Presentation on theme: "The Ferment of Reform and Culture"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Ferment of Reform and Culture “We (Americans) will walk on our own feet; we will work with our own hands; we will speak with our own minds”Ralph Waldo Emerson, “The American Scholar,” 1837
2 *The Second Great Awakening 1850- ¾ of 23 million Americans attended church regularlyAlexis de Tocqueville noted that there was “ no country in the world where the Christian religion retains a greater influence over the souls of men than in America.”What led to the Second Great Awakening?Calvinist doctrine- “original sin” & “predestination” had been waning since the Revolution.Founding Fathers like Franklin & Jefferson had embraced Deism (relied on reason rather than revelation, on science rather than the Bible).Deists: rejected concept of original sin, denied Christ’s divinity, believed in a Supreme Being who created the universe, believed that God gave humans capacity for moral behavior.
3 The Second Great Awakening Begins The UnitariansDeists inspired- spinoff of Puritanismbegan in New England at end of eighteenth centuryGod existed in one person– not threehumans were essentially good, had free will, could obtain salvation through good worksRalph Waldo Emerson was a UnitarianThe Second Great Awakening Beginsreaction against the liberalism that had infiltrated religion 1800Effects of the Awakening: converted souls, reorganized or shattered churches, numerous new sects, evangelicalism that exhibited itself in several areas: temperance, prison reform, abolition, and the women’s movement.Characteristics & Adherents of the Awakeningspread through camp meetings in which itinerant preachers preached to hundreds or thousands = boosted church membership = increased humanitarianismBaptists & Methodists reaped the most abundant harvest of souls (personal conversion, democratic control of church affairs, emotionlaism).
4 Revivalist Preachers Features of the Second Great Awakening Peter Cartwright ( ): best known Methodist “circuit rider”; preached for 50 years in Tenn. To Illinois.Charles Grandison Finney: greatest of all revivalist preachers; led revivals in NY City & Rochester in 1830 & 1831.Utilized the “anxious bench”encouraged women to pray aloud in public= greater role in churchBelieved that in Christian Kingdom on earth: denounced slavery & alcoholbecame president of Oberlin College in Ohio (which opened its doors to women & Blacks as well as white males).Features of the Second Great AwakeningLed to the feminization of religion (middle class women most likely to stay committed after preachers left town)Evangelicals preached about: female worth & role in bringing husbands & children back to Godwomen played a key role in Reform movements of the 1820’s-1860’s
5 “soul-shaking” conversion Charles G. Finney (1792 – 1895)The ranges of tents, the fires, reflecting light…; the candles and lamps illuminating the encampment; hundreds moving to and fro…;the preaching, praying, singing, and shouting,… like the sound of many waters, was enough to swallow up all the powers of contemplation.“soul-shaking” conversionR1-2
6 The “Burned Over District” & a New Sect Western NY = “Burned over District” because so many revivalist preachers had sermonized there.1830’s- the “Millerites” or Adventists formed in the region; William Miller interpreted Bible –Christ would return to earth on Oct. 22, 1844.Denominational Diversitythe Awakening widened lines between classes & religions= Eastern religions which were conservative & prosperous were less affected by revivalismEpiscopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, & Unitarians continued to rise based on wealthier, better educated classesMethodists, Baptists and other sects had swelling membership from less prosperous, less learned in South & West.Methodists & Baptists split with Northern brothers over slavery
10 The Mormons- Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints rose from the “Burned Over District”- western NY1830 Joseph Smith founded the faith; based on the Book of Mormonfaced opposition in Ohio, Missouri, & Illinois1844- Joseph Smith & his brother were killed by a mob in IllinoisBrigham Young led Mormons to Utah (Mormon Trail),000 settlers had arrived; made oasis of Utah based on cooperation1850 Brigham Young named territorial governor by US Government1857- US Army marched against Mormons in UtahCongress passed a series of anti-polygamy laws 1862 & 18821896- Utah made a state
11 The Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) 1823 Golden Tablets1830 Book of Mormon1844 Murdered in Carthage, ILJoseph Smith ( )
15 1. The Second Great Awakening “Spiritual Reform From Within” [Religious Revivalism]Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of EqualityTemperanceEducationAbolitionismAsylum & Penal ReformWomen’s Rights
16 The Rise of Popular Religion In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America, I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country… Religion was the foremost of the political institutions of the United States.-- Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832R1-1
17 Education ReformTax- supported public schools were scarce in early US historyhad the “odor of pauperism” = existed chiefly to educate the children of the poorWHAT CHANGED??Well to do citizens changed attitude= taxation for education was essential for stability & democracyuniversal manhood suffrage= voters demanded free educationtax-supported public schools cropped up in the North = little red schoolhouse was centerpieceearly schools: stayed open only a few months per year, school teachers were mostly men who were ill trained & poorly paid (more “licken” than “larnin”), focused mainly on the three R’s.Education InnovatorsHorace Mann ( ): Sec of Mass Board of Education; called for better teacher pay, longer school year, more & better school houses, mandatory attendance.= most states initiated his reforms.Noah Webster ( ): Yale graduate; “Schoolmaster of the Republic”-developed reading lessons used by millions designed to promote patriotism.
