Presentation on theme: "Science and Heritage Research Cluster Lace:- Conservation issues, past, present and future possibilities Marion Kite Head of Furniture, Textiles and Frames."— Presentation transcript:
Science and Heritage Research Cluster Lace:- Conservation issues, past, present and future possibilities Marion Kite Head of Furniture, Textiles and Frames Conservation. Victoria and Albert Museum
What is lace? Textiles made of a variety of different techniques with a common characteristic of an open delicate structure. Originally a narrow tape or braid By late 16 th century a term used for all forms of openwork. Made by professionals and amateurs. High quality lace changed technically and stylistically in response to changes in fashion
Types of lace Cut work Bobbin lace Needle lace Tape lace Metal thread lace Parchment lace Machine made lace Embroidered net Chemical lace- (machine embroidered pattern upon a sacrificial fabric which is chemically treated so as to disintegrate after the pattern is created.) Lacebark tree ( Lagetta Lagetto)
How worn and used Worn by Men Women Children Day and evening Secular and ecclesiastical purposes
How worn and used Used on Toys Dolls Dress Accessories Furnishings other
Materials Linen Cotton Silk Hair Lace may be coloured- colours may not be fast? Combination of fibres and materials- straw, cactus fibre synthetic polymeric fibres Chemical lace Wool- (yak lace)
Materials Metal threads around silk or linen core Metal thread applied to paper around a silk core Parchment lace Copper wire- 17 th c. 3D lace, horse hair – French needle lace, pearls, beads, sequins, Other…….
Types of damage Overall weakness and fibre degradation due to various causes. Wear whilst in use –physical damage –Poor handling and storage
Types of damage Wear and tear Stains and soiling –dirt –Food –other Light, (fading – yellowing) Temperature (hot iron) Humidity. (mould)
Types of damage Staining/soiling various causes
Possible past treatments-whilst in use Washing, (wet cleaning) –Boiling –and harsh physical treatment ‘sent every 2 weeks to Fulham steam laundry’ –washing soda (sodium carbonate) –commercial detergents with ‘optical whiteners’ –biological detergents –soap, (soapwort plant, Genus Saponaria, Family Caryophyllaceae) Amphipathic glycosides Ironing –Scorch marks. –pressure
Possible past treatments-domestic-whilst in use Bleaching, –sunshine –chlorinated bleaches –ammonia –‘blue bags’ 1852 synthetic ultramarine and sodium bicarbonate –Carbolic soap-contained phenol or carbolic acid Stiffening, –Starch- various --wheat starch, rice starch, Sugar solution –Other?
Possible past treatments- Conservation treatments in museums Cleaning- wet cleaning- –Soap (saponaria) Amphipathic glycosides –Lissapol (Nonylphenoxy)polyethylene oxide) (Nonylphenoxy)polyethylene oxide –Synperonic detergent -alcohol ethoxylate –Sodium borohydride also known as sodium tetrahydroborate –Coloured silk if fugitive could have been treated with acetic acid –others
Possible past treatments- Conservation treatments in museums Bleaching/stain removal- –Chloramine T sodium p- toluenesulfonchloramide trihydrate –‘Poot’ Sodium silicate, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide –EDTA. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid –Hydrogen Peroxide and ammonia
Possible past treatments- Conservation treatments in museums Stiffening, –Rhodoviol- polyvinyl alcohol –starch- wheat, rice, others Consolidant-Soluble nylon N-methoxymethyl nylon Metal thread cleaning –IMS +deionised water –Ammonia in water –Silver dip- (active ingredient hydrochloric acid) –acetone Lacquering nitrocellulose lacquer –to prevent tarnishing, (but also stiffens and coats core fibre)
Conservation Treatments- Repair and support Restoration work- where lace has been fully reconstructed (19 th c) Repairing linkages-by stitching and by adhesive methods. Full/partial support- stitching, patching with net. Support-thermoplastic adhesive carried upon a support fabric- often a nylon net
Research Questions Aims To inform future actions for conservation and care:- to establish protocol and methodology before new conservation treatment is undertaken. Research questions What are the residues? –identify chemical residues How do we determine structural integrity of fibres? –investigation of non destructive testing techniques
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