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Dr. Stacey L. Aronow Souderton Area High School Souderton, PA

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1 Scaling the AP Language Mountain: Managing the Paper Load for Rookie Rhetoricians
Dr. Stacey L. Aronow Souderton Area High School Souderton, PA Sheryl L. Miller Hosey Council Rock High School South Holland, PA

2 Dr. Stacey L. Aronow 15 years teaching high school English 9-12
4 years teaching AP Language and Composition Award-winning journalism instructor 13 years as newspaper adviser 4 years teaching at the university level (graduate-level education courses) Block schedule in a suburban, middle to upper-middle class school with 2,200 students, AP classes average students each with 5 sections offered

3 Sheryl L. Miller Hosey 18 years of teaching experience
12 years at current high school 4 years teaching AP Language and Composition Specialization in teaching Shakespeare through performance, public speaking and theatre Traditional schedule in a suburban, upper-class school with 2,450 students, AP classes average students each in 3 sections offered

4 Block vs. Traditional Schedules
Block at Souderton Four 90-minute periods on a 4X4 schedule (teachers teach 3 and change students mid-year) Fall semester: September – January Spring semester: February – June Traditional at Council Rock Nine 55-minute periods (teachers teach 5 with same students all year) Fall semester: August – January Spring semester: January – June

5 Quality vs. Quantity We believe that it is not about how MUCH students write; rather, it is about how WELL they write. Ultimately, students benefit more from learning how to write effectively even if they turn work in less frequently. Our time should be spent on assessing the students’ best work rather than rushed or sloppy work.

6 Tips to Encourage Top-quality Student Work
Students thesis statements to teacher Teacher can then provide specific, clear, personal response efficiently. Thesis statement must be approved prior to a pre-set date. Use of comprehensive, interactive peer edit sheets and conferencing. See handout for example. Essay Reflections Prior to submitting final essay, students compose a reflective piece (approximately 1/2 page) detailing thought process behind essay development and peer-editing experience. See handout for example.

7 Tips to Encourage Effective and Efficient Assessment of Writing
In research papers, students highlight citations (primary and secondary) in two different colors. In thesis-driven essays, students highlight thesis statement, topic sentences, and summative comment in the conclusion. When focus is on specific rhetorical devices, sentence patterns, etc., have students identify and label them. Provide clear, specific instruction sheet/rubric. Grade portions of essay prior to completion so that it can be assessed in stages. Students assess each others’ work using the AP rubric; teacher gives cursory read and grade of 1-9.

8 Strategies for the AP Language and Composition Classroom
The creative writing process can still be useful and valuable in an AP environment. 1A. To add a bit of poetry, students create one per season and must use certain teacher-identified devices. Students label them on the poem.

9 Example of Seasonal Poem Using Rhetorical Devices
Please see handout for poem by Jaclyn Sattler entitled “Fall.”

10 Strategies for the AP Language and Composition Classroom
1B. To add a bit of poetry and check in with summer reading, students can create a “ShrinkLit.”

11 Strategies: ShrinkLit Assignment
“ShrinkLit” Assignment for Summer Reading Novels Advanced Placement English 11 Ms. Miller Hosey Council Rock HS South ShrinkLits – “…process whereby books undergo a kind of constructive distillation which boils out the fat and renders the meat [so to speak] into verse, making it at once more lucid and palatable” (SagoffShrinkLits). Assignment: Choose one of the novels assigned for summer reading and write a ShrinkLit. Your composition must be in verse form, and it must rhyme. Sarcasm and humor are acceptable as long as the content is appropriate for class. Your ShrinkLitmust be at least 15 lines in length, and it must have a title. Submit 2 copies; one should be decorated for classroom display whereas the other should be text-only for assessment purposes. Point Value: 25 points ShrinkLit for Frankenstein by Mary Shelley -Maurice Sagoff (ShrinkLits) In his occult-science lab Frankenstein creates a flab Which, endowed with human will, Very shortly starts to kill. First, it pleads a lonely life And demands a monster-wife; “Monstrous!” Frankenstein objects, Thinking of the side-effects. Chilled with fear, he quits the scene, But the frightful man-machine Follows him in hot pursuit Bumping people off en route, Till at last it stands, malign, By the corpse of Frankenstein! Somewhere in the northern mists -Horrid thing- it still exists… Still at large, a-thirst for gore! Got a strong lock on your door?

