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The Ferment of Reform and Culture

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1 The Ferment of Reform and Culture
“We (Americans) will walk on our own feet; we will work with our own hands; we will speak with our own minds” Ralph Waldo Emerson, “The American Scholar,” 1837

2 *The Second Great Awakening
1850- ¾ of 23 million Americans attended church regularly Alexis de Tocqueville noted that there was “ no country in the world where the Christian religion retains a greater influence over the souls of men than in America.” What led to the Second Great Awakening? Calvinist doctrine- “original sin” & “predestination” had been waning since the Revolution. Founding Fathers like Franklin & Jefferson had embraced Deism (relied on reason rather than revelation, on science rather than the Bible). Deists: rejected concept of original sin, denied Christ’s divinity, believed in a Supreme Being who created the universe, believed that God gave humans capacity for moral behavior.

3 The Second Great Awakening Begins
The Unitarians Deists inspired- spinoff of Puritanism began in New England at end of eighteenth century God existed in one person– not three humans were essentially good, had free will, could obtain salvation through good works Ralph Waldo Emerson was a Unitarian The Second Great Awakening Begins reaction against the liberalism that had infiltrated religion 1800 Effects of the Awakening: converted souls, reorganized or shattered churches, numerous new sects, evangelicalism that exhibited itself in several areas: temperance, prison reform, abolition, and the women’s movement. Characteristics & Adherents of the Awakening spread through camp meetings in which itinerant preachers preached to hundreds or thousands = boosted church membership = increased humanitarianism Baptists & Methodists reaped the most abundant harvest of souls (personal conversion, democratic control of church affairs, emotionlaism).

4 Revivalist Preachers Features of the Second Great Awakening
Peter Cartwright ( ): best known Methodist “circuit rider”; preached for 50 years in Tenn. To Illinois. Charles Grandison Finney: greatest of all revivalist preachers; led revivals in NY City & Rochester in 1830 & 1831. Utilized the “anxious bench” encouraged women to pray aloud in public= greater role in church Believed that in Christian Kingdom on earth: denounced slavery & alcohol became president of Oberlin College in Ohio (which opened its doors to women & Blacks as well as white males). Features of the Second Great Awakening Led to the feminization of religion (middle class women most likely to stay committed after preachers left town) Evangelicals preached about: female worth & role in bringing husbands & children back to God women played a key role in Reform movements of the 1820’s-1860’s

5 “soul-shaking” conversion
Charles G. Finney (1792 – 1895) The ranges of tents, the fires, reflecting light…; the candles and lamps illuminating the encampment; hundreds moving to and fro…;the preaching, praying, singing, and shouting,… like the sound of many waters, was enough to swallow up all the powers of contemplation. “soul-shaking” conversion R1-2

6 The “Burned Over District” & a New Sect
Western NY = “Burned over District” because so many revivalist preachers had sermonized there. 1830’s- the “Millerites” or Adventists formed in the region; William Miller interpreted Bible –Christ would return to earth on Oct. 22, 1844. Denominational Diversity the Awakening widened lines between classes & religions= Eastern religions which were conservative & prosperous were less affected by revivalism Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, & Unitarians continued to rise based on wealthier, better educated classes Methodists, Baptists and other sects had swelling membership from less prosperous, less learned in South & West. Methodists & Baptists split with Northern brothers over slavery

7 “The Benevolent Empire”: 1825 - 1846

8 The “Burned-Over” District in Upstate New York

9 Second Great Awakening Revival Meeting

10 The Mormons- Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
rose from the “Burned Over District”- western NY 1830 Joseph Smith founded the faith; based on the Book of Mormon faced opposition in Ohio, Missouri, & Illinois 1844- Joseph Smith & his brother were killed by a mob in Illinois Brigham Young led Mormons to Utah (Mormon Trail) ,000 settlers had arrived; made oasis of Utah based on cooperation 1850 Brigham Young named territorial governor by US Government 1857- US Army marched against Mormons in Utah Congress passed a series of anti-polygamy laws 1862 & 1882 1896- Utah made a state

11 The Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints)
1823  Golden Tablets 1830  Book of Mormon 1844  Murdered in Carthage, IL Joseph Smith ( )

12 Violence Against Mormons

13 The Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints)
Deseret community. Salt Lake City, Utah Brigham Young ( )

14 The Mormon “Trek”

15 1. The Second Great Awakening
“Spiritual Reform From Within” [Religious Revivalism] Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality Temperance Education Abolitionism Asylum & Penal Reform Women’s Rights

16 The Rise of Popular Religion
In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America, I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country… Religion was the foremost of the political institutions of the United States. -- Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832 R1-1

