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Managing Common-Pool Resources. Background The theory was best expressed by Garrett Harding in his book: “The Tragedy of the Commons.” If nobody owns.

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Presentation on theme: "Managing Common-Pool Resources. Background The theory was best expressed by Garrett Harding in his book: “The Tragedy of the Commons.” If nobody owns."— Presentation transcript:

1 Managing Common-Pool Resources

2 Background The theory was best expressed by Garrett Harding in his book: “The Tragedy of the Commons.” If nobody owns or manages the property, then the individual will attempt to maximize his/her own gains, and there is no encouragement for resource improvement.

3 Managing Common-Pool Resources

4 What is the theory behind the use of CPR?

5

6 The oceans cover about 71% of the Earth's surface and have over 95% of all water on Earth. The four oceans are the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Arctic oceans. The oceans provide food, natural resources, recreation and life-saving medicines. The oceans also affect the climate. Preserving the ocean ecosystems protects all life on Earth. Pollution of the oceans comes from many sources, the most visible being oil spills. Other less obvious sources of pollution include polluted runoff, toxic waste, invasive species and marine debris.

7 Sources of Ocean Pollution

8 What are some CPR? The Seas and Oceans The Atmosphere Space The Poles?

9 Another way of thinking of this What is rational for me as an individual may not, when everyone behaves this way, end up being rational at all. The sum total of Individual Rationality is Collective Insanity The sum of individual advancement may be the destruction of the resource responsible for the advancement.

10 Consequence Effective land management requires either: (a) Collective “ownership” and management of the resource (b) Private ownership and control of the resource. But not no ownership and management.

11 Here is an Attempt to Apply Ownership

12 Another example…

13 But, are there alternatives? There are many examples in history of the collective management of resources

14 Recent Collective Action

15 What are the rules for CP Management?

16 What are the BIG CP Problems for the Future? First, and foremost, global atmospheric change (“Global Warming”)

17 Global Atmospheric Change ONLY a collective response will deal with this—no one country can fix it. Yet, we saw that the attempt to do something, via the Kyoto Protocol, did not work because of National Interests and Differences We cannot “own” the atmosphere, like a piece of territory, because it moves around, so we must find a collective solution.

18 Global Sea-Level Rise We saw the picture of Antactica earlier, and it is estimated that all the glaciers will be gone by All that threatens to cause the seas to rise

19 The Law of the Sea

20 Go Away and Leave Me Alone

21 Conclusion Prof. Caldwell said we are moving out of the “first generation” of environmental problems, which countries could deal with themselves (e.g. EPA, Clean Water Act) We are now entering the “second generation” of problems that are global and individual countries can NOT deal with alone. Sovereign Law yields to International Law, and who will administer and enforce it?


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