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MEIOSIS The great gene shuffling machine (From the Greek: meioun to diminish) Image credit:

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Presentation on theme: "MEIOSIS The great gene shuffling machine (From the Greek: meioun to diminish) Image credit:"— Presentation transcript:

1 MEIOSIS The great gene shuffling machine (From the Greek: meioun to diminish) Image credit:

2 Meiosis performs two functions It halves the number of chromosomes to make haploid sets It shuffles the genes to produce new combinations (recombinations) © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

3 Meiosis performs two functions It halves the number of chromosomes to make haploid sets It shuffles the genes to produce new combinations (recombinations) © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

4 Meiosis performs two functions It halves the number of chromosomes to make haploid sets It shuffles the genes to produce new combinations (recombinations) © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

5 Meiosis and sexual reproduction Meiosis is needed to produce sex cells (gametes) with unpaired sets of chromosomes (haploid) Sex cells are used in fertilisation At fertilisation two sets of genes come together to form a hybrid with a set of paired chromosomes (diploid) The hybrid, whilst similar to the parents, is unique © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

6 Haploid and Diploid Karyotypes of somatic cells show paired sets of chromosomes The origin of the pairs are the maternal and paternal chromosomes of the egg and the sperm The number of types of chromosomes of a species is constant = n So the diploid (paired set) = 2n © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

7 The sexual reproduction life cycle Meiosis Fertilisation Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

8 Meiosis a two step process Meiosis 1 is the reduction division Meiosis 2 resembles mitosis © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

9 Meiosis 1: Early Prophase 1 Chromosomes condense Homologous pairs linked by chiasmata (chiasma sing.) © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

10 Meiosis 1: Late Prophase 1 Spindle fibres form and spread out between the centrioles © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

11 Meiosis 1: Metaphase 1 The pairs of chromosomes line up on the equator The orientation of the maternal and the paternal chromosomes is random © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

12 Meiosis 1: Anaphase 1 Maternal and paternal chromosomes segregate (pulled separate on the spindle) They move to opposite poles © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

13 Meiosis 1: Metaphase 1 revisited The pairs of chromosomes could orientate in different ways © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

14 Meiosis 1: Anaphase 1 revisited Resulting in different combinations of chromosomes This means there are 2 n combinations In humans this means 2 23 or over 8 million combinations © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

15 Meiosis 2: Prophase 2 Now the cells are haploid The chromosomes do not decondense at the end of meiosis 1 Each chromosome has still two chromatids © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

16 Meiosis 2: Prophase 2 Spindles form again © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

17 Meiosis 2: Metaphase 2 The chromosomes line up on the spindle equator independently © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

18 Meiosis 2: Anaphase 2 The sister chromatids separate on the spindle Each cell will receive a copy of each chromosome type (i.e. it will receive n chromatids all different) The genes on the different chromosomes are recombined (shuffled) © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

19 Meiosis 2: Telophase 2 Four haploid sex cells are produced © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

20 Crossing over During prophase 1 not only do the homologous pairs link They exchange genetic material The genes on each chromosome are not identical they may be alleles Alleles are different versions of a gene e.g. Ear shape gene has two alleles the ear lobe allele and the no ear lobe allele © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

21 Meiosis: Anaphase 1 So when the pairs are separated, the alleles of the genes on the same chromosome are recombined (reshuffled) Genes on the same chromosome are called linked genes © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

22 Meiosis: Prophase 2 Each cell is haploid (n) The sister chromatids are no longer identical copies © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

23 Meiosis: Anaphase 2 At anaphase 2 the chromatids segregate (separate) randomly Even greater variation is achieved in the sex cells © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

24 Meiosis: Telophase 2 Thus an infinite variety of sex cells is possible Combined with random mating between males and females an infinite variety of individuals is conceived at fertilisation © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS


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