3 II. The Rebirth of Conservatism The LibertariansTo “libertarian” conservatives, freedom meant individual autonomy, limited government, and unregulated capitalismThese ideas had great appeal in the rapidly growing South and WestMilton Friedman identified the free market as the necessary foundation for individual liberty
4 II. The Rebirth of Conservatism (con’t) The New Conservatism“New conservatism” became increasingly prominent in the 1950sProponents insisted that toleration of difference offered no substitute for the search for absolute truthThe “new conservatives” understood freedom as first and foremost a moral conditionThe conservative movement was divided between libertarians and “new conservatives”
5 II. The Rebirth of Conservatism (con’t) Two powerful enemies became focal points for the conservative revivalThe Soviet Union abroadThe federal government at homeThe Conservative 1960sWith the founding in 1960 of Young Americans for Freedom (YAF), conservative students emerged as a force in politicsSharon Statement
6 II. The Rebirth of Conservatism (con’t) Conservatism and RaceThe funds that poured into the Goldwater campaign from the Sun Belt’s oilmen and aerospace entrepreneurs established a new financial base for conservatismA reaction against civil rights gains offered conservatives new opportunities and threatened the stability of the Democratic coalition“Southern strategy”
7 III. President Nixon Nixon’s Domestic Policies Having won the presidency by a very narrow margin, Nixon moved toward the political center on many issuesThe Nixon administration created a host of new federal agenciesEPAOSHANTSBNixon spent lavishly on social services and environmental initiatives
8 III. President Nixon (con’t) Nixon and WelfarePerhaps Nixon’s most startling initiative was his proposal for a Family Assistance PlanThe plan would have replaced AFDC with a guaranteed annual income but failed in Congress
9 III. President Nixon (con’t) Nixon and RaceTo consolidate support in the white South, Nixon nominated to the Supreme Court conservative southern jurists with records of support for segregationBoth were rejected by the SenateThe Nixon administration also pursued “affirmative action” programs to upgrade minority employmentPhiladelphia PlanTrade union of skilled workers strongly opposed the Philadelphia Plan
10 III. President Nixon (con’t) The Burger CourtWarren Burger was expected to lead the justices in a conservative direction but surprised many of his supportersIn Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, busing was used as a tool to achieve integrationBostonIn San Antonio v. Rodriguez, a 5-4 Court majority ruled that the Constitution did not require equality of school funding
11 III. President Nixon (con’t) The Court and Affirmative ActionMany whites came to view affirmative action programs as a form of “reverse discrimination”In Bakke the Court ruled that fixed quotas was unconstitutional but that race could be used as one factor among many in college admissions decisionsThe Continuing Sexual RevolutionTo the alarm of conservatives during the 1970s the sexual revolution passed from the counterculture into the social mainstreamThe figure for divorces in 1975 exceeded the number of first-time marriages
12 III. President Nixon (con’t) Women made inroads into areas from which they had long been excluded in the 1970sTitle IXEqual Credit Opportunity ActMore employment opportunitiesThe gay and lesbian movement expanded greatly during the 1970s and became a major concern of the RightNixon and DétenteConservatives viewed Nixon’s foreign policy as dangerously “soft” on communism
13 III. President Nixon (con’t) Nixon and Henry Kissinger continued their predecessors’ policy of attempting to undermine governments deemed dangerous to American strategic or economic interestsChileIn his relation with the major Communist powers, however, Nixon fundamentally altered Cold War policiesNixon visited China in 1972Nixon then went to Moscow, signing SALTDétente
14 IV. Vietnam and Watergate Nixon and VietnamNixon ran for president in 1968, declaring that he had a “secret plan” to end the warVietnamizationAntiwar protests climaxed in 1970Kent State and Jackson State UniversitiesPublic support for the war was rapidly waningMy Lai massacreWar Powers Act of 1973
15 IV. Vietnam and Watergate (con’t) The End of the Vietnam WarThe Paris peace agreement made possible the final withdrawal of American troops in 1973Vietnam was a military, political, and social disasterWatergateNixon was obsessed with secrecy and could not accept honest difference of opinionPentagon Papers led to the “plumbers”The Watergate break-in was covered up by the White HouseNixon’s tapes
16 IV. Vietnam and Watergate (con’t) Nixon’s FallIn August 1974, the House Judiciary Committee voted to recommend that Nixon be impeached for conspiracy to obstruct justiceNixon resignedNixon’s presidency remains a classic example of the abuse of political powerFrank Church led investigations against the CIAChurch Committee revelations seriously undermined Americans’ confidence in their own government
