Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: The Classical Tradition What is “art” music? Example: Juan de Araujo: Ut queant laxisJuan de Araujo: Ut queant laxis."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 2: The Classical Tradition What is “art” music? Example: Juan de Araujo: Ut queant laxisJuan de Araujo: Ut queant laxis
Spanish Viceroyalties New Spain New Granada Peru La Plata Portuguese Viceroyalty Viceroyalty of Brazil Guyana Five sections governed by French, British, Portuguese, Dutch, Spanish
Spanish Church Music becomes the most important vehicle for new music in the Americas Also an important tool for control and “conversion” of natives Cathedrals became important musical centers THE COLONIAL PERIOD Valladolid, Mexico Santiago de Cuba Sucre, Bolivia
Colonial Church Music Two types: plainchant (Gregorian chant) and Renaissance Polyphony Plainchant – Foundation of all church music in Europe from Middle Ages on – Thousands of chants in Catholic liturgy – Qualifies Non, or quasi-pulsatile Monophonic Often call and response Narrow range, mostly stepwise melodic motion Example “Alleluia vidimus stellam”
Renaissance Polyphony Mostly performed in church, but secular styles emerged Vocal music predominates—later with accompaniment Multiple “voices” – two, three, four Smooth lines Complex interplay between voices Religious purpose of foremost importance Polychoral works emerge in larger churches
The Golden Age of Spanish Music 1525-1600 art supported by strong economic growth Influenced by Venice, especially multiple choirs Composers emigrated to New world, became chapelmasters Later, criollo musician write in this style – Juan de Herrera – Francisco Lopez Capilla
“Salve Regina”: a hymn to the Virgin Mary by Hernando Franco Hail queen, mother of mercy: our life, our sweetness, and our hope, hail. To thee we cry, the exiled sons of Eve. To thee we sigh, groaning and weeping in this vale of tears. Come then, our advocate, turn those pitying eyes towards us. And show us, after this exile, Jesus, the blessed fruit of thy womb. O clement, O holy, O sweet ever-virgin Mary.
Continuing Renaissance polyphony Polychorality popular in Americas—continues Italian style In Old World, Renaissance ended in 1600 with the introduction of opera and a new style of composition In New World, Renaissance polyphony could continue for around 150 years, Often surpassed composition techniques of Spanish Important composer: Juan Gutierrez de Padilla The mass ordinary: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Die
Example: Renaissance Mass Missa Ego flos campi: Agnus Dei by Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla (“Mexico” ca. 1590 – 1664) Last movement of larger musical portion of the Mass Two choirs, antiphonal response Imatative polyphony, Taken from Gregorian chant Agnus Dei Qui tollis peccata mundi Miseerere nobis Dona nobis pacem Lamb of God Who takes away the sins of the world, Have mercy upon us, Grant us peace
Instrumental Music Increasing use of instruments in religious music paralleled Europe’s timeline By early 18 th century, full instrumental accompaniment expected in church performance
Musical syncretism Missionaries immerse themselves in indigenous cultures, learn of importance of religious music to Natives. Indigenous composers emerge: Example: Hymn in Nahuatl: "Sancta maria in ilhuicac cihuapille" by Hernando Franco"Sancta maria in ilhuicac cihuapille" Indigenous composer Juan Mathias: "Quien sal aqueste dia mathias", villancico for eight voices"Quien sal aqueste dia mathias" Anonymous Hymn in Quechua: "Hanacpachap cussicuinin""Hanacpachap cussicuinin"
Hanacpachap cussicuinin Villancico in Quechua Quechua text I Hanaq pachap kusikuynin Waranqakta much'asqayki Yupay ruru puquq mallki Runakunap suyakuynin Kallpannaqpa q'imikuynin Waqyasqayta. II Uyariway much'asqayta Diospa rampan Diospa maman Yuraq tuqtu hamanq'ayman Yupasqalla, qullpasqayta Wawaykiman suyusqayta Rikuchillay. English translation I Heaven's joy! a thousand times shall we praise you. O tree bearing thrice-blessed fruit, O hope of humankind, helper of the weak. hear our prayer! II Attend to our pleas, O column of ivory, Mother of God! Beautiful iris, yellow and white, receive this song we offer you; come to our assistance, show us the Fruit of your womb!
The villancico.Villancico: non liturgical, but played during religious service; not Latin--in vernacular Songs of faith Can be composed in many styles Parodied African, Indigenous language, dances and music Later developed codified forms that were divorced from original parodies “Guinea” etc.