17 Education Reform Tax- supported public schools were scarce in early US history had the “odor of pauperism” = existed chiefly to educate the children of the poor WHAT CHANGED?? Well to do citizens changed attitude= taxation for education was essential for stability & democracy universal manhood suffrage= voters demanded free education tax-supported public schools cropped up in the North = little red schoolhouse was centerpiece early schools: stayed open only a few months per year, school teachers were mostly men who were ill trained & poorly paid (more “licken” than “larnin”), focused mainly on the three R’s. Education Innovators Horace Mann ( ): Sec of Mass Board of Education; called for better teacher pay, longer school year, more & better school houses, mandatory attendance.= most states initiated his reforms. Noah Webster ( ): Yale graduate; “Schoolmaster of the Republic”-developed reading lessons used by millions designed to promote patriotism.

18 3. William McGuffey ( ): developed a grade school reader (McGuffey Reader) ; sold 122 million copies which taught morality, patriotism, idealism. Higher Education Second Great Awakening led to the creation of many small, denominational, liberal arts colleges in the South & West-mainly. offered a narrow curriculum which taught: Latin, Greek, mathematics, & moral philosophy= little intellectual vitality= boredom. first state supported universities sprang up in the South University of North Carolina (1795): oldest state (PUBLIC) supported university 2.University of Virginia (1819): land grant college- designed by Thomas Jefferson. Women & Higher Education Early part of nineteenth century seen as a waste; too much education was considered dangerous for women (Susan B. Anthony). Emma Willard ( ): established the Troy (NY) Female Seminary; secondary schools for girls sprang up in the 1820’s.

19 Other Educational Opportunities
2. Mary Lyon: Mount Holyoke Seminary in Mass Other Educational Opportunities Public libraries or private subscription libraries Lyceum lecture associations- by 1835 numbered about 3,000; traveling lecturers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson Magazines: North American Review (1851) read by intellectuals ; Godey’s Lady’s Book ( ) read mainly by women.

20 The Prison Reform and Mental Insanity
Reform & Reformers inspired by Second Great Awakening- encouraged countless souls to do battle against earthly evils. Puritan ideals of a “perfected” society Middle- class Women were the impetus of reform The Prison Reform and Mental Insanity Debtor’s Prisons- hundreds of poor imprisoned; after universal manhood suffrage= states abolished debtor’s prisons. States softened penal codes= number of capital offenses reduced Idea of prison as a means of reform became common= “houses of correction” or “penitentiaries” 2. Mentally Insane: those with insanity treated with cruelty (chained in jails or poor houses). Dorothea Dixx ( ): NE teacher-author; traveled 60,000 miles in 8 years; assembled reports on treatment of mentally insane= her reports caused wide spread reform in treatment of mentally ill. William Ladd: pushed ideas of peace; 1828 American Peace Society created= forerunner of 20th century peace organizations.

21 The Temperance Movement
Reformers called for laws & reduction in alcoholic consumption—AMERICANS DRANK TOO HEAVILY heavy drinking affected productivity & corrupted the sanctity of the home American Temperance Society (1826) formed in Boston; about 1000 similar groups sprang up. members asked to sign temperance pledge; organized children’s clubs “Cold Water Army” Two methods to reduce drinking: strengthen individual’s will & remove drinking by legislation. Neal S. Dow: “ Father of Prohibition”; mayor of Portland, Maine. introduced 1851 Maine law prohibited the sale & manufacture of alcohol. about a dozen laws passed in various Northern states by many were repealed within ten years.


23 ** 1848 Seneca Falls Convention
Women’s Rights Movement women identified with black slaves: could not vote, legally beaten by a lord (husband), could not own property once married. many women avoided marriage (10% were unmarried at start of Civil War) market economy was separating men & women into distinct economic roles the home was the centerpiece of woman’s sphere= “cult of domesticity” Female reformers gained strength at mid-century Leading women reformers: Lucretia Mott (Quaker) Elizabeth Cady Stanton (mother of seven) Susan B. Anthony (Quaker) militant lecturer for women's rights (‘Suzy B’s”) Other feminists Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell- 1st graduate of medical college Margaret Fuller- edited a transcendentalist journal The Dial; took part in revolt in Italy & died upon her return to the US 1851. ** 1848 Seneca Falls Convention led by Lucretia Mott & Elizabeth Cady Stanton issued the Declaration of Sentiments- “ all men and women are created equal…” Demanded the right to vote Beginning of the modern women’s rights movement


25 Utopian Societies more than 40 communities of a cooperative nature or “communistic” nature were established New Harmony: set up by Robert Owen, a wealthy Scottish textile manufacturer in Indiana. 1000 people; little harmony existed Brook Farm: (Mass) community set on 200 acres in 1841 established by 20 transcendentalists. Prospered until fire destroyed a large building= debt =collapse 3. Oneida Community: (NY) 1848; practiced “free love” (complex marriage), birth control, eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring. lasted 30 years- due to artisans who made steel traps & Oneida Community silver plates. 4. The Shakers (1770’s): led by Mother Ann Lee; set up about 20 religious communities= membership of 6,000 by 1840. Longest –lived sects- but customs prevented marriage & sexual relations= extinct by 1940.


