Strategies for memory Improvement BATs AO1 -Describe and use various strategies for improving memory (organisation, mnemonics, imagery, active processing) AO2 - Understand how such strategies are related to memory research ROP interviews today!
Strategies for memory Improvement You need to learn at least 2 strategies for improving memory. We will focus on the following – these are in your text book and revision guide a.Cues b.Mnemonics and mind maps
Try an experiment Learning word lists At rest or during exercise Whilst Chewing gum or not chewing gum In different rooms Procedure :Learn word list for 1 1/2 minutes Group 1 Recall list a. immediately, b. after a delay (24 hrs ideally) in same condition Group 2: Recall list a. immediately, b. after a delay (24 hrs ideally) in different condition Get into groups of 5 (1 group of 6) 1 experimenter 2 ppts in each condition
Try an experiment Learning word lists Whilst Chewing gum or not chewing gum Procedure :Learn word list for 1 1/2 minutes Groups 1 and 3 Recall list a. immediately, b. after a delay (24 hrs ideally) in same condition Group 2 and 4 : Recall list a. immediately, b. after a delay (24 hrs ideally) in different condition Get into groups of 4 Each group will do a different condition
Analysing Data Condition 1 Chew, chew Condition 2 Chew, no chew Condition 3 No chew, no chew Condition 4 No chew, chew Number of words correct mean
Use of Cues Cues act as a trigger to help recall memory. Context – Abernethy (1940), Baker et al (2004) Chewing gum expt, Godden and Baddeley (75), Mead and Ball (2007)
Use of Cues Cues act as a trigger to help recall memory. State –dependency – Miles and Hardman (98), Goodwin (69) Alcohol and keys Bower et al (81) - mood
Using cues To improve recall.. Context and state cues need to be as similar as possible to the original learning situation. So to perform best in exams… Context – revise with a mascot or favourite pen State – stay calm whilst revising and during exam (easier said than done!!)
Use of Cues Elaboration – elaborative rehearsal is more effective than maintenance rehearsal as the info becomes meaningful and is encoded in a way that suits LTM e.g. Morris et al (81) – football fans have better recall of scores Organisation – using categories – Tulving and Pearlstone (66)
Now try this … 2 groups Group 1 will learn list 1 for 1 1/2 minutes Group 2 will learn list 2 for 1 1/2 minutes
Organisation Tulving and Pearlestone (66) Daffodil Plum Nose Weather Copper Flowers Brass Foot Tulips Pansy Sleet Orange Toe Snow Flute Pear Clarinet Hail Rain Rose Hand Iron Gold Harp Piano Metal Apple Body Fruit instruments Fruit Apple Pear Plum Orange Weather Snow Rain Sleet Hail Flowers Daffodil Rose Pansy Tulip Instruments Harp Piano Flute Clarinet Body Nose Foot Toe Hand Metal Brass Gold Copper iron
Analysis Where more words remembered in the categorised or random list condition? Work out the mean, median and mode for this data (measures of central tendency). How varied was the data? What was the range in each condition? (Measure of dispersion) Draw a simple bar chart for this and the chewing gum experiment.
Plenary – extension work Look back at the studies on p25-27 – for each state … Aim IV/DV Research design (Independent Groups or repeated measures) Any validity and ethical issues?
Verbal Mnemonics Acronyms E.g Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain Good when remembering the order of something
Verbal Mnemonics Rhymes E.g i before e except after c 30 days hath September ….. Also good when remembering the order of something
Visual Imagery Mnemonics Method of Loci – items put in locations in a familiar place Good for visual learners!
Visual Imagery Mnemonics Narrative Chaining – story made up using items to be remembered Good for verbal learners!
Visual Imagery Mnemonics Key word technique – 1.Acoustic stage 2. Visual stage 3. Rehearsal stage E.g baguette – french stick in a bag Very good when learning another language
Visual Imagery Mnemonics Peg-word system - visualisation One-bun Two-shoe Three – tree …. See p28/9 Exploring Psychology Good for shopping lists
Visual Imagery Mnemonics Mind maps Giving each page of revision notes an unique, distinctive visual appearance An example of elaborative rehearsal
Plenary Evaluate as a group the strengths and weaknesses of each Memory Improvement Strategy You could construct a table to fill in your responses
Last lesson on memory!! Starter Create a new mnemonic for Year 7 to learn the order of the planets now Pluto is no longer a planet!!
Watch the film clip What Memory Improvement technique is used by Andy and Prof Winstone? Method of Loci
Now try the strategies yourself!! Use one of the techniques you have learned today to learn as much as you can about a new topic. You must learn the article ‘Secret of exam success? Rosy memories’ on p27 of Exploring Psychology You will be tested later!!!
Rosy Memories Test 1.What 2 powers of recall are often improved by a good night’s sleep? 2.Name the professor? 3.How did subjects receive the smell of roses? 4.What memory task did the subjects do? 5.Name the Clinic where the brain scanner was. 6.Which part of the brain did the roses activate? 7.What percentage of words were remembered correctly by the no odour subjects? 8.Which establishment does Matthew Wilson come from? 9.Name the journal the neuroscientists reported their study in? 10.During which part of sleep was the smell given?
Rosy Memories Test 1.What 2 powers of recall are often improved by a good night’s sleep? Shopping lists and dance routines 2. Name the professor? Prof Born 3. How did subjects receive the smell of roses? Through a nasal mask 4. What memory task did the subjects do? Remembering the location of pairs of cards 5. Name the Clinic where the brain scanner was. University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf 6. Which part of the brain did the roses activate? Hippocampus 7. What percentage of words were remembered correctly by the no odour subjects? 86% 8. Which establishment does Matthew Wilson come from? Massachusetts Institute of Technology 9. Name the journal the neuroscientists reported their study in? Science 10. During which part of sleep was the smell given? Slow wave Sleep
Which Technique was most Effective? Technique Score mean Narrative chaining Method of Loci Categorisation Mind map
Homework What have I learnt this week? Revision – use at least one of the techniques you learnt about today to help you revise for a mock exam after half term (Periods 1 and 2) No books will be allowed!!!! Exam will be up to 1.5 hours long!! Both SJ and RN’s topics included!!! Good luck!!!