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Chapter 26: Paul, An Apostle UNDERSTANDING THE SCRIPTURES.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26: Paul, An Apostle UNDERSTANDING THE SCRIPTURES."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 26: Paul, An Apostle UNDERSTANDING THE SCRIPTURES

2 ANTICIPATORY SET Opening Prayer incorporating St. Paul’s summary of the Gospel and his own career (cf. 1 Cor 15:1–11). 1. The Apostle to the Gentiles (pp. 458–461)

3 BASIC QUESTIONS  Why does St. Luke include so many parallels between Sts. Peter and Paul in the Acts of the Apostles?  Why is St. Paul called the Apostle to the Gentiles? KEY IDEAS  One of St. Luke’s main purposes in the Acts of the Apostles is to show St. Paul is a bona fide Apostle. St. Luke includes many parallels between the lives of Sts. Peter and Paul.  St. Paul was uniquely qualified to be the Apostle to the Gentiles, was called to be this by Our Lord, and carried out his mission intensely, adapting his message to his specific audiences. 1. The Apostle to the Gentiles (pp. 458–461)

4 FOCUS QUESTIONS What were the two most remarkable miracles recounted by the earliest Christians when they introduced the Faith? They recounted the Resurrection of Christ from the dead and the conversion of St. Paul. What was St. Paul’s contribution to the New Testament? He wrote almost half the books of the New Testament. Why does St. Paul call himself the foremost of sinners? He calls himself the foremost of sinners because he had been a fanatical persecutor of Christians, responsible for the suffering and death of many of them. 1. The Apostle to the Gentiles (pp. 458–461)

5 FOCUS QUESTIONS What are some examples of Jews having both Jewish and Roman names? The author of the Gospel of St. Mark is called both John (Jewish) and Mark (Roman). The Apostle to the Gentiles is called both Saul (Jewish) and Paul (Roman). The author of the Gospel of St. Matthew is called both Matthew (Jewish) and Levi (Roman). What did St. Luke demonstrate in the Acts of the Apostles? St. Paul has the same apostolic authority as any of the Twelve Apostles. What do some scholars think St. Luke’s was main purpose in the Acts of the Apostles? He aimed to show St. Paul really was an Apostle. 1. The Apostle to the Gentiles (pp. 458–461)

6 FOCUS QUESTIONS What were St. Paul’s qualifications to bring the Gospel to the Gentiles? He had a classical education, so he could speak to Greeks and Romans on their own terms. His classical training included logic, which was useful in his theological writings. He knew the Scriptures well and could refute any argument the Jewish authorities might bring against him. Finally, his Roman citizenship protected him to a great degree from anti ‑ Christian conspirators. Why was it natural the Gospel be first preached to Jews and then to Gentiles? Because the New Covenant was the fulfillment of the Old, it was natural Jews be the first audience. At the same time, the Gospel was meant for everyone, and, because so many Jews rejected the message, St. Paul turned to the Gentiles. 1. The Apostle to the Gentiles (pp. 458–461)

7 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the original context of the prophecy, “I will give you as a light to the nations, that my salvation may reach to the end of the earth” (Is 49: 6), and how does it apply to the Apostles including St. Paul? The original you was a servant of God Isaiah prophesied would come one day. The Apostles, including St. Paul, fulfilled this, bringing the light of the Gospel to Gentiles all over the world. Why did St. Paul have St. Timothy circumcised? St. Timothy had a Greek Gentile father, and St. Paul wanted to avoid scandalizing the Jews. Despite his freedom, what was St. Paul willing to do time after time? He willingly sacrificed his freedom to help preach the truth of the Gospel. 1. The Apostle to the Gentiles (pp. 458–461)

8 GUIDED EXERCISE A think / pair / share on the table on page 460 to summarize what Sts. Peter and Paul each did.  Complete the following sentence, “Sts. Peter and Paul each...” GUIDED EXERCISE Complete a focused reading of 1 Corinthians 9:19–23 using the following question:  What did St. Paul mean when he wrote, “I have become all things to all men”? 1. The Apostle to the Gentiles (pp. 458–461)

