Presentation on theme: "UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Government Civilian Programs Moderator: CPT Mike Adams Presenters: Neilesh Shelat: USAID/CFSOCC-A DEVAD/VSNCC Kristin Cairn: USAID/"— Presentation transcript:
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Government Civilian Programs Moderator: CPT Mike Adams Presenters: Neilesh Shelat: USAID/CFSOCC-A DEVAD/VSNCC Kristin Cairn: USAID/ SOTF-W DEVAD George Hale: Former USAID/ SOTF-S and SE DEVAD Meredith Wotten: USAID OTI Guy Ewald: FAF Development Need Names: Regional DAT/PATs
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Agenda Introductions USAID Overview Development Agency Disposition Interagency Relationships Planning for the use of civilian AID assets/ Open discussion
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Terminal Learning Objective #2 USAID’s current plan for Afghan development going into transition how this will impact at the provincial and district level contrasted with USAID’s past approach.
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Neilesh Shelat USAID SOF Academic Week Orlando, FL March 2012
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO USAID Field Officer 2007: Helmand, Kandahar & Herat 2008-2009: Ghazni PRT (US/US & US/Polish) 2009-2010: Wardak FOB /Sayedebad DST (US/Turkish) 2010-2011: Kabul/DevAd to CFSOCC-A 2011-2012: Washington DC Afghanistan Desk 2012-2013: Back to Afghanistan
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Essentials on USAID - www.usaid.gov Who are we? How do we work? Where are we?
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO USAID Assistance Supports Afghan and US Strategy President’s Strategy The core goal of the U.S. is to disrupt, dismantle, and defeat al Qaeda and its safe havens in Pakistan, and to prevent their return to Pakistan or Afghanistan, as well as to pursue a more effective civilian strategy in Afghanistan which will ensure that: the Afghan population is free to determine its future; the government has the monopoly on the use of force; citizens recognize the government as legitimately representative of their interests; and, the government is able to provide basic requirements for population and confidence to pursue broader development objectives. COM ISAF Strategy ISAF, in partnership with GIRoA, conducts population-centric counterinsurgency operations, enables an expanded and effective ANSF, and supports improved governance and development in order to protect the Afghan people and provide a secure environment for sustainable stability. USAID’s Strategy USAID supports the development of a politically inclusive system of governance that provides security and freedom of movement, justice for serious crimes and facilitation of peaceful resolution of conflicts, delivery of some basic services, and creation of an enabling environment for economic growth. SRAP Af/Pak Stabilization Strategy In Afghanistan, our focus is building the capacity of Afghan institutions to withstand and diminish the threat posed by extremism, and to deliver high-impact economic assistance – especially in the agricultural sector – to create jobs, reduce the funding that the Taliban receives from poppy cultivation, and draw insurgents off the battlefield. Afghan National Development Strategy (ANDS) By 2020, the ANDS aims to create: a stable Islamic constitutional democracy at peace with itself and its neighbors, standing with full dignity in the international family; a tolerant, united, and pluralistic nation that honors its Islamic heritage and the deep seated aspiration toward participation, justice, and equal rights for all; a society of hope and prosperity based on a strong, private-sector led market economy, social equity, and environmental sustainability. Sensitive But Unclassified (SBU) 7
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Transition 8
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO GIRoA Spending Expectations are Inconsistent with Future Budget Restrictions Sensitive But Unclassified (SBU) *Source GIRoA 1389 Budget, (Total Pending = Operational Budget + Development Budget) ** Source: Afghan National Development Strategy 2008-2013, (Budgeted Core + External Expenditure) 9
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Recent Cases Show a Sharp Decrease in U.S. Development Assistance Once International Military Drawdown Begins Sensitive But Unclassified (SBU) Following the withdrawal or significant reduction in troop levels, Iraq, Kosovo, Haiti, and Bosnia saw significant decreases in development assistance levels. 10 60% decrease 52% decrease 43% decrease 69% decrease
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Other issues affecting USAID implementation 11
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Different contracts Delegation of Authorities Quick Response Funds (QRF) Public Diplomacy grants (PD) Afghan Women’s Empowerment Grants Ambassador’s Small Grants Fund No dedicated funds, but can tap into CERP/DoS/USAID Provision of advice to CERP/DoS/USAID on how to spend ag-related project funds Commanders Emergency Response Program Battalion, PRT, CJSOTF, DST The Interagency
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Who else is out there? PRTs DSTs ADTs USACE NGOs
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO The other funders in your AO who must spend their money and may/may not coordinate You US Maneuver CERP US Special Forces CERP US PRT CERP US ADT CERP USAID DoS QRF and other Grants NGOs Non-US Mil entities INL Intel Army Corps of Engineers Other Countries
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO What to expect when you get out there KandaharBaghlanZabulDaikundi USAIDSeveral120** DoSSeveral020** USDA>3010** ADT0010** RoL>2000** PRT1Hungarian10** Bn1000** VSCC1000** DAT/PAT?202 Platform1000**
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Pitfalls You wanting a project more than the Afghans wanting a project Being an ‘expert’ in your technical area Dealing with non-US PRTs/military/governments Projects started vs projects completed Project monitoring stopping at the ribbon cutting Assuming the Afghans will “take it over” when you leave Buy-in vs acknowledgement (having an Afghan at the table) Being a believer in, “if you build it, give them something, do good things, then good things will happen” The other funders in your AO who must spend their money and may/may not coordinate
