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Florin Moisa, PhD Resource Center for Roma Communities Improvement of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusion.

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Presentation on theme: "Florin Moisa, PhD Resource Center for Roma Communities Improvement of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Florin Moisa, PhD Resource Center for Roma Communities Improvement of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusion

2 Roma public policy milestones National Roma Integration Strategy National Roma Integration Strategy The EU Framework Strategy for Roma (2011) – EC, EP, European Council New - Governmental Strategy for Improvement of the Condition of Roma WGRA Policy Recommendation I - Antidiscrimination perspective Policy Recommendation I - Antidiscrimination perspective 2000 GOV/DPNM Strategic Framework for Improvement of the Condition of Roma Poverty alleviation/Antidiscrimination perspective Strategic Framework for Improvement of the Condition of Roma Poverty alleviation/Antidiscrimination perspective FFCR Policy Recommendation II - Antidiscrimination perspective Policy Recommendation II - Antidiscrimination perspective GOV/Min. Public Inf./NAR Governmental Strategy for Improvement of the Condition of Roma Antidiscrimination Poverty alleviation Social Inclusion Antidiscrimination Social Inclusion WGRA Policy Recommendation I - Antidiscrimination perspective Policy Recommendation I - Antidiscrimination perspective 2000 GOV/DPNM 2011 National Roma Integration Strategy National Roma Integration Strategy The EU Framework Strategy for Roma (2011) – EC, EP, European Council

3 "An EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies up to 2020", COM(2011)173 of 5 April 2011 Member States to prepare or revise National Roma Integration Strategies in order to address more effectively the challenges of Roma inclusion to tangibly improve the situation by the end of the current decade. The endorsement of the Framework by EU Heads of States and Governments indicated that Roma inclusion is becoming an important priority for the all Member States, despite the economic and financial crisis Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

4 The EU Framework Strategy for Roma (2011) „ensure that national, regional and local integration policies focus on Roma in a clear and specific way, and address the needs of Roma with explicit measures to prevent and compensate for disadvantages they face. A targeted approach, within the broader strategy to fight against poverty and exclusion – which does not exclude other vulnerable and deprived group from support – is compatible with the principle of non- discrimination both at EU and national level.. ….” Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

5 The EU Framework Strategy for Roma (2011) Areas: Education Health Employment Housing + Antidiscrimination Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

6 The EU Framework Strategy for Roma (2011) The Member States have the primary responsibility and the competences to change the situation of marginalised populations, so action to support Roma lies first and foremost in their hands. To support them in addressing this situation, the EU has made available a wide range of legal, policy and financial instruments. Although specific national circumstances, needs and required solutions vary greatly across Europe, the shared values of freedom of movement and fundamental rights and the common objectives of political stability, economic prosperity, social cohesion and solidarity between Member States call for a European role in policies for Roma integration. Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

7 The EC 's assessment of the National Roma Integration Strategies Member States are making efforts to develop a comprehensive approach towards Roma integration. However, much more needs to be done at national level. Socio-economic inclusion of Roma remains first and foremost the responsibility of the Member States and they will need stronger efforts to live up to their responsibilities, by adopting more concrete measures, explicit targets for measurable deliverables, clearly earmarked funding at national level and a sound national monitoring and evaluation system. Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

8 The EC 's assessment of the National Roma Integration Strategies Continue regular bilateral dialogue with the Commission and relevant stakeholders in order to ensure that National Strategies and action plans are coherent with EU laws and policies and with the specific national situation, including mainstream policies and public sector reforms, and take into account the impacts of the economic crisis; ensure effective use of both national and European funds; promote and monitor concrete implementation of the strategies Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

9 The EC 's assessment of the National Roma Integration Strategies Involve regional and local authorities Member States need to ensure that the implementation of the strategies is coherent with regional and local plans. Regional and local authorities are indispensable for delivering change and need to be fully on board when the strategies are reviewed and implemented. In addition, the Commission will further promote exchanges of experience and networking among regional and local authorities. Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

10 The EC 's assessment of the National Roma Integration Strategies Work closely with civil society Civil society, and in particular Roma organisations, should not be considered as passive recipients of change, but should be called upon to play an active role in generating it. They must play a crucial role in bringing Roma people on board and in building trust between majorities and minorities. Member States must take the necessary measures to secure the participation of civil society in the review, implementation and monitoring of their national strategies. Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

11 The EC 's assessment of the National Roma Integration Strategies Allocate proportionate financial resources Member States need to allocate sufficient resources for the implementation of NRIS, as this reflects Member States' ambitions. Actions included in these strategies will also form part of the Structural Funds and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development negotiations for the programming period. The Cohesion Policy Framework includes a minimum allocation for social inclusion and poverty, and ex-ante conditionality requirements making Structural Funds investments conditional upon the existence of a NRIS in line with the EU Framework. Improveme nt of the Roma condition Public Policie s Social Inclusio n

