND and inclusive practices Contribute to our understanding of what models of inclusive teacher education may be effective Respond to worldwide calls for empirical research in the area

16 Inclusive Action Research Based on the principles and methods of INCLUSIVE ACTION RESEARCH - research ABOUT inclusion, FOR inclusion and AS inclusion (O’Hanlon, 2003) 3 actions that the participating group believed were relevant to development: 1.Lesson study 2.Personalised Learning Planning (PLP) process 3.Involving teaching assistants more closely in supporting the professional development of student teachers

17 Findings

18 There was strong evidence in the study that taking such principles forward into the design of pedagogic frameworks for school placements WORKS!

19 Findings: New insights Student teachers, teachers and teaching assistants are working in a challenging, dilemmatic context. They constantly used contradictory discourses, finding SEND a difficult conceptual fit with inclusion. Even among a group of participants very committed to inclusive education, the presence of the concept ‘SEND’ triggered deficit, medical discourses. School staff had to mediate the potentially negative impact of external cultures (resource issues, accountability pressures, the need to ‘label’, a content heavy curriculum, attacks on their status as professional ‘experts’). They were often pressured into compromising their values for pragmatic reasons. The voice of a disembodied external critic was often present when they were talking about their professional life and work.

20 Implications Teacher education will need to find ways to expose the reality of this contradictory, troubled and unsettled context so as to avoid reality shock. For example, student teachers may need to understand why teachers might both simultaneously spurn labels at the same time as seeking them. Policy makers will not help if they conceive classrooms and schools as politically neutral, unproblematic and stable environments and teaching as a ‘job’ rather than a profession. Teacher education must prepare professionals to navigate moral, conceptual and practical complexity. A conception of learning to teach as ‘on the job training’ may not (well, will not) create an effective model of inclusive teacher education. Countering the reality shock

21 Findings: New insights Students were active in managing their own self-efficacy and would adopt deliberate stances to help them to steady themselves for the challenge. For example, in deliberately promoting capacity discourses above deficit ones or in systematically auditing their skills and successes as a basis for building self-efficacy

22 Implications Teacher educators are justified in making space for reflective, reflexive and values work in their curricula. In the same way that we should not underestimate the challenges involved in inclusive education, we should not underestimate the capacities of student teachers to sustain positive identities and self-efficacies. Reflection on values and beliefs is an important dimension to inclusive teacher education

23 Conclusion Inclusive teaching is challenging, complex and multimodal. Inclusive teacher education must be challenging, complex and multimodal. More effective models are likely to include: High quality, varied field placements Experience of diverse learners in diverse contexts Collegiate and collaborative ways of working A research orientation A values and beliefs dimension A reflective and reflexive dimension A critical-theoretical dimension A practice into theory model School staff (teachers and other professionals), university staff and student teachers working together to construct inclusive practices and identities Pedagogic frameworks that expose the gritty, unsettled and dilemmatic challenges of inclusive education whilst supporting and scaffolding journey towards a sense of mastery in a systematic way A focus on outcomes for learners Authentic contexts The deliberate deconstruction of destructive discourses Conclusion

