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Chapter 8 Nationalism and Ultranationalism during Times of Conflict.

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1 Chapter 8 Nationalism and Ultranationalism during Times of Conflict

2 Chapter Issue How did nationalism influence the pursuit of Canadian national interests during the First and Second World Wars? How did ultranationalism develop in Germany as a extension or expression of national interests? What role did national interest play in the development of ultranationalism during the First and Second World Wars?

3 Analyzing Propaganda Propaganda is the art of persuasion Propaganda appeals to emotion rather than reason, and may not examine evidence or may present false or unsupported statements Propaganda may use a variety of methods to spread a message, opinion, or belief Bandwagon Card Stacking (Selective Omission) Glittering Generalities Name-Calling Plain folks (Reflect Common People) Testimonial Transfer

4 Propaganda & War Wars have always been a good reason for governments wanting to persuade populaces of the justness of their cause as well as hide the horrors and failures of the front line. Misinformation and disinformation are widely used to distract people from the truth and create new realities. Entry into the first world war was apparently accompanied with many stories of atrocities that were false. Things have not changed and more recent wars have also had more than their fair share of propaganda.

5 The Wave The setting of the book is Gordon High School in The plot of the book revolves around a history teacher (Mr. Ben Ross), his high school students, and an experiment he conducts in an attempt to teach them about how it may have been living in Nazi Germany. Unsatisfied with his own inability to answer his students' earnest questions of how and why, Mr Ross initiates the experiment in hopes that it answers the question of why the Germans allowed Adolf Hitler and the genocidal Nazi Party to rise to power, acting in a manner inconsistent with their own pre-existing moral values.

6 Bandwagon Make it appear that many people have joined the cause already, and that they are having lots of fun or getting significant advantage. Show that those who join early will get the better prizes, such as positions of authority or other advantages. Link it to morality and values, showing that those who join sooner are more moral and pretty much better people all around. Make a loud noise. Use bright colors. Play a fanfare. Become impossible to miss. Be in-your-face until they join up.

7 Card Stacking In 'card-stacking', deliberate action is taken to bias an argument, with opposing evidence being buried or discredited, whilst the case for one's own position is exaggerated at every opportunity. Thus the testimonial of supporters is used, but not that of opponents.testimonial Coincidences and serendipity may be artificially created, making deliberate action seem like random occurrence. Things 'just seem to happen' whilst you are 'in town'.

8 Glittering Generalities Use attractive, but vague words that make speeches and other communications sound good, but in practice say nothing in particular. Use linguistic patterns such as alliteration, metaphor and reversals that turn your words into poetry that flows and rhymes in hypnotic patterns. Use words that appeal to values, which often themselves are related to triggering of powerful emotions.values A common element of glittering generalities are intangible nouns that embody ideals, such as dignity, freedom, fame, integrity, justice, love and respect.

9 Nationalism in Canada Conscription Military Services Act (1917) WWII Internment War Measures Act (1914) WWII - Order-in-Council

10 Conscription By 1916, losses were so great among Canada’s allies that Russia was near defeat and French soldiers were mutinying Canada promised 500,000 more soldiers Prime Minister Borden was convinced that he needed to create a system of conscription to increase Canada’s military

11 Military Service Act aimed at enlisting 100,000 more men required to register or face arrest Military success - 24,000 actually fought National Unity - destructive & emphasized the divisions in Canadian society

12 l/conscriptionstandoff/conscriptionstandoff_setting_conscription.htm&h=92&w=92&sz=3&hl=en&start=4&um=1&usg=__z4TZavxKJXoizqk_9QbauOUWLDU=&tbnid=1d_kx73hhTAIyM:&tbnh=79&tbnw=79&prev= /images%3Fq%3Dmilitary%2Bservices%2Bact%2B(canada)%2B-%2B1917%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Doff%26sa%3DG

13 WWII Conscription In 1939, Canada deliberately waited a week to declare war on Germany in a show of sovereignty As WWII dragged on, Canada would need to increase its commitment PM King held an election to ask the country if he could be released from his promise of no conscription passed the National Resources Mobilization Act - provided troops for home defense (13,000 were eventually sent to fight)

14 Internment Clifford Sifton - “stalwart peasants” as desirable immigrants to Canada (eastern Europeans) 1914, these immigrants were now considered “enemies within” War Measures Act (1914) - was passed, giving the government the power to arrest and detain anybody suspected of being an enemy in the name of defense, security, and order wording was vague enough that the government has a wide range of powers

15 Censorship and the control and suppression of publications, writings, maps, plans, photographs Arrest, detention, exclusion and deportation Control of the harbors, ports and territorial waters of Canada and the movement of vessels Transportation by land, air, or water and the control of the transport of persons and things Trading, exportation, importation, production, and manufacture Appropriation, control, forfeiture and disposition of property and of the use thereof

16 Dark Days in Canada

17 Germany prior to 1867 a united German state did not exist Franco-Prussian war ( ) - long standing rivalry between France and Northern German states over which house should rule Spain Alsace-Lorraine (a region on Germany’s border) is rich in coal and iron ore Germany controlled this region by Germany experienced great economic growth and was an economic rival to Britain

18 Germany’s Expansionism After the Treaty - Germany lost economically important pre-1914 territory became parts of Poland and Czechoslovakia 1920s/30s - Germany was highly dependent on its neighbors for resources and markets Great Depression - increased Germany’s resolve to become more self-sufficient in food, oil and other strategic raw materials

19 French Power Forgotten - The Rise of Germany

20 Post-WWI Treaty of Versailles forced Germany to accept moral responsibility for the war By 1923, the German economy was in shambles The Treaty backfired and German nationalism was revived The Depression provided justification for state control of the economy Large public work programs not only rebuilt (self- sufficiency) but also rekindled national pride and reduced unemployment

21 Post - Treaty of Versailles Europe can have peace if Germany and France can agree. Source: Washington Post, 7 December 1938 The world battle against the Jews. In a prophetic drawing, an English newspaper shows who will lose this struggle. Source: Daily Express (London), 14 November 1938

22 Rise of Adolf Hitler Germany needed to regain its great status and promised to liberate Germans from ToV Pulled Germany out of the League of Nations failure to stop Japanese aggression in Manchuria Began rearming the military Britain/France were mired in Great Depression policy of appeasement, little to stop Nazi actions

23 The photograph of Hitler is from Hitler, Herbert Walther, Ed., 1978, Bison Books, London, p. 94. The caption reads "Hitler in 1925 after his release from Landsberg." The photograph is credited to the Bundesarchiv in Koblenz.

24 International Failure Hitler openly broke conditions set out in Treaty of Versailles BR/FR were in economic turmoil America abandoned ship and isolated themselves banks collapsed massive unemployment demanded money be spent on helping people get to work rather than the military

25 What kind of questions come to mind when you think of isolationism? How does this represent American values during the Great Depression?

26 remilitarized the Rhineland Union with Austria Alarm (1938) - Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain and Daladier met in Munich to implement new kind of foreign policy They (leaders) gave Germany a part of Czechoslovakia without the country being represented at the meeting This type of appeasement was considered a very questionable method to achieve peace

27 Foreign Appeasement

28 Self-Interest + Ultranationalism Legitimate national self-interest considers the impact of actions on others seeks win-win solutions where conflict arises objectives reflect global sensitivities Ultranationalism actions taken without regard for impact on others seeks to dominate where conflict arises little or no consideration for global implications

29 Legitimate Nationalism Destructive Ultranationalism 2. Provide three evidence based arguments in support of your decision 1. Locate your decision on this continuum


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