12 Strategies: ShrinkLit Example
Please see handout for poems by Jaclyn Sattler entitled “Bromance” and Molly Barson entitled “Tonight.”

13 Strategies: Six-Word Narratives
Six-word narratives provide a change of pace from the “usual” essay-driven curriculum. Based on the book Six-Word Memoirs: By Writers Famous & Obscure, students are given a topic and are asked to express the essence of that topic by “showing” and “telling” in six words. Please see handout for book review. Examples: Job/work: “It’s a party with PG-13 cast.” TV show synopsis: “9 to 5; bored to death.” What not to say to parents: “When can I move back in?”

14 Strategies: Short In-Class Assignments
3. Not every unit/stylistic technique has to conclude in a three-five page essay. For example: Students are given a list of possible process-analysis topics. They must provide illustrative examples of each. Students then choose one and develop it into a one-paragraph analysis (rather than a long paper).

15 Strategies: Short In-Class Assignments Process Analysis
Process Analysis Exercise AP Composition Process Analysis Brainstorming Exercise A process you go through every day unconsciously or with little thought A process you go through mentally every day (preparation for sport, etc.) A process you have gone through when learning something new A process that you thoroughly enjoy A process that is universal, but you do it differently than most other people A process somebody else goes through that irritates you A process that you see somebody you admire go through A process that you go through in less than a minute A process that you go through that takes several hours A process that takes several years. You may be going through it now, or you may have gone through the entire process. A process you learned at school A process you go through for a hobby or sport A process somebody goes through every day at work A process everybody goes through but nobody enjoys A fictional process that you could describe to make a point about something (maybe ironically) A process that you have gotten better at over time A process you have gone through after a great loss A process you have gone through after experiencing great success A process that failed A process that led to success A process that you have improved A process you go through when meeting a new person or a particular person A process that works, although it seems as if it wouldn’t A process about which most people know very little Any other process about which you would like to write

16 Strategies: Short In-Class Assignments Causal Analysis
Written Group Work is OK! Causal Analysis Exercise and Example (in handout) AP Composition Task: You and your partner are two of the country’s foremost authorities on the subject of adolescent stress. You both have been asked to serve as the keynote speaker at this year’s foremost convention on adolescent issues. Prepare a speech analyzing the major causes of stress for people age (Be creative, clever, and fun!) Focus: Make your purpose clear. Label your purpose. Content: Concentrate on proximate as opposed to remote causes. Be clear on the three kinds: necessary, contributory or sufficient. Label each cause. (Consider reviewing pages in your composition textbook.) Organization: The introductory paragraph states clearly the elements of the causal relationship. Supporting paragraphs illustrate the causes (occur in the past) and present a direct line of analysis to effects (occur in present or future). The concluding paragraph evaluates or makes recommendations. Style: Feel free to use the formal or informal voice and write in the 1st or 3rd person. Use at least one example each of four sentence patterns learned in class. Label each sentence pattern. Include at least four schemes and four tropes. Label them. Experiment with tone. It can be serious, foreboding, humorous, sarcastic, etc. Conventions: Edit for correctness. Be prepared to deliver your causal analysis speech to the class (in other words, the rest of the country’s leading authorities on the subject of adolescent stress) using your best presenter persona.