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Realistic Planning Parameters Need to Inform Future Assistance Planning By 2015… The coalition military presence will be reduced; Afghan-led security in most of the country. USAID’s civilian assistance levels will decrease; programs will focus on development objectives in support of transition. Security and development gains in the south and east may lag behind the rest of the country, although positive trends will continue. As Afghan self-sufficiency increases, USAID’s role shifts to supporting GIRoA and other Afghan institutions as they build capacity, engage the private sector, and leverage donor support. Sensitive But Unclassified (SBU) 17
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO USG and GIRoA Must Prioritize Assistance Among Competing Resource Demands –Identify minimum development conditions that should be in place by 2015 to ensure that Afghanistan can successfully continue along its chosen development path –Align USG and GIRoA resource expectations based on realistic planning parameters –Focus security, governance, and development interventions so as to increase the legitimacy of GIRoA in the eyes of Afghans –Agree with GIRoA on near-term opportunities for foundational investments that can induce sustainable, long-term growth –Address policy trade-offs to deal with competing demands for resources Sensitive But Unclassified (SBU) 18
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO 22 Snapshot 2015: Governance & Rule of Law Formal and informal mechanisms provide basic access to justice and dispute resolution. Metric: Number of conflicts brought to and resolved in formal and informal forums with attention to cases involving land, serious crimes, and women.* Legitimate and representative forums provide citizens, including marginalized groups, an opportunity to participate in governance. Metric: Number and inclusivity of government offices, local councils, and civil society organizations present at the provincial/district/community level. Afghan government has the reach and ability to facilitate local solutions to local problems and execute basic programs. Metric: Role of local officials in decision-making, dispute resolution, and program/budget execution. Basic needs of the population are being actively addressed. Metric Number of Afghans who state that their community possesses the basic requirements of a secure life. Egregious government acts of impunity are punished. Metric: Number of arrests/convictions for corruption and human rights crimes. Policy Tradeoffs: Prioritize Informal vs. Formal Justice Budgetary Impacts of a Large Civil Service Payroll (Civil Service needs to be expanded). Foundational Investments: Commitment to public administration and training in civil service. Develop downstream applications of ID card for voting, access to services and identification. USAID and ANDS While USAID’s governance objectives complement the ANDS by supporting Afghanistan’s newly-adopted SNG policy, GIRoA’s commitment to its own policy on decentralization remains unclear. “Inclusive governance, effective dispute resolution, and accountability for impunity at the local level” Sensitive But Unclassified (SBU) *Note: Representation of women in justice and government will likely show inevitable lags in the south and east.
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO 23 Snapshot 2015: Economic Growth Afghan consumer demand drives economic growth. Metric : Per capita GDP is growing faster than inflation. Afghans are actively engaged in licit and economically productive activities within and across borders. Metric : Formal sector employment rate, particularly in agriculture-related professions, is increasing while illicit crop production is decreasing. Afghan economy leverages the international economy. Metric : Exports as a percent of GDP are increasing, particularly on value added products and high value agricultural goods such as pomegranates. Afghan business is actively investing in the economic growth. Metric : (a) Domestic credit (loans) to the private sector as a percentage of GDP is increasing. (b) Loans figures are disaggregated by gender with the number of loans to women increasing. Foundational Investments: Automated business registry Digital/ automated tax and tariff mechanism for utilities, point of sale, and customs Both of these investments are necessary to successfully implement the Afghanistan Pakistan Trade Agreement, reduce corruption, regularize economic activity, and bolster consumer and business confidence of market system. Policy Tradeoffs: Diversification across sectors vs. intense focus on agriculture-related sectors. “Diversified and Resilient Economic Growth” USAID and ANDS The ANDS focuses on a top-down approach of establishing the policy and legal regime necessary to enable economic growth. USAID does this as well, but also focuses on stimulating economic growth from the bottom-up, by strengthening agricultural livelihoods, stimulating local markets, and increasing job skills training, access to credit, and other inputs needed for economic growth. Sensitive But Unclassified (SBU) 23
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO 24 Snapshot 2015: Agriculture Foundational Investments: Establish high-value crops and full value chains for exports Promote watershed management for improved irrigation. Improvement of agricultural research, education and extension. Policy Tradeoffs: Promotion of agricultural production for exports versus domestic consumption. Food security nationwide is improved through increased crop yields, due to new technologies and improved inputs. Metric : Percentage change in annual production of key crops A growing economy supports agricultural sector jobs and incomes, providing licit opportunities for Afghans. Metric : Net increase in private sector employment for farms and agribusinesses. Metric : Percentage increase in household income from licit agriculture activities Value chains support an increase in agricultural exports to strengthen Afghanistan’s role in the regional economy. Metric : Total value of agricultural exports. Viable agricultural alternatives contribute to a licit economy and provide options other than poppy cultivation. Metric : UNODC reports annual decreases in poppy cultivation. Afghanistan fosters its own agricultural development through a robust education, research and extension network Metric : Percentage increase in disbursement of MAIL’s development assistance budget at sub-national levels USAID and ANDS The USAID agricultural strategy is in line with the goals for agriculture in the ANDS. “Meeting basic food security needs and growing rural economies”
