Presentation on theme: "Nationalism and Ultranationalism during Times of Conflict"— Presentation transcript:
1Nationalism and Ultranationalism during Times of Conflict Chapter 8Nationalism and Ultranationalism during Times of Conflict
2Chapter IssueHow did nationalism influence the pursuit of Canadian national interests during the First and Second World Wars?How did ultranationalism develop in Germany as a extension or expression of national interests?What role did national interest play in the development of ultranationalism during the First and Second World Wars?
3Analyzing Propaganda Propaganda is the art of persuasion Propaganda appeals to emotion rather than reason, and may not examine evidence or may present false or unsupported statementsPropaganda may use a variety of methods to spread a message, opinion, or beliefBandwagon Card Stacking (Selective Omission) Glittering Generalities Name-Calling Plain folks (Reflect Common People) Testimonial Transfer
4Propaganda & WarWars have always been a good reason for governments wanting to persuade populaces of the justness of their cause as well as hide the horrors and failures of the front line.Misinformation and disinformation are widely used to distract people from the truth and create new realities.Entry into the first world war was apparently accompanied with many stories of atrocities that were false. Things have not changed and more recent wars have also had more than their fair share of propaganda.
5The WaveThe setting of the book is Gordon High School in The plot of the book revolves around a history teacher (Mr. Ben Ross), his high school students, and an experiment he conducts in an attempt to teach them about how it may have been living in Nazi Germany. Unsatisfied with his own inability to answer his students' earnest questions of how and why, Mr Ross initiates the experiment in hopes that it answers the question of why the Germans allowed Adolf Hitler and the genocidal Nazi Party to rise to power, acting in a manner inconsistent with their own pre-existing moral values.
6BandwagonMake it appear that many people have joined the cause already, and that they are having lots of fun or getting significant advantage.Show that those who join early will get the better prizes, such as positions of authority or other advantages.Link it to morality and values, showing that those who join sooner are more moral and pretty much better people all around.Make a loud noise. Use bright colors. Play a fanfare. Become impossible to miss. Be in-your-face until they join up.
7Card StackingIn 'card-stacking', deliberate action is taken to bias an argument, with opposing evidence being buried or discredited, whilst the case for one's own position is exaggerated at every opportunity. Thus the testimonial of supporters is used, but not that of opponents.Coincidences and serendipity may be artificially created, making deliberate action seem like random occurrence. Things 'just seem to happen' whilst you are 'in town'.
8Glittering Generalities Use attractive, but vague words that make speeches and other communications sound good, but in practice say nothing in particular.Use linguistic patterns such as alliteration, metaphor and reversals that turn your words into poetry that flows and rhymes in hypnotic patterns.Use words that appeal to values, which often themselves are related to triggering of powerful emotions.A common element of glittering generalities are intangible nouns that embody ideals, such as dignity, freedom, fame, integrity, justice, love and respect.
9Nationalism in Canada Conscription Military Services Act (1917) WWII InternmentWar Measures Act (1914)WWII - Order-in-Council
10ConscriptionBy 1916, losses were so great among Canada’s allies that Russia was near defeat and French soldiers were mutinyingCanada promised 500,000 more soldiersPrime Minister Borden was convinced that he needed to create a system of conscription to increase Canada’s military
11Military Service Act 1917 - aimed at enlisting 100,000 more men required to register or face arrestMilitary success - 24,000 actually foughtNational Unity - destructive & emphasized the divisions in Canadian society
13WWII ConscriptionIn 1939, Canada deliberately waited a week to declare war on Germany in a show of sovereigntyAs WWII dragged on, Canada would need to increase its commitmentPM King held an election to ask the country if he could be released from his promise of no conscriptionpassed the National Resources Mobilization Act - provided troops for home defense (13,000 were eventually sent to fight)
14InternmentClifford Sifton - “stalwart peasants” as desirable immigrants to Canada (eastern Europeans)1914, these immigrants were now considered “enemies within”War Measures Act (1914) - was passed, giving the government the power to arrest and detain anybody suspected of being an enemy in the name of defense, security, and orderwording was vague enough that the government has a wide range of powers
15Censorship and the control and suppression of publications, writings, maps, plans, photographs Arrest, detention, exclusion and deportationControl of the harbors, ports and territorial waters of Canada and the movement of vesselsTransportation by land, air, or water and the control of the transport of persons and thingsTrading, exportation, importation, production, and manufactureAppropriation, control, forfeiture and disposition of property and of the use thereof
17Germany prior to 1867 a united German state did not exist Franco-Prussian war ( ) - long standing rivalry between France and Northern German states over which house should rule SpainAlsace-Lorraine (a region on Germany’s border) is rich in coal and iron oreGermany controlled this regionby Germany experienced great economic growth and was an economic rival to Britain
18Germany’s Expansionism After the Treaty - Germany lost economically important pre-1914 territorybecame parts of Poland and Czechoslovakia1920s/30s - Germany was highly dependent on its neighbors for resources and marketsGreat Depression - increased Germany’s resolve to become more self-sufficient in food, oil and other strategic raw materials
20Post-WWITreaty of Versailles forced Germany to accept moral responsibility for the warBy 1923, the German economy was in shamblesThe Treaty backfired and German nationalism was revivedThe Depression provided justification for state control of the economyLarge public work programs not only rebuilt (self- sufficiency) but also rekindled national pride and reduced unemployment
21Post - Treaty of Versailles The world battle against the Jews. In a prophetic drawing, an English newspaper shows who will lose this struggle.Source: Daily Express (London), 14 November 1938Europe can have peace if Germany and France can agree.Source: Washington Post, 7 December 1938
22Rise of Adolf HitlerGermany needed to regain its great status and promised to liberate Germans from ToVPulled Germany out of the League of Nationsfailure to stop Japanese aggression in ManchuriaBegan rearming the militaryBritain/France were mired in Great Depressionpolicy of appeasement, little to stop Nazi actions
23The photograph of Hitler is from Hitler, Herbert Walther, Ed The photograph of Hitler is from Hitler, Herbert Walther, Ed., 1978, Bison Books, London, p. 94. The caption reads "Hitler in 1925 after his release from Landsberg." The photograph is credited to the Bundesarchiv in Koblenz.
24International Failure Hitler openly broke conditions set out in Treaty of VersaillesBR/FR were in economic turmoilAmerica abandoned ship and isolated themselvesbanks collapsedmassive unemploymentdemanded money be spent on helping people get to work rather than the military
25What kind of questions come to mind when you think of isolationism? How does this represent American values during the Great Depression?
261936 - remilitarized the Rhineland Union with AustriaAlarm (1938) - Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain and Daladier met in Munich to implement new kind of foreign policyThey (leaders) gave Germany a part of Czechoslovakia without the country being represented at the meetingThis type of appeasement was considered a very questionable method to achieve peace
28Self-Interest + Ultranationalism Legitimate national self-interestconsiders the impact of actions on othersseeks win-win solutions where conflict arisesobjectives reflect global sensitivitiesUltranationalismactions taken without regard for impact on othersseeks to dominate where conflict ariseslittle or no consideration for global implications
292. Provide three evidence based arguments in support of your decision LegitimateNationalismDestructiveUltranationalism1. Locate your decisionon this continuum2. Provide three evidence basedarguments in support of your decision