17 IV. Vietnam and Watergate (con’t) Liberals, who had despised Nixon throughout his career, celebrated his downfallFoundations of liberalism were weakened
18 V. The End of the Golden Age The Decline of ManufacturingDuring the 1970s, the long period of postwar economic expansion and consumer prosperity came to an end, succeeded by slow growth and high inflationIn 1971, for the first time in the twentieth century, the United States experienced a merchandise trade deficitNixon took the United States off the gold standard
19 V. The End of the Golden Age (con’t) StagflationThe United States experienced two oil shocks in the 1970sBy 1973 the United States imported one-third of its oilAmerica experienced “stagflation”Misery indexThe Beleaguered Social CompactFaced with declining profits and rising overseas competition, corporations eliminated well-paid manufacturing jobsThe effects on industrial cities were devastatingGrowth of cities in the Sun Belt was dramatic
20 V. The End of the Golden Age (con’t) In some manufacturing centers, political and economic leaders welcomed the opportunity to remake their cities as finance, information, and entertainment hubsAlways a junior partner in the Democratic coalition, the labor movement found itself forced onto the defensiveFord as PresidentAmong his first acts as president, Ford pardoned NixonIn domestic policy, Ford’s presidency lacked significant accomplishmentWINThe Helsinki Accords were signed in 1975
21 V. The End of the Golden Age (con’t) The Carter AdministrationCarter ran for president as an “outsider,” making a virtue of the fact that he had never held federal officeCarter had more in common with Progressives of the early twentieth century than more recent liberalsCarter and the Economic CrisisCarter viewed inflation, not unemployment, as the country’s main economic problemCarter also believed that expanded use of nuclear energy could help reduce dependence on imported oilThree Mile Island
22 V. The End of the Golden Age (con’t) Carter and Human RightsCarter insisted that foreign policy could not be separated from “questions of justice, equality, and human rights”Carter’s emphasis on pursuing peaceful solutions to international problems and his willingness to think outside the Cold War framework yielded important resultsCamp David AccordPanama CanalSALT II
23 V. The End of the Golden Age (con’t) Both conservative Cold Warriors and foreign policy “realists” severely criticized Carter’s emphasis on human rightsThe Iran CrisisThe Iranian revolution marked a shift in opposition movements in the Middle East from socialism and Arab nationalism to religious fundamentalismAfghanistanThe president announced the Carter Doctrine in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
24 VI. The Rising Tide of Conservatism The Religious RightThe rise of religious fundamentalism during the 1970s expanded conservatism’s popular baseEvangelical Christians had become more and more alienated from a culture that seemed to them to trivialize religion and promote immoralityJerry Falwell and the Moral Majority
25 VI. The Rising Tide of Conservatism (con’t) The ERA BattleThe ERA aroused unexpected protest from those who claimed it would discredit the role of wife and homemakerTo its supporters, the Amendment offered a guarantee of women’s freedom in the public sphereTo its foes, freedom for women still resided in the divinely appointed roles of wife and motherPhyllis Schlafly
26 VI. The Rising Tide of Conservatism (con’t) The Abortion ControversyPro-life advocates believed that life begins at conception and abortion is nothing less than murderPro-choice advocates believed that a woman’s right to control her body includes the right to a safe, legal abortionThe abortion issue drew a bitter, sometimes violent line through American politics
27 VI. The Rising Tide of Conservatism (con’t) The Tax RevoltEconomic anxieties also created a growing constituency for conservative economicsIt inspired a critique of governmentEconomic decline also broadened the constituency receptive to demands for lower taxesProposition 13
28 VI. The Rising Tide of Conservatism (con’t) The Election of 1980Reagan appealed skillfully to “white backlash”Emphasized states’ rightsRiding a wave of dissatisfaction with the country’s condition, Reagan swept into the White HouseJimmy Carter’s reputation improved after he left the White House
29 VII. The Reagan Revolution Reagan and American FreedomAn excellent public speaker, Reagan’s optimism and affability appealed to large numbers of AmericansReagan made conservatism seem progressiveFreedom became the watchword of the Reagan RevolutionReagan reshaped the nation’s agenda and political language more effectively than any other president since Franklin D. Roosevelt
30 VII. The Reagan Revolution (con’t) ReaganomicsEconomic freedom for Reagan meant curtailing the power of union, dismantling regulations, and radically reducing taxesReagan’s tax cuts marked a sharp retreat from the principle of progressivity“Supply-side economics” assumed that cutting taxes would inspire Americans at all income levels to work harder, since they would keep more of the money they earned