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO 25 Snapshot 2015: Infrastructure Foundational Investments: Investment in domestic energy supplies (e.g. Sheberghan, Kajaki) Investment in domestic capacity to channel outside energy (e.g. NEPS- SEPS) Investment in creating the GIRoA capacity to finance, operate, and maintain infrastructure services. Policy Tradeoffs: Energy vs. Roads “Improved Infrastructure Services in Support of Economic and Social Development” USAID and ANDS USAID plans consistent with ANDS though other donor resources would be necessary to achieve the much broader ANDS goals. Key urban economic centers have access to reliable supplies of electricity. Increased access to electricity for key off grid communities. Metric : 12 to 16 hours of electricity per day for Kabul, Kandahar, Herat, Jalalabad, and Mazar-e-Sharif. 300 communities/700,000 beneficiaries in the south and the east have access to reliable, renewable sources of electricity. Networks of roads connect key district and market centers to the national transportation system to enable economic growth and improved service delivery. Metric : District and market centers connected through roads in key agricultural and commercial areas and population centers. Sensitive But Unclassified (SBU)
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO 26 Snapshot 2015: Education Foundational Investments Use telecommunication networks to support teaching, learning, and collaboration in both Basic & Higher Education settings. Access to primary education is comparable to other countries in the region. Metric : Net Enrollment Rate (increased percentage of male and female* school-age children enrolled in school.) Basic literacy skills of male and female students continues to progress. Metric : Proportion of students who demonstrate sufficient reading fluency and comprehension to “read to learn.” Increase supply of trained and educated workers to support business and industry. Metric : The percentage of male and female* grade nine graduates who matriculate to a Technical Vocational School. Qualified scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technologists available within Afghanistan. Metric : Percentage of male and female* Afghan university graduates hired in positions that support the Afghan government or economy. “Developing Human Capital for Economic Growth” Policy Tradeoff: Higher education versus primary education. USAID and ANDS Note: Well-aligned with ANDS. Sensitive But Unclassified (SBU) *Note: Education progress, including female access to education and presence in the workforce, will likely show inevitable lags in the south and east.
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO 27 Snapshot 2015: Health Basic health services offered by GIRoA to Afghan men and women* maintained. Metric : More than 75% of population has access to basic package of integrated health services. Sustain presence of skilled birth attendants present at deliveries Metric : Over 97,400 deliveries assisted by a skilled birth attendant. Maintain progress in reducing child and maternal mortality rates. Metric : 90% of population, especially women*, has access to health services within a 2 hour walk. Metric : Double the trained midwife population. “Improving the Health of the Afghan Population” Foundational Investments: Large-scale training of community health workers and midwives Policy Tradeoffs: Primary vs. tertiary care USAID and ANDS Complementary investments to meet MDGs and continued coordination of development assistance Access, quality, use of health services in equitable and sustainable manner *Note: Access to healthcare, particularly for females, will likely show inevitable lags in the south and east.
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO The Critical Path for Sustainable Development in Afghanistan Will Rely on Effective Rule of Law and Agriculture-Driven Economic Growth Our core goals for successful and sustainable development in Afghanistan are: 1)Effective resolution of conflicts in a peaceful and legitimate manner by linking formal and informal institutions at the national and local levels; and, 2)Robust agriculture-driven economic growth that will generate jobs and trade opportunities. Focusing on these core goals will not detract from our efforts to foster a healthy, educated population, as well as the basic infrastructure needed to support economic growth and governance. Finally, this critical path is only attainable so long as we engage the Afghans in a transparent, ongoing dialogue to develop a shared vision of our enduring development partnership. Sensitive But Unclassified (SBU) 28
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Terminal Learning Objective #3-6 TLO#s 3-6: Country-wide disposition of development assets as they relate to VSO. – MRRD/NSP overview – OTI overview
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO FAF Development Guy Ewald & Ralph Schweizer Mar 2012
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO FAF Specializes In Post-Conflict Recovery and Reconstruction Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Agricultural Development Drainage Rehabilitation Water Systems Development Debris/Waste Removal 7 years experience in Afghanistan. FAF Development
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Agriculture Development Agriculture Markets and Value Chain Development (Pomegranate, Raisins, Nuts and Figs) Agribusiness and Enterprise Development Demonstration Farm/ CMO Project Irrigation Advice Food Security FAF Development
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Terminal Learning Objective #1,7 TLO#1:Understanding the optimal relationship between civilian AID agencies, MRRD and VSO sites. TLO# 7: Understanding the significance of interagency cooperation at the VSP.
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Vignette Slides Place holder