18 3. William McGuffey ( ): developed a grade school reader (McGuffey Reader) ; sold 122 million copies which taught morality, patriotism, idealism.Higher EducationSecond Great Awakening led to the creation of many small, denominational, liberal arts colleges in the South & West-mainly.offered a narrow curriculum which taught: Latin, Greek, mathematics, & moral philosophy= little intellectual vitality= boredom.first state supported universities sprang up in the SouthUniversity of North Carolina (1795): oldest state (PUBLIC) supported university2.University of Virginia (1819): land grant college- designed by Thomas Jefferson.Women & Higher EducationEarly part of nineteenth century seen as a waste; too much education was considered dangerous for women (Susan B. Anthony).Emma Willard ( ): established the Troy (NY) Female Seminary; secondary schools for girls sprang up in the 1820’s.
19 Other Educational Opportunities 2. Mary Lyon: Mount Holyoke Seminary in MassOther Educational OpportunitiesPublic libraries or private subscription librariesLyceum lecture associations- by 1835 numbered about 3,000; traveling lecturers such as Ralph Waldo EmersonMagazines: North American Review (1851) read by intellectuals ; Godey’s Lady’s Book ( ) read mainly by women.
20 The Prison Reform and Mental Insanity Reform & Reformersinspired by Second Great Awakening- encouraged countless souls to do battle against earthly evils.Puritan ideals of a “perfected” societyMiddle- class Women were the impetus of reformThe Prison Reform and Mental InsanityDebtor’s Prisons- hundreds of poor imprisoned; after universal manhood suffrage= states abolished debtor’s prisons.States softened penal codes= number of capital offenses reducedIdea of prison as a means of reform became common= “houses of correction” or “penitentiaries”2. Mentally Insane: those with insanity treated with cruelty (chained in jails or poor houses).Dorothea Dixx ( ): NE teacher-author; traveled 60,000 miles in 8 years; assembled reports on treatment of mentally insane= her reports caused wide spread reform in treatment of mentally ill.William Ladd: pushed ideas of peace; 1828 American Peace Society created= forerunner of 20th century peace organizations.
21 The Temperance Movement Reformers called for laws & reduction in alcoholic consumption—AMERICANS DRANK TOO HEAVILYheavy drinking affected productivity & corrupted the sanctity of the homeAmerican Temperance Society (1826) formed in Boston; about 1000 similar groups sprang up.members asked to sign temperance pledge; organized children’s clubs “Cold Water Army”Two methods to reduce drinking: strengthen individual’s will & remove drinking by legislation.Neal S. Dow: “ Father of Prohibition”; mayor of Portland, Maine.introduced 1851 Maine law prohibited the sale & manufacture of alcohol.about a dozen laws passed in various Northern states by many were repealed within ten years.
23 ** 1848 Seneca Falls Convention Women’s Rights Movementwomen identified with black slaves: could not vote, legally beaten by a lord (husband), could not own property once married.many women avoided marriage (10% were unmarried at start of Civil War)market economy was separating men & women into distinct economic rolesthe home was the centerpiece of woman’s sphere= “cult of domesticity”Female reformers gained strength at mid-centuryLeading women reformers:Lucretia Mott (Quaker)Elizabeth Cady Stanton (mother of seven)Susan B. Anthony (Quaker) militant lecturer for women's rights (‘Suzy B’s”)Other feministsDr. Elizabeth Blackwell- 1st graduate of medical collegeMargaret Fuller- edited a transcendentalist journal The Dial; took part in revolt in Italy & died upon her return to the US 1851.** 1848 Seneca Falls Conventionled by Lucretia Mott & Elizabeth Cady Stantonissued the Declaration of Sentiments- “ all men and women are created equal…”Demanded the right to voteBeginning of the modern women’s rights movement
25 Utopian Societiesmore than 40 communities of a cooperative nature or “communistic” nature were establishedNew Harmony: set up by Robert Owen, a wealthy Scottish textile manufacturer in Indiana.1000 people; little harmony existedBrook Farm: (Mass) community set on 200 acres in 1841 established by 20 transcendentalists.Prospered until fire destroyed a large building= debt =collapse3. Oneida Community: (NY) 1848; practiced “free love” (complex marriage), birth control, eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring.lasted 30 years- due to artisans who made steel traps & Oneida Community silver plates.4. The Shakers (1770’s): led by Mother Ann Lee; set up about 20 religious communities= membership of 6,000 by 1840.Longest –lived sects- but customs prevented marriage & sexual relations= extinct by 1940.
