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From strength to strength. Draft only The muscle that can pull with the greatest force is the soleus, just under the calf muscle. This is the muscle that.

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Presentation on theme: "From strength to strength. Draft only The muscle that can pull with the greatest force is the soleus, just under the calf muscle. This is the muscle that."— Presentation transcript:

1 From strength to strength

2 Draft only The muscle that can pull with the greatest force is the soleus, just under the calf muscle. This is the muscle that stops us from falling backwards when we stand. ©Pearson Education: Jules Selmes

3 At the end of the lessons, you will be able to: understand that continuous or rapidly repeated contraction of muscle results in fatigue explain that different types of muscle fibre have a significant effect on sporting ability Learning objectives

4 state that muscle size is related to muscle strength work accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data interpret data relating to the effects of exercise on the human body. Learning objectives

5 The amount of force a muscle can produce is related to its size — the larger the muscle the greater the force that it can produce. Background science ©PCN Photography

6 In many sports, muscles are not required to produce a lot of force but need to be able to contract and relax for prolonged periods of time. Large muscles are not needed in these types of sports. The role of muscles Background science

7 There are two types of muscle fibre: fast-twitch muscle fibres and slow-twitch muscle fibres. Muscle fibres Muscles are made up of muscle fibres.

8 Background science Fast-twitch musclesSlow-twitch muscles power events e.g. javelinendurance events e.g. cross- country skiing fast contraction speedslow contraction speed high force productionlow force production low capillary densityhigh capillary density low mitochondrial densityhigh mitochondrial density fatigues quicklyslow to fatigue little myoglobinrich in myoglobin

9 You cannot change the percentage of muscle fibres that you are born with. Percentage of muscle fibres Background science Which fibre type do you think you have a greater percentage of in your muscles? Give a reason for your answer. Sprinters have higher percentages of fast-twitch muscle fibres compared to marathon runners.

10 How do muscles help these people perform at their best? Background science ©Getty Images: Jed Jacobsohn © EcoPrint ©Alamy Images: ITAR-TASS Photo Agency

11 Background science Muscle contraction can also be concentric or eccentric. Concentric muscle contraction — the muscle shortens whilst contracting. Eccentric muscle contraction — the muscle lengthens whilst contracting. Yoga increases flexibility and strengthens muscles. The muscles do not produce movement, they contract isometrically. ©Pete Saloutos

12 Explaining the results Muscle size and performance The larger a muscle the more force it can produce so it won’t tire as quickly. For endurance activities muscles need to work for long periods of time but usually without a lot of force so muscles tend to be smaller.

13 Explaining the results Why are lower body muscles stronger than upper body muscles? We use our lower body muscles more in everyday activities. Upper body muscles are usually only stressed during specific activities or sports. Taller people tend to have: longer legs which make test exercises (press-ups) harder a greater volume of muscle longer arms (further away from ground).

14 Explaining the results Why are some people better at power events compared to endurance events? A person with a greater percentage of: fast-twitch muscle fibres is more suited to power and speed activities such as the vertical jump test. slow-twitch muscle fibres is more suited to endurance activities. Students who participate in sports that need both power and endurance may perform well in both type of activities.

15 Explaining the results Why does fatiguing one set of muscles not affect the performance of another set of muscles? A muscle becomes fatigued due to: the build up of waste products e.g. lactic acid the depletion of energy sources (glycogen). These effects are localised to the working muscles so do not affect the performance of different sets of muscles.

16 Can you do more press-ups than squats in one minute? Is this true for everyone? Upload your results for the number of press-ups and squats you performed in Experiment B to the In the Zone ‘Live Data Zone’ and see how you compare to other students across the UK.Live Data Zone Visit Your results

17 Use data from the ‘Live Data Zone’ to help you answer the questions below.Live Data Zone 1Describe the trends in the national data for upper body strength compared to lower body strength. 2Suggest why some people have greater upper body strength compared to others. 3What activities and sports are upper body strength important for? How do muscles affect sporting performance? Your results

18 Discuss how muscles impact upon sporting performance. Use your results from the muscle size, power and endurance tests and muscle fatigue experiments. How do muscles affect sporting performance? Your results