27 Shaker Meeting

28 Shaker Hymn 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'Tis the gift to be free, 'Tis the gift to come down where you ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, 'Till by turning, turning we come round right.

29 Shaker Simplicity & Utility

30 Science, Art, and Literature
Americans best known for borrowing & adapting European findings Nathaniel Bowditch ( ) mathematician; wrote about practical navigation. Mathew Maury ( )- oceanographer Benjamin Silliman ( )- chemistry & geology (Yale) Louis Agazzi ( )- Harvard; biology John Audubon - ornithology medicines- bleeding, “patent medicines” illnesses: smallpox, yellow fever, illnesses due to improper diet, bad teeth, poor sanitation life expectancy: 1850= 40 years old for white- less for blacks Dentistry- blacksmiths EARLY 1840’S- use of laughing gas & ether common for the 1st time

31 2. Art: American artists still went to Europe for training & patrons.
Art & Literature Architecture- Americans still built shelter hastily; imitated European designs. Public Buildings= Greek & Roman designs Greek Revival popular Mid-century= Gothic (pointed arches-large windows) 2. Art: American artists still went to Europe for training & patrons. Gilbert Stuart ( )- (RI) painted GW ; idealized & dehumanized GW. Charles Wilson Peale ( ) (Maryland) 60 portraits of GW (GW sat for about 14) John Trumbull ( ) fought in Am. Rev; painted scenes from the war. Hudson River School: emerged after the War of 1812; nationalistic. Focused on landscapes– not merely human forms Photography- daguerreotype- crude photography invented 1839 by Frenchman.

32 Thomas Cole- Hudson River School of art
Edgar Allen Poe “daguerreotype”

33 The Knickerbocker Group (NY)
Music & Literature Americans sought to shake off the Puritan admonition not to sing non-religious songs. “darky tunes” were popularized by whites by mid-century; minstrel shows which featured whites in “blackface” Stephen C. Foster ( ) Penn; wrote famous “black” songs Literature: “Who reads an American book”? 1820’s British critic Before Federalist Papers, Common Sense, Franklin’s Autobiography After the War of nationalist spirit= boosted genuine American literature. The Knickerbocker Group (NY) Washington Irving ( )NY;1st general writer; used English & American styles did much to explain America to Europe & Europe to America James Fennimore Cooper ( ) first American novelist; tales set in America with American characters.

34 The Transcendentalists
William Cullen Bryant ( ): wrote one of the first high quality poems (“Thanatopsis”) became editor for New York Post. The Transcendentalists Golden age of literature during the 1830’s. centered in NE (Boston) influenced by German Romantic philosophers & religions of Asia major idea: truth transcends the senses-it cannot be observed alone= individualism (self reliance, self culture) every person has an “inner light” that illuminates truth to put him/her in touch with God= dignity of the individual. Ralph Waldo Emerson ( ): “Self Reliance” essay; speech at HARVARD “The American Scholar” Outspoken critic of slavery; supporter of the Union 2. Henry David Thoreau ( ): “Walden”; “On Civil Disobedience”– influenced Gandhi & MLK.

35 3. Walt Whitman ( ) Brooklyn; “Leaves of Grass”; unconventional poet- did away with titles, stanzas, rhymes. Other Poets-Writers Longfellow (popular American poet), John Greenleaf Whittier (anti-slavery crusader), Lowell , Oliver Wendell Holmes, Louisa May Alcott- Little Women, Emily Dickenson (nature, death, immortality) Edgar Allen Poe ( ) Southern writer; eccentric genius. Alcoholic ; wrote the ‘Raven” fascinated by the morbid or ghastly. Nathaniel Hawthorn ( ) (Mass) obsessed with ideas of good v. evil= “Scarlet Letter” Herman Melville ( ) (NY) : “Moby Dick”- allegory good v. evil Historians A distinguished group of historians emerged George Bancroft ( )- “Father of American History”; founded Naval Academy- published super patriotic history of US in 6 volumes early American historians: almost exclusively from NE = had an antislavery- anti-southern bent for generations.

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