24 References Beauchamp, G., Clarke, L., Hulme, M. and Murray, J., Research and teacher education: The BERA RSA inquiry: Policy and practice within the United Kingdom. Inquiry Paper 1. London: BERA and RSA. Chong, S.; Forlin, C. and Lan, A.M., The influence of an inclusive education course on attitude change of pre-service secondary teachers in Hong Kong. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 35(2), pp Commission of the European Communities, Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: Improving the Quality of Teacher Education [Homepage of Commission of the European Communities], [Online]. Available: [03/09, 2014]. Cook, L., When in Rome...: Influences on special education student-teachers' teaching. International Journal of Special Education, 22(3), pp Council of the European Union, 11 May, 2010, Council conclusions on the social dimension of education and training. 3013th Education, Youth and Culture meeting, Brussels [Homepage of Council of the European Union], [Online]. Available: files/Council-Conclusions-May [03/09, 2014].http://www.european-agency.org/news/news- files/Council-Conclusions-May Council of the European Union, 12 May, Council conclusions on a strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET2020). Brussels: Council of the European Union. Darling-Hammond, L. and Lieberman, A., 2012, eds, Teacher Education around the world. London: Routledge, Taylor and Frances, pp Darling-Hammond, L. and Richardson, N., Teacher learning: What matters? Educational Leadership, 66(5), pp European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education, Teacher education for inclusion project: Recommendations linked to sources of evidence. Odense, Denmark: EADSNE. European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education, Teacher education for inclusion: International literature review. Odense, Denmark: EADSNE. European Parliament, September, 2008, European Parliament Resolution on improving the quality of teacher education [Homepage of European Parliament], [Online]. Available:http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&reference=P6-TA &language=EN [03/10, 2014].http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&reference=P6-TA Florian, L. and Rouse, M., The inclusive practice project in Scotland: Teacher education for inclusive education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(4), pp Forlin, C., ed, Teacher Education for Inclusion: Changing paradigms and innovative approaches. Oxon: Routledge. Golder, G., Norwich, B. and Bayliss, P., Preparing teachers to teach pupils with special educational needs in more inclusive schools: evaluating a PGCE development. British Journal of Special Education, 32(2), pp Guðjónsdóttir, H., Cacciattolo, M., Dakich, E., Davies, A., Kelly, C. And Dalmau, M.C., Transformative pathways: Inclusive pedagogies in teacher education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40(2), pp Hopper, T. and Stogre, T., Influence of school integrated teacher education on elementary teacher’s motivation to teach physical education. Physical and Health Education, 69(4), pp Jarvis, G., Research on teaching methodology: Its evolution and prospects. In B. F. Freed, ed, Foreign language acquisition research and the classroom. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.

25 References Lambe, J. and Bones, R., Student teachers' perceptions about inclusive classroom teaching in Northern Ireland prior to teaching practice experiences. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 21(2), pp Lancaster, J. and Bain, A., The design of inclusive education courses and the self-efficacy of preservice teacher education students. International Journal of Disability, Development & Education, 54(2), pp Mcintyre, D., The difficulties of inclusive pedagogy for initial teacher education and some thoughts on the way forward. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(4), pp Mincu, M., Research and teacher education: The BERA RSA inquiry: Teacher quality and school improvement: what is the role of research? Inquiry Paper 6. London: BERA and RSA. Oecd, 2010-last update, OECD (2010) Educating Teachers for Diversity: Meeting the Challenge. [Homepage of OECD], [Online]. Available: 00.html [03/10, 2014].http://www.oecd.org/document/38/0,3343,en_2649_ _ _1_1_1_1, Oecd, 2009-last update, Creating effective teaching and learning environments: First results From TALIS (Teaching and Learning International Survey) [Homepage of OECD], [Online]. Available: [03/09, 2014].http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/17/51/ pdf Office for Standards in Education, How well new teachers are prepared to teach pupils with learning difficulties and/or disabilities? London: Ofsted. O'Hanlon, C., Educational inclusion as action research: an interpretive discourse. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Rouse, M., Reforming initial teacher education. In: C. Forlin, ed, Teacher Education for Inclusion. London: Routledge, pp Slee, R., Political economy, inclusive education and teacher education. In: C. Forlin, ed, Changing paradigms and innovative approaches to teacher Education for Inclusion. London: Routledge, pp Stanovich, P.J. and Jordan, A., Preparing general educators to teach in inclusive classrooms: Some food for thought. The Teacher Educator, 37(3), pp Stoddard, K., Braun, B., Hewitt, M. and Koorland, M.A., TEACHER for all children: a combined elementary and special education teacher preparation program and three year evaluation, 21 (1). Journal of Special Education, 21(1), pp Teaching Agency, 2012-last update, NQT survey [Homepage of National College for Teaching and Leadership], [Online]. Available: [04/04/14, 2013]. WINCH, C., ORCHARD, J. and OANCEA, A., Research and Teacher Education: The BERA RSA enquiry: The contribution of educational research to teachers' professional learning - philosophical understandings. Inquiry Paper 3. London: BERA and RSA.


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