9 CLOSURE With a partner to complete Practical Exercise 1 (p. 471), which synthesizes the material covered in this lesson. 1. The Apostle to the Gentiles (pp. 458–461)

10 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT  Study Questions 1–6 (p. 471)  Practical Exercises 1–2 (p. 471)  Workbook Questions 1–4  Read “The Law Was Our Custodian” through “Paul’s First Journey” (pp. 461–465) 1. The Apostle to the Gentiles (pp. 458–461)

11 ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Work in an assigned group of three or four to come up with a response to the following question:  Were St. Paul starting his ministry today, how would he adapt himself to young people to communicate his message effectively? 1. The Apostle to the Gentiles (pp. 458–461)

12 ANTICIPATORY SET Read the Catechism, no (p. 463). This lesson will explain what the Church and St. Paul mean by the word justification. 2. The Doctrine of Justification (pp. 461–465)

13 BASIC QUESTIONS  What is the relationship among the Law, Israel, and the Father?  What is the Law of sin and death?  How did St. Paul explain the doctrine of justification?  What is the relationship between justification and divine sonship? KEY IDEAS  St. Paul used the idea of a pedagogue, the son over which he has charge, and the son’s father as an analogy to explain the relationship among the Law, Israel, and God the Father; a pedagogue in charge of a youth had complete authority over him until adulthood, after which the son was subject only to his father; similarly, the Law was the custodian of Israel until Christ freed Israel, making Israel subject only to the Father.  The Law is a teacher that reveals sin; people fail to keep from sinning, so the Law condemns them.  St. Paul taught justification means God justifies—makes right with himself—people through the atonement for sin, which Christ accomplished and the benefit of which God freely gives to people.  The essence of justification is human beings are made adopted children of God. This includes a participation in the divine life and the inheritance of eternal life. 2. The Doctrine of Justification (pp. 461–465)

14 GUIDED EXERCISE Read the paragraph “Paul explains that the Law...” (p. 461). Then write a one ‑ sentence definition of a Roman ‑ era custodian (pedagogue). 2. The Doctrine of Justification (pp. 461–465)

15 FOCUS QUESTIONS What was the pedagogue of Israel according to St. Paul? The Mosaic Law was her pedagogue. What made Israel grow up? Israel grew up when Christ came. Extension: The New Testament refers to Christ’s coming in the fullness of time. When Israel grew up, to whom alone was she to be subject? She was to be subject to God the Father alone, no longer to the Law. 2. The Doctrine of Justification (pp. 461–465)

16 FOCUS QUESTIONS Was the Law good or evil according to St. Paul? The Law was eminently good. What is the relationship between sin and the Law according to St. Paul? The Law, in a sense, creates sin because it teaches right from wrong. Extension: The moral law does not create sin in a strict sense; rather, it commands people to do good and avoid evil. It reveals and clarifies which deeds are sinful. What did St. Paul mean when he said a person is justified? He means that person is made right with God, clean from sin, and worthy to receive God’s promises. 2. The Doctrine of Justification (pp. 461–465)

17 FOCUS QUESTIONS How did St. Paul explain the doctrine of justification? St. Paul taught only God himself can justify anyone. He justifies people as a loving gift to them. Nobody can justify him ‑ or herself through observance of the Law or by his or her good works apart from grace. What is the parallel between Adam and Christ with respect to justification? Adam’s sin dis ‑ graced all people, that is, removed grace from himself and all his descendants. Christ’s atonement restored them in God’s grace, making people once again children of God, as was his original intent in creation. What is the relationship among the Law, sin, and grace? The Law made sin abound. Where sin abounded, God made grace grow even more, even to the point of giving his people eternal life. 2. The Doctrine of Justification (pp. 461–465)

18 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the relationship between the Law of sin and death and the Law of the Spirit of Life in Christ Jesus? The Law of sin and death refers to failed human attempts to obey the Mosaic Law; this Old Law condemns its practitioners to know their sins and fall under the punishment of death. The Law of the Spirit of Life refers to Christ—by his Passion, Death, and Resurrection— having fulfilled the punishment required by the Old Law so all people united to him can live the divine life of the Blessed Trinity in the Holy Spirit. What does it mean to say Jesus Christ is a sin offering? Under the Old Covenant, one who had broken the Law made a sin offering. Christ’s Death on the Cross is the sin offering of all those united to him. What does it mean to say the essence of justification is divine sonship? The central good received through justification, when people are made right with God through the Redemption of Christ, is to become an adopted son or daughter of God. 2. The Doctrine of Justification (pp. 461–465)