12 The EC 's assessment of the National Roma Integration Strategies Monitor transformation and enable policy adjustment National Reform Programmes within the European semester will be scrutinised for coherence with NRIS and, where appropriate, references to Roma integration will be made in the Country-Specific Recommendations, in order to guide the relevant Member States towards further progress. In future years, in proportion to their Roma populations, Member States are asked to systematically address the issue of Roma inclusion in their National Reform Programmes. Improvem ent of the Roma condition Public Policie s Social Inclusi on

13 The EC 's assessment of the National Roma Integration Strategies Fight discrimination convincingly Member States need to ensure that anti-discrimination legislation is effectively enforced in their territories. When reporting in 2013 on the application of the EU's Race Equality Directive (2000/43/EC), the Commission will address legal issues with a particular emphasis on those aspects relevant to Roma integration. Improvem ent of the Roma condition Public Policie s Social Inclusi on

14 Public Policy Cycle Consultation Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

15 Roma Diversity Category Display of traditional characteristics Self- identificatio n as Roma Hetero- identificatio n as Roma Estimated need for social intervention A.Roma who display all the traditional ethnic characteristics and who identify themselves as Roma in all contexts; Traditional Yes, in all contexts YesHigh A.Roma who display all the traditional ethnic characteristics, and whom others identify as Roma, but who identify themselves as such only in an informal context, not in official administrative contexts; Traditional / Nontraditional Only in informal context YesMedium/ Low A.“Modernised” Roma, who thus no longer display the visible indicators of the traditional way of life, but who identify themselves as Roma, both in formal and informal contexts; Nontraditional Yes, in all contexts YesLow A.“Modernised” Roma, who tend no longer to identify themselves as Roma, or who do so on intermittent basis, and whom others may or may not identify as Roma; NontraditionalNoYes/NoLow A.“Former Roma” who are completely integrated into the majority population and who no longer identify themselves as Roma. NontraditionalNo Low Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

16 The Strategy of the Government of Romania for the Inclusion of Romanian Citizens Belonging to the Roma Minority for the Period NRIS adopted in December 2011 In 2009 the Presidential Commission for the Analysis of Social and Demographic Risks: “a genuine and constant political approach to the challenges of ensuring equal opportunity policies for the Roma minority”. This recommendation is hardly reflected in the text of the actual NRIS and it remains a goal to be achieved considering the limited political capacity of the Roma community to act as a strong and reliable partner in relation to public bodies. Improvem ent of the Roma condition Public Policie s Social Inclusi on

17 NRIS Romania NRIS lacks a baseline study and clear indicators for monitoring progress - size of population, geographic distribution and specific problems faced by Roma. During 2012 there were almost no new developments related to the NRIS, no systemic actions were organized to discuss and analyze the NRIS, and, more importantly, there were no clear actions taken towards the implementation of the new Strategy. Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

18 NRIS Romania There is no clear allocation of financial resources for the implementation of the NRIS. Practically, the NRIS measures already in place have been the ones implemented on a regular basis by the Ministries, all preceding the passing of the NRIS. The National Agency for Roma (NAR), is responsible for “applying, coordinating, monitoring and evaluating the sectorial social intervention measures that are part of the Romanian Governmental Strategy for the Improvement of the Condition of Roma” and is acting as the “secretariat of the Mixed Committee for the Implementation and Monitoring of the Strategy”. Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

19 NRIS Romania There is no clear allocation of financial resources for the implementation of the NRIS. Practically, the NRIS measures already in place have been the ones implemented on a regular basis by the Ministries, all preceding the passing of the NRIS. The National Agency for Roma (NAR), is responsible for “applying, coordinating, monitoring and evaluating the sectorial social intervention measures that are part of the Romanian Governmental Strategy for the Improvement of the Condition of Roma” and is acting as the “secretariat of the Mixed Committee for the Implementation and Monitoring of the Strategy”. Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

20 NRIS Romania The participation of Roma civil society organizations in the NRIS is still an unresolved issue. Even the process of elaboration of the NRIS was a rather superficial one. Very few suggestions and comments provided by a large group of NGOs were considered and can be found in the final version of the NRIS adopted by the Government in December 2011 The NRIS aims to “make local and central public authorities, the Roma minority and civil society responsible for the increase of the level of social and economic inclusion of Romanian citizens belonging to the Roma minority”. Due to the fact that NRIS is a public policy document of the Romanian government, there is an expectation that governmental bodies will take responsibility for transforming provisions of the document into practice and not to put the responsibility on Roma civil society. Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

