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Classificación climàtica Koppen-Geiger Temperaturas, precipitaciones y reparto anual de éstas, índice de aridez.

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Presentation on theme: "Classificación climàtica Koppen-Geiger Temperaturas, precipitaciones y reparto anual de éstas, índice de aridez."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classificación climàtica Koppen-Geiger Temperaturas, precipitaciones y reparto anual de éstas, índice de aridez











12 Clima en Noruega..MET OFFICE Norway extends for about 1,100 miles between 58 and 71° N. The northern part of the country within the Arctic Circle has continuous daylight at midsummer and Arctic twilight all day in winter. Much of the interior is high mountain and plateau, whilst the largest area of lowland is in the south around Oslo, and this is the driest and warmest part of the country in summer. The interior highlands have an Arctic type of climate in winter with snow, strong winds and severe frosts, but during fine summer spells the daytime temperatures can rise to the low 30s °C with long hours of sunshine. By contrast, the coastal areas have comparatively mild winter conditions under the influence of the Atlantic. This prevents the sea from freezing and keeps the harbours open. Norway's weather and climate are very much influenced by Atlantic weather disturbances, resulting in changeable conditions throughout the year. Gales, rain and cloud are the dominant features of this coast, and the rainfall is frequent and heavy (in excess of 200 mm in each of the autumn months at Bergen). Rainfall decreases towards the north and snow is common at sea level in winter. The Spitzbergen archipelago is situated in the Arctic Ocean between 77 and 80° N and has a severe Arctic climate. Winters are very cold and in the short summers, snow scarcely melts at sea level. The conditions at this time are very severe and also apply to northern and central parts of mainland Norway at higher levels.

13 Eastern Mediterranean: Past weather and climate December is the warmest winter month in the eastern Mediterranean, although Cairo does have a fairly constant temperature throughout the season (average daytime maximum temperature 20 °C/68 °F). This makes it ideal for sightseeing - not too hot ! Southern Israel has temperatures 2 or 3 degrees higher, whilst the Greek mainland has corresponding values of 16 °C (61 °F). Four to five hours of sunshine can be expected at Cairo and Corfu, whilst Eilat enjoys about 7 hours on average. There are typically 28 dry days each month in Egypt, whilst the Greek islands and mainland have only 14 to 18. Spring is again a good time for touring the area before some parts just get too hot. Cairo has average daytime maxima varying from 24 °C (75 °F) in March to a hot 32 °C (90 °F) in May. In Greece and the islands, temperatures reach an average maximum of 25 °C (78 °F) in May, sometimes enhanced by the presence of the 'Sirocco', a hot wind from Africa. In southern Israel, temperatures can reach a very hot 36 °C (97 °F) in May. Up to ten or eleven hours of sunshine can be expected, coupled with up to 30 dry days. The summer months can be extremely hot in Egypt and Israel, with Cairo having average daily maximum temperatures of 35 °C (96 °F) and Eilat having corresponding values of 40 °C (104 °F). It must be remembered that these values are averages, and the actual temperatures could be well in excess of them. If sailing around the Greek islands, watch out for the 'Etesian' winds which can persist for days, making the sea choppy. This can reach gale force during the day before dropping out at night. It does, however, have a plus, inasmuch as it makes the heat more bearable in those regions. The summer months are almost totally dry, and 10 or more hours of sunshine are expected on average. The high temperatures continue well into the autumn with 33 °C (92 °F) at Egypt in September falling to 26 °C (79 °F) by November. The 'Sirocco' again often affects the Greek islands at this time of year, holding average maxima at about 29 °C (85 °F), falling to 19 °C (66 °F) by November. Greece and the islands become progressively wetter through the season (15 to 17 days by November). At Eilat, average daily maxima are still as high as 28 °C (82 °F) by the end of November, but at least it has started raining! By November, 7-8 hours of sunshine can be expected over Egypt and Israel, but only 4-5 over Greece and the islands.

14 Eastern Europe: Past weather and climate I Northern and central European Russia is below 1,000 feet and has rather variable weather compared to other parts of the old USSR. This is because it is more open to weather influences coming from western Europe. The mildest areas are along the Baltic coast, but even here the sea can freeze in severe winters. Daily average maximum temperatures at Moscow range from -9 °C in January to 23 °C in July. July is the wettest month on average (88 mm). Winter sunshine is low throughout the region, only one hour per day on average being received. In summer, however, up to ten hours on average are common. Hungary is a totally enclosed country, completely cut off from the moderating influence of the Atlantic Ocean. There are no great differences in weather or climate throughout the country, though there is a considerable difference between winter and summer, and spells of weather tend to persist longer than in more-oceanic climates. Spring and summer are the wettest periods, much of the rain coming in frequent heavy thundery downpours. Summer weather is pleasantly warm or hot, whilst the winters are cold with snow and fog. Indeed, the Danube is often completely frozen during severe spells. Daily average maximum temperatures at Budapest vary from vary from 1 °C in January to 28 °C in July. The wettest month on average is May (72 mm).

15 Eastern Europe: Past weather and climate II The Czech and Slovak Republics are also enclosed countries with a transitional climate between the milder, wetter Atlantic European pattern and the more extreme Russian weather. There is little variability in the weather across the countries, and the longest periods of settled weather occur during calm cold foggy winter spells. Snow may lie for as many as 100 days. Average daily maximum temperatures at Prague vary from 10 °C in January to 33 °C in July. On average, the wettest month is July (68 mm). Romania has a continental-type climate with cold snowy winters and warm summers. Precipitation is normally rather low except in the higher parts of the Carpathians. Spring and summer are the wettest seasons with frequent thunderstorms. The change from winter to summer is rather abrupt, with spring being a short and changeable season. Summers can have up to 10 hours of sunshine a day, but only two hours in a typical winter period. At Bucharest, average daily maximum temperatures vary from 1 °C in January to 30 °C in July and August. June is the wettest month on average (121 mm).

16 Eastern Europe: Past weather and climate III Most of Poland has a similar climate and the same sequence of weather throughout the year. Precipitation is well distributed throughout the year, with a summer maximum of rain, often heavy and thundery. Much of the winter precipitation is snow, which can lie for up to 100 days in the Carpathians. In summer, it rarely gets hot, but fine spells of sunny weather and occasional droughts occur. At Warsaw, daily average maximum temperatures vary from 0 °C in winter to 24 °C in summer. The wettest month on average is July (96 mm).

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