Presentation on theme: "From strength to strength. Draft only The muscle that can pull with the greatest force is the soleus, just under the calf muscle. This is the muscle that."— Presentation transcript:
At the end of the lessons, you will be able to: understand that continuous or rapidly repeated contraction of muscle results in fatigue explain that different types of muscle fibre have a significant effect on sporting ability Learning objectives
state that muscle size is related to muscle strength work accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data interpret data relating to the effects of exercise on the human body. Learning objectives
In many sports, muscles are not required to produce a lot of force but need to be able to contract and relax for prolonged periods of time. Large muscles are not needed in these types of sports. The role of muscles Background science
There are two types of muscle fibre: fast-twitch muscle fibres and slow-twitch muscle fibres. Muscle fibres Muscles are made up of muscle fibres.
Background science Fast-twitch musclesSlow-twitch muscles power events e.g. javelinendurance events e.g. cross- country skiing fast contraction speedslow contraction speed high force productionlow force production low capillary densityhigh capillary density low mitochondrial densityhigh mitochondrial density fatigues quicklyslow to fatigue little myoglobinrich in myoglobin
You cannot change the percentage of muscle fibres that you are born with. Percentage of muscle fibres Background science Which fibre type do you think you have a greater percentage of in your muscles? Give a reason for your answer. Sprinters have higher percentages of fast-twitch muscle fibres compared to marathon runners.
Explaining the results Muscle size and performance The larger a muscle the more force it can produce so it won’t tire as quickly. For endurance activities muscles need to work for long periods of time but usually without a lot of force so muscles tend to be smaller.
Explaining the results Why are lower body muscles stronger than upper body muscles? We use our lower body muscles more in everyday activities. Upper body muscles are usually only stressed during specific activities or sports. Taller people tend to have: longer legs which make test exercises (press-ups) harder a greater volume of muscle longer arms (further away from ground).
Explaining the results Why are some people better at power events compared to endurance events? A person with a greater percentage of: fast-twitch muscle fibres is more suited to power and speed activities such as the vertical jump test. slow-twitch muscle fibres is more suited to endurance activities. Students who participate in sports that need both power and endurance may perform well in both type of activities.
Explaining the results Why does fatiguing one set of muscles not affect the performance of another set of muscles? A muscle becomes fatigued due to: the build up of waste products e.g. lactic acid the depletion of energy sources (glycogen). These effects are localised to the working muscles so do not affect the performance of different sets of muscles.
Can you do more press-ups than squats in one minute? Is this true for everyone? Upload your results for the number of press-ups and squats you performed in Experiment B to the In the Zone ‘Live Data Zone’ and see how you compare to other students across the UK.Live Data Zone Visit Your results
Use data from the ‘Live Data Zone’ to help you answer the questions below.Live Data Zone 1Describe the trends in the national data for upper body strength compared to lower body strength. 2Suggest why some people have greater upper body strength compared to others. 3What activities and sports are upper body strength important for? How do muscles affect sporting performance? Your results
Discuss how muscles impact upon sporting performance. Use your results from the muscle size, power and endurance tests and muscle fatigue experiments. How do muscles affect sporting performance? Your results
Rehearsing mentally Psychologists help athletes to mentally rehearse a skill or activity by imagining it in their head. This process has been shown to stimulate the appropriate muscles and help the athlete to prepare for sporting performance. Improving performance Simon Drane, sports psychologist, English Institute of Sport
In the Zone From strength to strength is the Ages 14–16 component of the In the Zone schools experiments. In the Zone is the Wellcome Trust’s major UK initiative inspired by the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. It has been awarded the London 2012 Inspire Mark and is part of Get Set +, the official London 2012 education programme. For more information about In the Zone, the ‘Live Data Zone’ and downloadable teacher resources go to: In the Zone resources are, unless otherwise stated, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommerical-ShareAlike 3.0 UK:England And Wales License. This means that, unless indicated that restrictions apply, you can copy, share and adapt materials as much as you like, as long as it is not for commercial use.
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