21 NRIS Romania The analysis of the NRIS according to the Public Policy standards are leading us to conclude that there are multiple problems with the new policy document. The NRIS does not meet the requirements of the aforementioned decision, generating significant difficulties for its implementation and monitoring. The Action Plans of a public policy document also need to comply with certain standards. The simple review of NRIS action plans proved that they were not elaborated according to these standards and they cannot be implemented according to existing provisions. Moreover, the NRIS falls short of the European Union’s requirements as outlined in the EC (April 2011) Communication. Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

22 Recommendations to Romanian government Rely on The 10 Common Basic Principles of Roma Inclusion in the elaboration of any public policy document, in line with the request of the Council of Ministers in charge of Social Affairs to the Member States and the Commission. Carry out an external, independent evaluation of the implementation results of previous policy documents (the Strategy for Improving the Roma Condition – 2001, 2006) as a basis for revising and implementing the NRIS. Revise the NRIS to meet all the specific standards for the elaboration of the Strategy as a public policy document under Romanian law; review the main sections of the NRIS in order to extract the general issues and keep the focus of the document on specific Roma areas – education, health, employment and housing. Limit to 4-6 the directions for action and also reduce the number of specific measures in order to ensure a proper allocation of responsibilities, budgets and monitoring and evaluation of results. Allocate sufficient financial resources from the national budget for the implementation of the NRIS and enable the supplementation of these resources with international and EU funds, in particular structural funds, as stipulated by the EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies up to Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

23 Recommendations to the relevant EU bodies Identify and put in place control mechanisms of the European Commission in the elaboration of NRIS at a level that fully complies with the standards for the elaboration of public policy documents established by individual Member States. Elaborate a road map agreement between the European Commission and national governments, with clear objectives to be accomplished through NRISs. Design an effective monitoring and evaluation mechanism for the implementation of the EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies up to 2020 to ensure that its provisions are put into practice. Initiate a debate with EU Member States on the collection of disaggregated ethnic data by Eurostat and national statistical institutions and on the identification of solutions for the systematic collection of data on Roma, respecting human rights standards as regards privacy. Use financial resources for the next programming period, , in order to allocate substantial funds for Roma social inclusion, particularly through integrated projects that address the vulnerabilities of Roma communities in a comprehensive manner. In the context of a very small absorption rate by Romania of structural funds between , identify appropriate mechanisms for the direct provision of funds from the European Commission for integration programs / projects. Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

24 Recommendations to Romanian government Redesign the entire implementation mechanism of the NRIS, including the role of the National Agency for Roma in the larger context created by the EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies up to Ensure that a systematic data collection process on the situation of the Roma is in place, in order to follow the progress of the NRIS. Involve and make responsible the National Institute for Statistics, in design and collection of relevant data on Roma situation. Take the required steps to ensure the access to full citizenship of Romanian citizens of Roma ethnicity, mainly through facilitating their access to identity documents and through reducing the bureaucratic steps necessary for registering all undocumented individuals. Promote role models of Roma ethnicity in society through public campaigns and actively promote the benefits of Roma inclusion among Roma and non-Roma communities. Initiate genuine consultations with civil society when prioritizing funding or measures funded through the European Social Fund (ESF) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). GD 870/2006 for the approval of the Strategy for improving the development, coordination and planning of public policies at central government level, Annex, Section II, Lines of Action, 1.1. Types of policy documents. Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

25 Recommendations for the Roma civil society Consistent participation in the consultation process with the public authorities in developing and implementing public policies for Roma. Participation in the public debate on Roma, encourage prompt responses in case of negative events in the context of economic crisis, which may lead to exacerbation of negative attitudes and behavior towards Roma. Initiate, in partnership with other organizations and institutions, integrated pilot projects that can be afterwards replicated, taken over by the public administration structures. Including in the current programs run of the research activities on the situation of Roma communities to support the substantiation of the future intervention. To constantly demand transparent consultation with the governmental representatives, as well as to promote their best practices to be scale-up through the public policies. Increase the intensity of the NGOs’ activities on lobby and advocacy activities in order to pressure governmental structures in adopting clear plans of measures on improving the health status of Roma. Increase the NGOs' involvement in civic activities that stresses the impact of problems associated with stereotype and discriminatory attitudes of health professionals in relation to Roma patients in order to reduce inequalities in access to health services. Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n

26 Recommendations for the national and international donors Identification of financial resources to be allocated for strengthening of the Roma participation, through grant schemes that will include capacity building, project management, monitoring, evaluation, advocacy. Collaborating with relevant national authorities and with EU structures in order to maximize the use of funds especially in areas where the governmental interventions are weak. Identification of funding mechanisms for covering, through reimbursable grants, the participation of civil society organizations to partnership projects funded through Structural Funds. Improvemen t of the Roma condition Public Policies Social Inclusio n


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