19 FOCUS QUESTIONS Why can a person not earn the right to be part of God’s family? One can never deserve a place in God’s family. It can only come about as a gift. Why can simple obedience to the Law not make a person holy? The Law, like a custodian, can show what ought to be done, but it cannot give the strength to act according to it. How did St. James correct a possible misunderstanding of the doctrine of justification? He showed good works are necessary. 2. The Doctrine of Justification (pp. 461–465)

20 GUIDED EXERCISE Conduct a think / pair / share using the following question:  Though one is not saved through obedience to the Law, why is everybody still supposed to obey the Ten Commandments and do good works? 2. The Doctrine of Justification (pp. 461–465)

21 CLOSURE Write a paragraph summarizing St. Paul’s explanation of the doctrine of justification. 2. The Doctrine of Justification (pp. 461–465)

22 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT  Study Questions 7–12 (p. 471)  Workbook Questions 5–14  Read “St. Paul’s Travels” through “Paul’s Journey to Rome” (pp. 466–468)  Read Acts 21:27—22:29, looking for parallels with St. Stephen’s martyrdom 2. The Doctrine of Justification (pp. 461–465)

23 ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT A class discussion using the following Basic Question:  What is the relationship between the ruling of the Apostles at the Council of Jerusalem—circumcision and following the Mosaic Law—and St. Paul’s explanation of justification? 2. The Doctrine of Justification (pp. 461–465)

24 ANTICIPATORY SET A class discussion on the homework (Acts 21:27—22:29), using the following question:  How does St. Paul’s experience parallel the martyrdom of St. Stephen? 3. St. Paul’s Travels (pp. 466–468)

25 BASIC QUESTION  After his conversion, to what did St. Paul devote his life? KEY IDEA  After his conversion, St. Paul devoted his entire life to spreading the Gospel, making at least three missionary journeys and a journey from Jerusalem to Rome, where he was eventually beheaded by Nero. 3. St. Paul’s Travels (pp. 466–468)

26 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Complete the following table according to the map “Paul’s First Journey” (p. 465). 3. St. Paul’s Travels (pp. 466–468)

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28 FOCUS QUESTIONS What did St. Paul do in his missionary journeys? He preached the Gospel, founded new churches, and gave encouragement to the members of churches that had been founded by other Apostles. How difficult were St. Paul’s travels? They were very difficult; he suffered much, including hunger, imprisonment, shipwreck, and stoning. Why did St. Paul go to Rome? He was sent to Rome as a prisoner in keeping with one of his legal rights as a Roman citizen. 3. St. Paul’s Travels (pp. 466–468)

29 FOCUS QUESTIONS How was St. Paul’s imprisonment in Rome? He was under house arrest for two years, allowed to have visits from his friends, and could send letters freely. When did St. Paul die? He died a martyr during Nero’s persecution about AD 64, and tradition holds he died the same day as St. Peter. Why was St. Paul not crucified? St. Paul was a Roman citizen from Tarsus, and Roman citizens were spared crucifixion. Instead, he was beheaded. 3. St. Paul’s Travels (pp. 466–468)

30 GUIDED EXERCISE Create a Graphic Organizer, similar to the one completed on page 466, of St. Paul’s second or third journey or his journey to Rome according to the corresponding map (pp. 466–468). 3. St. Paul’s Travels (pp. 466–468)

31 CLOSURE Write a paragraph showing what you consider the greatest attribute of St. Paul. 3. St. Paul’s Travels (pp. 466–468)

32 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT  Study Questions 13–15 (p. 471)  Practical Exercise 3 (p. 471)  Workbook Questions 15–18 3. St. Paul’s Travels (pp. 466–468)

33 ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT A class discussion using the following question:  What qualities would a modern evangelizer need to spread the Gospel as St. Paul did in regions of the world where there are no or very few Christians? 3. St. Paul’s Travels (pp. 466–468)

34 The End


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