17 Strategies: Short In-Class Assignments Visual Rhetoric
Visual Rhetoric Practice Students each bring in two or three ads from magazines/newspapers. In pairs students determine which two of the ads most connect and reflect a certain idea. They then develop a one-two page analysis essay that contains a thesis connecting the two ads. The teacher has to grade only one-half of the number of essays!

18 Strategies: Short In-Class Assignments Visual Rhetoric
Visual Rhetoric Assignment AP Composition - Visual Rhetoric Analysis (Synthesis Essay Practice) Working with a partner, your assignment is to write a one-two page analysis of two advertisements. Each member of the group should choose one of the ads he or she brought to class. As a group, develop a thesis which integrates the analysis of both ads. In the analysis, you must include the following: an explanation of what you believe to be the advertisers’ strategies in persuading the reader to buy their product an explanation of what the advertisers believe to be important to (or just true about) the reader and how the ad reflects that belief Be sure to include any information (such as visual text, verbal text, location, etc.) from the ads that help you to formulate your response. The assignment is worth 40 points. Consider appropriate MLA format and essay structure. Attach this rubric to the essay. Be prepared to share your analysis with the rest of the class. Please turn in two copies of your essay, making sure that all group members’ names are listed as the top of the first page.

19 Strategies Cont. 4. Games! You’ve Been Sentenced
A board game that can be purchased and adapted for use in the classroom (McNeill Designs) Rhetorical Devices games Cards found Within 5 Steps to a 5 (McGraw-Hill) Terms Triple Play (Applied Practice)

20 Four Assignments to Teach Writing

21 Non-fiction Unit Using an Analysis Essay
Assignment One Non-fiction Unit Using an Analysis Essay Unit consists of excerpts from Douglass, King, Lincoln, Malcolm X, Obama, Jefferson, Chief Seattle. Each student must create his or her own AP prompt and answer it.

22 Example of Non-fiction Assignment
Nonfiction Analysis Essay Grade Rubric This writing assignment must include a minimum of two works we have read within this nonfiction unit and be a standard five-paragraph essay. It should also include an analysis of the use of argumentation, persuasion, and/or diction. Prompt (20 points) Introduction (15 points) Three sentence minimum 3 points A powerful opening sentence that grabs the reader’s attention 2 points Thesis sentence that clearly explains your position on the topic (answering the prompt you created) 5 points Evidentiary overview, arranged effectively 5 points Main Points (100 points) Topic sentences with clear ideas (sentences also provide transitions) 20 points Intelligent, thoughtful development with specific details 40 points Relevant, integrated quotes and examples (with citations) 20 points Closing sentences that synthesize and re-align on the topic 20 points Conclusion (15 points) Restates thesis in a clear, concise, and powerful manner 5 points Provides synthesis and evaluation 10 points Conventions (25 points) Formal essay conventions are to be followed. Total=175

23 Example of Student Non-fiction Essay
Please see handout for essay by Joy Wang that compares the inaugural addresses of Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Barack Obama.

24 Assignment Two Creating Short Stories and Skits Using Schemes,
Tropes, and Sentence Patterns In order to break up the usual routine, students develop and perform skits using rhetorical elements that are currently being studied in class. Students are often given a list of 8-10 schemes, tropes, and sentence patterns. It’s not unusual for students to turn their skits into ongoing episodes that they portray throughout the course. Please see handout for example.

25 Synthesis Essay Practice: Tiger Moms
Assignment Three Synthesis Essay Practice: Tiger Moms (Based on AP List Serve Ideas) See handout for the sources that coincide with this assignment. Prompt #1: Much attention has been given lately to Amy Chua's recently released memoir Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother. After having her excerpt published in The Wall Street Journal, Chua has received fierce criticism, even a couple of death threats, because of her stance on parenting. In an essay that synthesizes at least three of the sources for support, evaluate the most important factors that a parent should consider when trying to achieve the best for his or her child. Prompt #2: In an essay that synthesizes at least three of the sources for support, evaluate whether society should or should not have a say in a parent's decision to help his or her child achieve his/her best.  Your essay will be evaluated on your response to the prompt and the use of sources to support your position. Standard formal English as well as MLA conventions should be used.

