Presentation on theme: "The theory and the reality NEA Conference 2009 Dr Sue Armstrong."— Presentation transcript:
The theory and the reality NEA Conference 2009 Dr Sue Armstrong
THE THEORY THE REALITY A measurable variable (or characteristic) that can be used to determine the degree of adherence to a standard or the level of quality achieved. QAP Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of (health care) a product or service. Medicalwebends
STANDARDS (Performance that is expected) CRITERIA (Items or variables which enable the achievement of a standard and the evaluation of whether it has been achieved or not.) INDICATORS (Qualitative or quantitative measures – see, feel, touch, hear)
THE THEORYTHE REALITY To improve the quality of the organization State what the ideal is and measure development towards compliance To comply to requirements to operate May be licensing, accreditation, certification “Voluntary” or required Organization has no say
1. APPLICATION FOR ACCREDITATION OF A NURSING EDUCATION INSTITUTION Conditions for application for accreditation as a nursing education institution Requirements for accreditation as a nursing education institution Requirements for the Institutional Portfolio Standards for Approval as a Nursing education Institution
2. PROCESS OF ACCREDITATION OF INSTITUTIONS Pre-audit preparation The Audit visit The auditors The audit report The appeals process Types of accreditation Accreditation certificates Re-accreditation and the accreditation cycle Withdrawal of accreditation Application for extension of scope of accreditation
The institutional mission and focus Governance framework for the institution Proof of financial viability Links between planning, resource allocation and quality management The education programmes to be offered Arrangements for ensuring quality theoretical and practical teaching and learning Arrangements for creating and applying knowledge Community engagement and service
Structure Standards including human resources, material resources, financial resources, technology, theoretical and practical learning facilities Process standards including leadership and management of the institution, management of educational programmes, relationships and record keeping and reporting Outcomes standards including quality of graduates, organizational development, and community outreach.
A panel of auditors is appointed, based on their knowledge, experience and skills in terms of nursing education and quality assessment They will need to be trained on the auditing process. The audit team for a particular visit is selected on a rotational basis The size of the team of auditors will be determined by the complexity of the institution. Each team is accompanied by at least one audit officer and an audit administrator from the accreditation body staff The chairperson of the audit team should have acknowledged credibility and authority who commands respect in the nursing education sector.
Probationary accreditation which enables an nursing education institution applying for accreditation for the first time to offer nursing education for a period not exceeding three years whilst completing requirements for full accreditation. Provisional accreditation which enables a nursing education institution which has previously been accredited but which complies with most but not all of the required standards to operate for a period not exceeding one year whilst it addresses the areas of concern. Full accreditation which indicates that the institution complies with all the required standards and may operate for a period of five years before applying for re- accreditation.
Failure to maintain the requirements Continuous failure to maintain standards after accreditation Evidence that the institution has contravened the Act and its regulations Evidence that submission for accreditation was made fraudulently or contained false or misleading information Failure to inform the Council, in the event of a move On request for voluntary de-accreditation from the head of the nursing education institution.
THEORYREALITY The process of systematic examination of a quality system by internal or external auditors Important part of organization’s quality management system True when referring to internal audits Reality is that most organizations only do a self-audit as a requirement preceding an external audit They are time consuming but very useful if done regularly
THEORYREALITY Standards should reflect best practices benchmarked on the best in the industry Should be chosen on high risk, high cost, high volume issues Reality is they usually reflect best equivalent provider standards Also reflect values of licensing body Licensing bodies have to be sure they will not shut down the entire industry!
THEORYREALITY The outputs of any programme are the most important aspect for assessing quality of education Tool should be developed so no assessor bias is possible In reality they are the most difficult to assess and most audit tools have fewer standards & criteria on this aspect than any other Unless tools are extremely detailed assessors need to exercise some judgement
AREARELEVANT ASPECTS PROCESS Programme coordination Academic development for student success Teaching & learning interactions Student assessment practices Coordination or work-based learning Delivery of post-graduate programmes OUTPUT & IMPACT Student retention and throughput rates Programme impact
DOMAIN: PATIENT RIGHTS SUB-DOMAINS: 1.1 Respect and dignity 1.2 Information to patients 1.3 Physical access 1.4 Continuity of care 1.5 Reducing delays in care 1.6. Emergency care 1.7 Access to a package of services 1.8. Complaints management
SUB-DOMAIN: RESPECT & DIGNITY STANDARDS: 1. Patients are treated in a way that shows respect and maintains patient dignity 2. Results of patient satisfaction surveys are used to inform quality improvement in the establishment 3. Establishments provide hotel services that meet the patients’ expectations
STANDARD: Establishments provide hotel services that meet the patients’ expectations CRITERIA: The cleanliness and hygiene of the facility contribute towards patient satisfaction. The linen services contribute to patient satisfaction. The food services contribute to patient satisfaction
CRITERIA: The food services contribute to patient satisfaction MEASURES / INDICATORS: 5 randomly selected patients in the ward indicate they are satisfied with the temperature of the food served in the ward 5 randomly selected patients in the ward indicate they are satisfied with the quality and quantity of the food served in the ward
CRITERION: The food services contribute to patient satisfaction WEIGHTPLACE ASSESSED TYPE ASSESS MENT 5 randomly selected patients in the ward indicate they are satisfied with the temperature of the food served in the ward 15%In-patient units Patient interviews 5 randomly selected patients in the ward indicate they are satisfied with the quality and quantity of the food served in the ward 15%In-patient units Patient interviews
Patient interviews Staff Interviews Document reviews Document analysis Patient record reviews Patient record audits Observation with checklist
Pass Rate per subject Ratios 1 tutor to x students
Pass rate per subject Difficulty index of exams
Need to be accredited by both HEQC and SANC In theory SANC may be used as agent for HEQC Nurses needed to evaluate nursing aspects especially clinical areas System of licensing health establishments coming – implications for NEI’s? Nothing to lose if we do internal quality audits meantime
THE THEORYTHE REALITY “Aim at the sun, and you may not reach it; But your arrow will fly higher than if you aimed at an object on a level with yourself” J Howse