28 Shaker Hymn'Tis the gift to be simple, 'Tis the gift to be free, 'Tis the gift to come down where you ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, 'Till by turning, turning we come round right.
30 Science, Art, and Literature Americans best known for borrowing & adapting European findingsNathaniel Bowditch ( ) mathematician; wrote about practical navigation.Mathew Maury ( )- oceanographerBenjamin Silliman ( )- chemistry & geology (Yale)Louis Agazzi ( )- Harvard; biologyJohn Audubon - ornithologymedicines- bleeding, “patent medicines”illnesses: smallpox, yellow fever, illnesses due to improper diet, bad teeth, poor sanitationlife expectancy: 1850= 40 years old for white- less for blacksDentistry- blacksmithsEARLY 1840’S- use of laughing gas & ether common for the 1st time
31 2. Art: American artists still went to Europe for training & patrons. Art & LiteratureArchitecture- Americans still built shelter hastily; imitated European designs.Public Buildings= Greek & Roman designsGreek Revival popularMid-century= Gothic (pointed arches-large windows)2. Art: American artists still went to Europe for training & patrons.Gilbert Stuart ( )- (RI) painted GW ; idealized & dehumanized GW.Charles Wilson Peale ( ) (Maryland) 60 portraits of GW (GW sat for about 14)John Trumbull ( ) fought in Am. Rev; painted scenes from the war.Hudson River School: emerged after the War of 1812; nationalistic.Focused on landscapes– not merely human formsPhotography- daguerreotype- crude photography invented 1839 by Frenchman.
32 Thomas Cole- Hudson River School of art Edgar Allen Poe“daguerreotype”
33 The Knickerbocker Group (NY) Music & LiteratureAmericans sought to shake off the Puritan admonition not to sing non-religious songs.“darky tunes” were popularized by whites by mid-century; minstrel shows which featured whites in “blackface”Stephen C. Foster ( ) Penn; wrote famous “black” songsLiterature: “Who reads an American book”? 1820’s British criticBefore Federalist Papers, Common Sense, Franklin’s AutobiographyAfter the War of nationalist spirit= boosted genuine American literature.The Knickerbocker Group (NY)Washington Irving ( )NY;1st general writer; used English & American stylesdid much to explain America to Europe & Europe to AmericaJames Fennimore Cooper ( ) first American novelist; tales set in America with American characters.
34 The Transcendentalists William Cullen Bryant ( ):wrote one of the first high quality poems (“Thanatopsis”)became editor for New York Post.The TranscendentalistsGolden age of literature during the 1830’s.centered in NE (Boston)influenced by German Romantic philosophers & religions of Asiamajor idea: truth transcends the senses-it cannot be observed alone= individualism (self reliance, self culture)every person has an “inner light” that illuminates truth to put him/her in touch with God= dignity of the individual.Ralph Waldo Emerson ( ): “Self Reliance” essay; speech at HARVARD “The American Scholar”Outspoken critic of slavery; supporter of the Union2. Henry David Thoreau ( ): “Walden”; “On Civil Disobedience”– influenced Gandhi & MLK.
35 3. Walt Whitman ( ) Brooklyn; “Leaves of Grass”; unconventional poet- did away with titles, stanzas, rhymes.Other Poets-WritersLongfellow (popular American poet), John Greenleaf Whittier (anti-slavery crusader), Lowell , Oliver Wendell Holmes,Louisa May Alcott- Little Women, Emily Dickenson (nature, death, immortality)Edgar Allen Poe ( ) Southern writer; eccentric genius.Alcoholic ; wrote the ‘Raven” fascinated by the morbid or ghastly.Nathaniel Hawthorn ( ) (Mass) obsessed with ideas of good v. evil= “Scarlet Letter”Herman Melville ( ) (NY) : “Moby Dick”- allegory good v. evilHistoriansA distinguished group of historians emergedGeorge Bancroft ( )- “Father of American History”; founded Naval Academy- published super patriotic history of US in 6 volumesearly American historians: almost exclusively from NE = had an antislavery- anti-southern bent for generations.