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06/05/2015© The University of Sheffield How the psychological aspects of personal tutoring helps students to move on Kate Tindle University Counselling Service
‘Going to college or university is not a two-dimensional experience of studying a subject… it is a three-dimensional experience that involves passionate hopes and disturbing fears’ (pp ) ‘The capacity to learn through studying involves taking things in at a deep level…linked to the early experiences of taking in nourishment’ (pp ) Hardie, D Young adulthood: Student life. In Personality Development- a psychoanalytic perspective, ed Hindle & Smith, Routledge, London. 06/05/2015© The University of Sheffield
06/05/2015© The University of Sheffield What are the main tasks/ responsibilities of the personal tutor? What did you value (or not!) about your own personal tutor(s) whilst at University?
06/05/2015© The University of Sheffield ‘The central tasks of late adolescence are: 1)the separation from parents and the building of a more autonomous identity; 2)the establishment of an adult sexual identity, and the capacity to manage the conflicts between love and hate in an intimate relationship with someone of one’s own generation; and 3)The development of a capacity for work, as well as the beginnings of a sense of direction towards employment or career’ (p163) ‘The management of attachment and loss, those fundamental and creative tasks, are at the heart of the learning experience’ (p159) Hardie, D Young adulthood: Student life. In Personality Development- a psychoanalytic perspective, ed Hindle & Smith, Routledge, London.
Attachment theory ‘Whether a child or adult is in a state of security, anxiety or distress is determined in large part by the accessibility and responsiveness of his principal attachment figure (Bowlby, J. 1973, p23) If the primary caregiver can ‘contain’ the child’s anxieties, and is a ‘good enough’ parent- responsive, loving and caring, whilst allowing the child opportunities for age appropriate exploration, the child will develop a secure attachment Attachment styles can be classified as: Secure Insecure -Ambivalent -Avoidant Disorganised Bowlby, J (1973). Separation: anxiety and anger. Attachment and Loss, Vol 2 New York, Basic Books 06/05/2015© The University of Sheffield
The search for the secure base ‘A securely attached individual can draw on the support of others (via the ‘secure base’) when needed and can talk coherently and with appropriate affect about psychological pain and difficulty’ (p3) ‘The avoidant strategy means staying near to a protective other, but not too near for fear of rejection of aggression- here a measure of intimacy is sacrificed…’( p3) ‘The ambivalent individual has been subject to inconsistent responses when distressed and so clings to the care –giver even when no danger is present… exploration and autonomy are jettisoned in return for security’ (p3) Disorganised attachments arise when the care giver is themselves a source of threat, setting up an approach- avoidance oscillation Holmes, J The search for the secure base- attachment theory and psychotherapy. Routledge, London 06/05/2015© The University of Sheffield
The ‘ambivalently attached’ student Times of transition during the student experience, with their associated losses are potential trigger points for separation anxiety What behaviours might you notice about the ‘ambivalently attached’ student as their personal tutor? How could you help them to ‘move on?’ 06/05/2015© The University of Sheffield
Ainsworth (1989) identifies attunement, sensitivity and responsiveness as key factors in parents’ provision of a secure base Therapists aim to replicate some of the aspects of a ‘secure base’- ‘consistency, reliability, responsiveness, non-possessive warmth, firm boundaries’ (Holmes, J 2001, p 4) Ainsworth, M (1989) Attachments beyond Infancy. American Psychologist, 44, Holmes, J The search for the secure base- attachment theory and psychotherapy Routledge London 06/05/2015© The University of Sheffield London
For more ideas about student transitions visit our uspace cs_transition_conference 06/05/2015© The University of Sheffield
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