19 Sports physiotherapists such as Ian Gatt carry out strength tests, like those you have performed, on the injured athletes they work with. They select exercises to strengthen selected muscles to help with rehabilitation. Ian Gatt, sports physiotherapist, English Institute of Sport Improving performance When antagonistic muscle pairs are not equally balanced in strength this can lead to injury. ©Ian Gatt

20 Researchers no longer recommend using weights close to the maximum that can be lifted to increase muscle size. Building muscle Improving performance They have found that new muscle protein generation is greatest when using weights at 30% of the maximum an athlete can lift, until they become exhausted. ©PCN Photography

21 Resistance training By understanding muscles, sportspeople can develop more successful training programmes. For example, resistance training stimulates muscle growth by breaking muscle fibres which then grow bigger and stronger. Improving performance Research has indicated that this ability to generate more muscle tissue remains even after periods of inactivity. ©Science Photo Library Ltd: Eye of Science

22 Dancers train their slow-twitch muscles during circuit laps, doing exercises like those you have done, to increase their stamina and endurance. Improving performance Odette Hughes, Associate Director of Wayne McGregor | Random Dance ©Wayne McGregor Random Dance: Ravi Deepres

23 Improving performance The brain is thought to play a major role in muscle fatigue. Therefore the question can be asked, does endurance training actually train the brain as well as muscle tissue? ©F.C.G

24 Rehearsing mentally Psychologists help athletes to mentally rehearse a skill or activity by imagining it in their head. This process has been shown to stimulate the appropriate muscles and help the athlete to prepare for sporting performance. Improving performance Simon Drane, sports psychologist, English Institute of Sport

25 In the Zone From strength to strength is the Ages 14–16 component of the In the Zone schools experiments. In the Zone is the Wellcome Trust’s major UK initiative inspired by the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. It has been awarded the London 2012 Inspire Mark and is part of Get Set +, the official London 2012 education programme. For more information about In the Zone, the ‘Live Data Zone’ and downloadable teacher resources go to: In the Zone resources are, unless otherwise stated, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommerical-ShareAlike 3.0 UK:England And Wales License. This means that, unless indicated that restrictions apply, you can copy, share and adapt materials as much as you like, as long as it is not for commercial use.

26 Credits Picture credits The publisher would like to thank the following for their kind permission to reproduce their photographs: (Key: b-bottom; c-centre; l-left; r-right; t-top) Alamy Images: ITAR-TASS Photo Agency 10b, PCN Photography 5, 20; Ian Gatt: 19; Getty Images: Jed Jacobsohn 10r; Pearson Education Ltd: Jules Selmes 2; Science Photo Library Ltd: Eye of Science 21; EcoPrint 10l, F.C.G 23, Pete Saloutos 11; Wayne McGregor Random Dance: Ravi Deepres 22; Additional images by Clark Wiseman / Studio8 Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders and we apologise in advance for any unintentional omissions. We would be pleased to insert the appropriate acknowledgement in any subsequent edition of this publication. Where material is owned by a third party, e.g. some photographs, certain restrictions may apply that you have to comply with. In particular, where a copyright line is included on a photograph you must not modify, adapt, or remove that photo from its context. The website links to 3 rd party material, which are used in this presentation, were correct and up-to-date at the time of publication. It is essential for teachers to preview each weblink before using it in class so as to ensure that the URL is still accurate, relevant and appropriate. Thanks to BBC Learning ‘Class Clips’ which feature in the Notes for Slide 6. In the Zone is commissioned by the Wellcome Trust and delivered by a consortium led by Pearson Education and Guardian Professional Pearson Education Consortium Teacher and student materials produced by Pearson Education Ltd Illustrations by Oxford Designers and Illustrators Author Jennifer Stafford-Brown, Chief Examiner and Senior Standards Verifier Photo Shoot School – Farringdon Community College, Farringdon, Oxfordshire Advisors and Contributors to In the Zone Ages 14-16 PowerPoint presentation Simon Drane, English Institute of Sport Ian Gatt, English Institute of Sport Odette Hughes, Wayne McGregor | Random Dance

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