26 Synthesis Essay Rubric (Tiger Moms)
AP Language and Composition Synthesis Essay/Tiger Moms Name: _________________________________ Prompt Number: _________________________________ Introduction /15 three sentence minimum (3) powerful opening sentence (2) thesis sentence/answer to prompt (5) evidentiary overview (5) Evidence /70 topic sentences (10) development (20) quotes and examples from three sources and seamlessly incorporated (20) show connections between sources (10) closing sentences (10) Conclusion /15 restates thesis (5) synthesis and evaluation (5) explain the logic as to how you arrived at the conclusion you did, based on the information provided in the sources (5) Conventions /25 Attribute both direct and indirect citations Standard English Total: _________/125

27 Synthesis Essay Example
Please see handout for essay by Martin Silberberg.

28 Essay Analysis/Presentations
Assignment Four Essay Analysis/Presentations One essay analysis spread throughout the semester. Teacher grades only four at a time!

29 Essay Analysis/Presentations Assignment and Rubric
Essay Analysis (A Souderton AP Language Team Assignment) One of your weekly assignments will be to analyze an essay written by one of the authors listed at the bottom of this page. Your analysis must be between 2 and 2.5 pages and include the following: A paragraph which includes important biographical information and significant literary contributions of your author. An analysis of the main ideas or themes of the essay and of how the author’s style helps to convey those ideas effectively. You may do any of the following in analyzing your author’s style: Identify several significant uses of the schemes and tropes and explain how they help the author to effectively convey his or her ideas. Analyze the author’s use of diction and syntax and explain how they help the author to effectively convey his or her ideas. Analyze the types of sentences the author uses (functional, grammatical, rhetorical) and explain why he or she uses these types. Analyze the author’s tone. You will submit an analysis of a different writer’s work for each essay analysis, and you will present your information to the class two or three times throughout the course of the semester. You must provide each member of the class a copy of your analysis on the day you present. You may not discuss an essay already presented by another student, and the same essayist’s work may not be presented more than twice. Listed below are the writers whose works you may analyze: 18th Century (and earlier)19th Century20th Century Montaigne George Eliot James Thurber Ben Jonson Walter Pater Albert Camus John Milton Henry David Thoreau Russell Baker Joseph Addison James R. Lowell Loren Eisley Jonathan Swift W.D. Howells Aldous Huxley Oliver Goldsmith Margaret Fuller E.M. Forster Charles Lamb Thomas Carlyle Annie Dillard Francis Bacon Matthew Arnold George Santayana John Dryden Fredrick Douglass Norman Cousins John Lock Washington Irving E.B. White Richard Steele Ralph Waldo Emerson James Baldwin Alexander Pope Edgar Allan Poe Kurt Vonnegut Thomas Paine Herman Melville Martin Luther King Thomas Jefferson Nathaniel Hawthorne Virginia Woolf King Solomon G.K. Chesterton Gloria Steinem Lewis Thomas Nathaniel Benchley You may not analyze the following: “I Have a Dream” by MLK; “A Modest Proposal” by Swift; “Once More to the Lake” by White; “My Wood” by Forster; “Of Idols” by Bacon. It is your responsibility to choose an essay, not a short story.

30 Essay Analysis/Presentations Example
Please see handout for essay by Craig Birchall entitled “Men and Menstruation.”

31 Closing Comments Time to think/pair/share! Questions/Answers

32 Thank You Students of Souderton Area High School:
Craig Birchall, Andrea Gurgick, David Kim, Morgan Kratz, Spencer Kulhanjian Students of Council Rock High School South: Molly Barson, Jaclyn Sattler, Martin Silberberg, Joy Wang Council Rock School District for copying and shipping materials Souderton Area School District AP Language teachers for their willingness to share materials

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