Presentation on theme: "An Alliance for Action Role play on Land Grabbing and the right to food 22-26 November 2010 Desmond Tutu Training Center Angeline Munzara Food Campaign."— Presentation transcript:
An Alliance for Action Role play on Land Grabbing and the right to food November 2010 Desmond Tutu Training Center Angeline Munzara Food Campaign Coordinator
Background We are in Watooland a poor country whose main resources are agriculture and mining. 75% of the population lives off the land, of which ¾ are sedentary and live on agriculture and ¼ are nomads and live on livestock. 50% of the population is illiterate. 45% of the population suffers from malnutrition. The country has recently become a democracy, but the habits of corruption left by the dictatorship are difficult to eradicate. In good years, there is enough food for everyone. Unfortunately in 2007 to 2009, a very dry weather has meant that many villagers were forced from their land. A rural exodus began to the capital (Watoolandia), which receives more and more people, but jobs have not followed. Farmers are increasingly unemployed leading to urban poverty. With the global food crisis, the global market has become too expensive and the country suffers from riots in the city and very difficult situations of hunger in the countryside.
Group Discussions Group 1-Gigagreenoil Company You represent a group of investors in renewable energy headquartered in Prussia. One of the most economical renewable energy sources is ethanol made from sugarcane. You need to fill your orders, but the quantity of sugar cane required is much higher, and prices on world markets are very volatile so you try to produce the sugar cane yourself. Your goal is to meet the growing demand for bio fuel by controlling the production and supply of a portion of your needs, and remain the most competitive in the market without depending on fluctuations in the latter. You have USD 1 million available for this project.
Group 2-Government of Prussia You represent the government of Prussia. Prussia is party to the Convention on Climate Change, Universal Declaration on Human Rights, International Covenant on Socio-Economic and Cultural Rights and heavily engaged in the FAO process of developing the Guidelines on Responsible Governance and Natural Resources Tenure. You're a country with a very large population and expanding economy. You can (and should) import much food. In addition, the needs of grain and protein crops, to feed a meat-producing industry are constantly increasing. With the global crisis of 2008, the price of staple foods has risen sharply, which has weighed heavily on your budget. Your objective is to ensure a flow of raw materials and thus control their production and supply. You have 2 million available to assist in the project.
Group 3-Government of Watooland You represent the government of Watooland. Watooland is party to the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, the African Charter on Human Rights, the International Covenant on Socio-Economic and Cultural rights, the Convention on Biological Diversity and party to the process of developing the FAO Voluntary Guidelines on Land. The Constitution of Watooland vests Ownership of communal land in the President of the country though customary tenure rights are recognized. You are aware of the difficulties of development in your country. You have also inherited a huge foreign debt. You have very little money coming in terms of taxes. Your resources are international aid, but this implies structural adjustments and the establishment of a complex system of government. You also, of course consider that the land belonged to the state (for non titled land). Your objective is to reduce your debt and ensure modernization of agriculture.
Group 4-Small-scale farmers You are part of a larger community of hundreds of very remote villages in central Watooland. On average, each family has 0.4 hectares of unirrigated land, which enables families to live mainly on agricultural production. The land is near a water point, has the best surface and is capable of producing cassava, bananas and rice ( on a small scale). Besides a few chickens, you also have goats that graze on pastures of the village. From time to time, you sell some of your production for a little cash to pay for your children’s education. However, this income is enough to send 1-2 children to school until the age of 15 whilst others help on the farm. The land is yours because you have inherited and this is confirmed by the village council. You have a few simple tools to work the land, but no mechanization. Your objective is to improve your income and if possible to send your children to school and at least one to university or abroad.
Group 5-Nomads/Pastoralists You are part of a community of pastoralists whose livelihood is based on cattle rearing. You rely on grazing lands in the north of the country for generations. in the north of the country for generations. You have, for some time, lost several grazing areas because farmers have settled with their villages and set them barriers. But you still have a beautiful herd of about thirty animals, and in good years, you can sell enough animals so that the family lives well. Your goal is to increase your flock and keep your traditions and lifestyle.
WATOOLAND Region semi- fertile (pastoralists) Mine s Watoolandi a-City Region Fertile River Homesteads Mountains
The Game is based on the original work (French version) by FIAN Switzerland on Land grabbing, October 2010 and has been considerably modified and translated by Angeline Munzara for EAA
Role Play on Land Grabbing Principle Introduction-15 minutes Divide Participants into 5 groups. Each group receives a card describing its identity and its objectives. Choose a negotiator for the group The groups have 10 minutes to discuss, agree on their strategy and negotiate 35 minutes of bilateral discussions Plenary discussion-30 minutes Large industrial scale production, mainly from maize, jatropha, and sugar cane in Africa, threaten rural communities, farm workers, food security and the environment ”
Order of presentations i)In the first round, "Gigagreenoil” must negotiate with the government of Prussia whilst the government of Watooland discuss with "peasants/nomads."(10 minutes) ii)In the second round, the government of Prussia must negotiate with the government of Watooland whilst Gigagreenoil negotiates with small scale farmers and pastoralists(10 minutes) iii)In the third round the government of Watooland further negotiates with government of Prussia and Gigagreenoil to reach a decision based on previous discussions (15 minutes) iv) Plenary Discussions- feedback from the group (20 minutes) v) Wrap up (10 minutes)
Driving forces Behind Large Scale Land deals i.Price volatility in global food market; ii.Surging demand for bio-fuels by oil companies; iii.Expectation of subsidies for carbon sequestration through plantation and the avoidance of deforestation.
Impacts of Large Scale Land Deals i) destroys livelihoods and exacerbates tenure insecurity and evictions ii) accelerates eco-system destruction iii) accelerates the climate crisis iv) diverts food producing resources and labor to cash crop production
Case Studies: 2010 Food and Nutrition Watch Ethiopia - est. up to ha sold or leased since Mali - government granted Malibya ha. Sierra Leone ha leased in 2009 to Addax Bioenergy. Kenya - government to provide for the exchange of USD2.5 billion loan, 40,000 hectares of land in the Tana River area.
Towards a Human Rights Based Approach Large-scale land investments can negatively affect the right to food Example: loss of agricultural land and grazing States have obligations to protect, respect and fulfill this right.
De Schutter’s 11 Principles on Land Investment 1.Include community participation in investment negotiations; 2.Obtain prior informed consent of communities; 3.Enact and enforce legislation that safeguards rights of host communities; 4.Use investment revenues for the benefit of local populations; 5.Ensure employment creation; 6.Use agro-ecological approaches to agriculture;
De Schutter’s 11 Principles on Land Investment 7.Ensure investment agreements have clear obligations; 8.Ensure a minimum % of food crops produced are sold locally; 9.Conduct participatory impact assessments; 10.Comply with indigenous peoples’ rights; and 11.Provide protection for agricultural waged workers.