31 VII. The Reagan Revolution (con’t) Reagan and LaborReagan’s firing of striking air traffic controllers inspired many private employers to launch anti-union offensives“Reaganomics,” as critics dubbed the administration’s policies, initially produced the most severe recession since the 1930s
32 VII. The Reagan Revolution (con’t) The Problem of InequalityReagan’s policies, rising stock prices, and deindustrialization resulted in a considerable rise in economic inequalityDeindustrialization and the decline of the labor movement had a particularly devastating impact on minority workersWhen the national unemployment rate reached 8.9 percent at the end of 1981, the figure for blacks exceeded 20 percent
33 VII. The Reagan Revolution (con’t) The Second Gilded AgeIn retrospect, the 1980s, like the 1890s, would be widely remembered as a decade of misplaced valuesTaxpayers footed the bill for some of the consequencesS & L scandalDuring Reagan’s presidency, the national debt rose to $2.7 trillionConservatives and ReaganReagan left intact core elements of the welfare state and did little to advance the social agenda of the Christian Right
34 VII. The Reagan Revolution (con’t) Reagan and the Cold WarIn foreign policy, Reagan breathed new life into the rhetorical division of the world into a free West and unfree EastHe proposed an entirely new strategy, the Strategic Defense InitiativeReagan came into office determined to overturn the “Vietnam syndrome”Reagan generally relied on military aid rather than American troops to pursue his foreign policy objectives
35 VII. The Reagan Revolution (con’t) The Iran-Contra AffairReagan denied knowledge of the illegal proceedings, but the Iran-Contra affair undermined confidence that he controlled his own administrationReagan and GorbachevIn his second term, Reagan softened his anticommunist rhetoric and established good relations with Soviet premier Mikhail GorbachevGlasnost and perestroika
36 VII. The Reagan Revolution (con’t) Reagan’s LegacyReagan’s presidency revealed the contradictions at the heart of modern conservatismBy 1988 “liberal” was a term of political abuseThe Election of 1988The 1988 election seemed to show politics sinking to new lows
40 The United States in the Caribbean and Central America, 1954–2004 The United States in the Caribbean and Central America, 1954–2004 • pg. 1062The United States in the Caribbean and Central America, 1954–2004
46 fig26_01.jpgPages : Nancy Reagan leads the cheering for her husband, President Ronald Reagan, at the 1984 Republican national convention. Reagan went on to defeat Democrat Walter Mondale, carrying forty-nine of the fifty states.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
47 fig26_02.jpgPage 1027: A 1967 rally by members of Young Americans for Freedom, a conservative group that flourished in the 1960s.Credit: UPI/Corbis-Bettmann.
48 fig26_07.jpgPage 1038: In 1971, in one of the most dramatic demonstrations of the entire era, hundreds of veterans deposited on the steps of the Capitol medals they had received while fighting in Vietnam.Credit: Leonard Freed / Magnum.
49 fig26_10.jpgPage 1044: The World Trade Center under construction in New York City during the 1970s.Credit: Associated Press, AP.
50 fig26_11.jpgPage 1047: The 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear plant in Pennsylvania brought a halt to the industry’s expansion.Credit: J. L. Atlas/Corbis/Sygma.
51 fig26_12.jpgPage 1048: President Jimmy Carter (center), Egyptian president Anwar Sadat (left) and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin (right) celebrating the signing of the 1979 peace treaty between Israel and Egypt.Credit: Associated Press, AP.
52 fig26_13.jpgPage 1049: Television gave extensive coverage to the plight of American hostages in Iran in 1979–1980, leading many Americans to view the Carter administration as weak and inept.Credit: Associated Press, AP.
53 fig26_16.jpgPage 1052 (top): Conservative Phyllis Schlafly campaigning against the Equal Rights Amendment at the Illinois State Capitol in 1978.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
54 fig26_17.jpgPage 1052 (bottom): A 1979 anti-abortion rally in Washington, D.C., on the sixth anniversary of the Supreme Court’s decision in Roe v. Wade, which barred states from limiting a woman’s right to terminate a pregnancy.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
55 fig26_18.jpgPage 1053: Demonstrators at a rally supporting abortion rights.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
56 fig26_25.jpgPage 1064: President Reagan visited Moscow in 1988, cementing his close relationship with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. They were photographed in Red Square.Credit: Associated Press, AP.
58 Give Me Liberty! An American History End chap. 26W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-OwnedThis concludes the Norton Media LibrarySlide Set for Chapter 26Give Me Liberty!An American HistorybyEric Foner