“Tururu farara con son” Guinea villancico by Gaspar Fernandez, a Portuguese chapelmaster in Guatemala Accompanied on baroque guitar Vocals parody (imitate) African singing Imitates African musical elements Syncopation Polyrhythm Polyphonic imitation Tururu fara con son para san pura vira mia Si parida san Maria san ispañol su coraçon Tururu farara with music for my pure, holy life Saint Mary, the Spanish saint of our heart
Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz (1651-1695) One of the few places a woman could excel in the Old and New worlds was in convent settings Poet, Historian, theologian, musician, composer
American Baroque Characteristics of European Baroque Increasing instrumental music–even in church Opera Concertato style–sharing a melody, in alternation, between opposing groups of instruments or voices More homophony (related to opera, desire to hear, understand words) Sluggishness of Americans to adopt European baroque Criticisms of American style.“Behind the times”–shallow criticism Music as signifier of identity: music produced at that time was reflection of identity American music did adopt Baroque styles, but would be infused with the Worldview, aesthetics of Americans
Colonial Opera Zarzuela—Spanish “light” opera Conventions of opera New genre in 1600 Evolved into a scheme of recitative, aria, plus instrumental, sometimes dance section. First two operas in New World La Purpura de la Rosa:Tomas de Torrejon La Partenope
Manuel de Zumaya (1678-1755) Musical revolutionary Celebren Publiquen (text in Brill) Celebren Publiquen Polychoral villancico Compare to “Unto Us a Child is Born” from Messiah, G.F. Handel (1741) Baroque aesthetic Concertato orchestral accompaniment Lively tempo Basso continuo Humanistic outlook
Nineteenth Century Romanticism Ignacio Cervantes: Cuban, 1847-1905 Danzas Cubanas Afro-cuban, Guajiro elements Tresillo, habanera, tango Manuel Ponce: Mexican Romantic song: Estrellita (Lyrics in textbook)Estrellita Voice and orchestral accompaniment—homophonic A B vocal structure, with instrumental repeat of melody a b bc poetic structure—not quite classic copla (not octosyllabic)
Romantic Opera Italia Romantic operas often explore exoticism Antonio Carlos Gomez: Brazilian composer Studied at conservatory in Rio de Janeiro Traveled to Italy to study opera Il Guaranay– primiered at La Scala in Italy, 1870 Il Guaranay Love story of Native chief and daughter of Portuguese explorer at once exotic and nationalistic
The Twentieth Century: Nationalism in America Nationalism mirrored movements in Europe Early ethnomusicologists collecting folk musics around the world Composers doing their own research Every country creates nationalistic music Merges folk and popular styles into “art” music modern aesthetic–harmonic language, instruments, forms with Native elements Afro-centric in countries where there was slave population
The Aztec Renaissance–Mexico 1910 mexican Revolution spawns nationalistic pride Reaction against European styles, esp Italian opera Indianism, primitivism Carlos Chavez: Looking for the “true soul” of the indigenous Mexican Certain intervals–minor thirds, perfect fifths Imitation of conch shell trumpet Example: Sinfonia India music of Yaqui, Seri tribes rattles, percussion uneven rhythms pentatonic scales, western harmony–bitonal
Brazil Composers had been using popular songs for decades Modinhas, choros, samba, maxixe—becomes basis for some nationalist composers Heitor Villa Lobos 1887-1959.Trained in European style by father but… Became very interested in folk, indigenous music Like Chavez and European composers, traveled to remote areas studying and collecting folk music Traveled to Paris 1923-1930 (intermittently), trained in current practices
Villa Lobos, cont Important works: 9 Bachianas Brasileiras Loosely based on some aspects of Bach and baroque music, but mostly a very personal style Multi-movement Different instrumentation: No. 5–eight cellos, soprano who hums part of melody Example: Bachianas Brasileiras No. 2. “O trenzinho do Caipira”–little train of Caipira Western chamber group with brazilian instruments: reco-reco, ganza, Chocalho Programmatic: describes a trip VL took in 1931–steam engine picking up agricultural workers
Brazilian instruments Ganza Chocalho
Argentina Nationalistic movement in early 20 th century Draws from diverse cultures, areas of this large country Folk life, music Legends of indigenous people no large African population indigenous population also small–killed off in large numbers vast plains made cattle ranching one of the staples of rural life on the pampas Alberto Ginastera most important composer
Estancia Suite 1941: Malambo Depicts various activities of ranch life Main characters: country girl who despises man from the city until he can prove himself as hard-working as a country workman. gaucho: horseman from plains 4 movements, Final dance Malambo: male competitive dance AA’B form, Malambo last part sesquialtera Example: Gustavo Dudamel and Simon Bolivar Youth Orchestra Venezuela: “El sistema”