Presentation on theme: "Martin Luther Reformer or Revolutionary? Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star or Why Did Luther Stray So Far?"— Presentation transcript:
Martin Luther Reformer or Revolutionary? Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star or Why Did Luther Stray So Far?
Preliminary conditions of the Reformation People, not just priests, were learning to read People started reading the Bible on their own People stared to think on their own, and not listen to the priests People started reading the ancient non-Christian Greeks – Homer, Aristotle, and Plato – once again New ideas of science and mathematics from the Muslim intellectuals were being read New scientific ideas by Copernicus and others questioned the thinking of the Church
Preliminary conditions of the Reformation Erasmus and other thinkers were quietly pushing the church for reform The new printing press rapidly spread revolutionary ideas The rulers and priests in Germany were angry at seeing money earned in their states being sent to Rome to build rich palaces and churches. The Muslims now controlled the Byzantine Empire and cut of Italy from the spices and silks of India and China The Portuguese now sailed directly to India around Africa, bypassing the Italian middlemen and thereby offering cheaper prices for spices and silk
Why the anti-Christ? Luther was a German monk who wanted to reform (not break away) from the Catholic Church
Who was Martin Luther? He could read Latin, Greek and Hebrew. Whilst comparing the Latin Catholic Bible with the original Greek & Hebrew he found that certain parts were incorrectly translated. Luther hung his 95 theses or complaints from his research on the local Church door in Wittenburg in 1517. He disagreed with the Pope and began the Protestant religion. You can access the video on SchoolSpace.
This practice simply harmed people’s chances of salvation, he believed. Angered by the practice, in 1517 Luther sent a list of Ninety-five Theses to his church superiors. They attacked abuses in selling indulgences. Thousands of copies were printed. Martin Luther (cont.)
Corruption in the Church 1.Indulgences - The selling of Documents for the Forgiveness of sins In Luther’s era, indulgences were being sold by the Church to raise money for refurbishing the Basilica of St. Peter in Rome. The slogan attributed to the Dominican friar Johann Tetzel epitomized the sale of indulgences: "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs."
You don’t have to go to Church to get your soul into heaven.. This is “Justification of Faith” - his belief that salvation is personal and not linked to the rituals of the Catholic Church. The basis of Luther’s beliefs can be found in The Bible,in Romans, Chapter 10. Read the Bible in your own language and not Latin. Its wrong to make an image of God. The Church is too rich. What did Martin Luther Believe?
Martin Luther He believed: 1.Salvation was only possible through faith 2. Salvation is a gift from God 3. Salvation can never be won or bought
In 1520, Luther called for the German princes to overthrow the papacy and establish a reformed German church. Luther wanted to keep only two sacraments–baptism and Communion–and called for the clergy to marry. Luther continued to emphasize his new doctrine of salvation. Martin Luther (cont.)
The Church excommunicated Luther in 1521. He was summoned to appear before the imperial Diet (legislative assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire in the city of Worms. The emperor Charles V thought he could get Luther to change his ideas. Luther refused, which outraged the emperor. Martin Luther (cont.)
The Edict of Worms made Luther an outlaw in the empire. His books were to be burned and Luther delivered to the emperor. Luther’s local ruler, however, protected him. Martin Luther (cont.)
Luther’s religious movement soon became a revolution. It gained support from many German rulers, who took control of Catholic churches and formed state churches supervised by the government. Luther set up new services to replace the Mass, featuring Bible readings, preaching the word of God, and song. His doctrine became known as Lutheranism, the first Protestant faith. Martin Luther (cont.)
Politics in the German Reformation From the beginning Luther’s movement was tied to politics. He believed the state was called by God to maintain the peace and order necessary to spread the gospel. The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ruled an empire consisting of Spain, the Austrian lands, Bohemia, Hungary, the Low Countries, Milan, Naples, and Spanish territories in the New World.
He wanted to keep all this Catholic and under the control of his Hapsburg dynasty, but he faced many problems. Charles V’s chief political problem was his rivalry with Francis I, king of France. Pope Clement VII also opposed him. The pope joined the side of the French in their wars with Charles V. Charles also had to send troops against the advancing Ottoman Empire. Finally, many individual rulers of the German states supported Luther. Politics in the German Reformation (cont.)
Eventually Charles (The Holy Roman Emperor of Germany) was forced to make peace with the Lutheran princes, which he did in 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg. It accepted the division of Christianity within Germany. German states could choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism. All states would have the same legal rights. Rulers could choose their subjects’ religion. What Happened in Germany?
Catholic Christians Protestant Christians or Lutheranism Calvinism Anglican (Church of England) Anabaptist Jesuit Catholic Standard Catholic