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Surrounded by Water-Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal

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Presentation on theme: "Surrounded by Water-Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal"— Presentation transcript:

1 Surrounded by Water-Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal
India- Geography Large Subcontinent Large Peninsula Surrounded by Water-Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal

2 India Geography Himalaya and Hindu Kush Mountains to the north create natural barrier to the rest of Asia. Many of the earth’s largest mountains are in these ranges. 50 of them are over 5 miles high Mountain passes are the only through this barrier…Khyber Pass Indian subcontinent includes India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives.

3 Indian Geography The mountains also serve as the head waters for many of the great rivers that are on the subcontinent. Northern Plains (Indo-Gangetic) are just south of mountains. Great farmland from silt deposits from the 3 major rivers…Indus, Ganges, and Brahmputra. Densely populated billion total

4 Indian Geography Indus river is the primary river of Pakistan
Most of Pakistan’s population live in the Indus basin. Most of Indian early civilization developed along this river Ganges flows eastward across India and joins Brahmaputra which then flow into Bay of Bengal in Bangaladesh

5 Indian Geography The huge delta from these two rivers has some of the most fertile land in the world but…this region suffers terrible floods. Rivers are sacred to the people Thar Desert-western end of northern plain. 100,000 sq.mi. Deccan Plain- just south of Northern Plain.

6 Indian Geography High flat plain with some hilly regions and many small rivers. 50% of Southern Asia Vindhya Mts. Separate Deccan Plain from Northern Plain. Millions of small farms occupy this plain. The Ghats- 2 other small mountain ranges on the east and west coasts

7 Indian Geography Climate-
The Monsoons- seasonal wind that dominates the climate of south asia. Two monsoons define the climate of South Asia. The wet monsoon of summer and the dry monsoon of winter. Farmers depend on both the dry and wet monsoons. Too much or too little rain will cause famine.

8 Indian Geography Cyclones frequently strike the Ganges / Brahmaputra delta often killing thousands Rainfall varies greatly with the coastal plains getting large amounts while the plains get less due to mountain shadowing. Temperatures range from very cold in the mountains to tropical on the Deccan Plain.

9 Indian Geography Natural Resources in include water for farming from the monsoons Iron Ore = steel Manganese Bauxite Copper Mica

10 Indian Geography Natural Resources con’t -Limestone -Gypsum
-Nuclear Power Cultural Diversity- Europe, Middle East, Asia Religions include Hindu, Islam, Christianity, Sikhs, and Buddhists Language includes more than 700 languages and dialects Most widely spoken in Hindi…about 30% speak it

11 Indian Geography English is used by many. India has 15 official languages Many items such as money have 15 different languages on them

12 Indian History Indus Valley Civilization
The largest ancient civilization BC Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro anchored the civilization Trade and farming were the source of wealth Climate became too dry for farming and the civilization declined

13 Indian History Arrival of the Aryans Invade form Caucasus Mts.
Have iron weapons Easily conquer Indus River people Were culturally absorbed and brought and developed religion and language- Sanskrit Developed villages and became farmers and herders

14 Indian History Rajahs ruled these villages
Developed 4 social classes called Varna Brahmans or priests at top Kshatriyas or warriors next Vaisyas or merchants Sudras or peasants at the bottom

15 Indian History The Maurya ( BC) and Gupta Empires (320 BC- 535 AD) helped to spread and solidify both Buddhism and Hinduism in India Islam came around 1200 AD. Spread under the direction of the Mughal Empire

16 Indian History Portuguese and DaGama were thr first Europeans to reach India…British, French and Dutch soon followed. British eventually squeeze out others based on their trading skill and organization British East India Company…The foremost trading company of its day. Forged monopoly deals with Mughal Empire to control trade all over India from Calcutta to Bombay ( Mumbai)

17 Indian History BEI traded gold and silver for cotton, silk and tea. Textiles were by far the most important. As Mughals decline British and French fight over many small kingdoms and territories formed after the empire dies. Under Robert Clive BEI grew enormously wealthy.

18 Indian History Clive and BEI first kicked out the French with an armed force Clive appoints rulers that are only favorable to BEI interests BEI also gained the right to collect taxes, set up law codes, and establish a court system By 1850, the British were in conflict with Hindus and Muslims.

19 Indian History Sepoy Rebellion- Indian soldiers who served in the British Army. Rebellion starts over British use of pork and beef fat to grease cartridges. Both are sacred to Hindus New British law requiring Sepoys to fight oversees for the British…Many were afraid they would lose their castes

20 Indian History After Sepoy, Britian made India an official colony and used their own people in the army and the government Left a lasting distrust of British by the Indians British bought infrastructure which made the colony easier to control Trade limited farming caused famines

21 Indian History British brought schools and colleges
Created middle class Nationalism begins with formation of Indian National Congress ( INC ) Open Rebellion begins after WW1 At Amritsar, after British open fire on 10,000 demonstrators, organized resistance begins

22 Indian History Mohandas Gandhi emerges as independence leader
Uses non-violent resistance (satyagraha) Civil disobedience The Salt March protest tax on salt Gandhi arrested with 50,000 followers British respond to non-violence with violence

23 Indian History After WW 2 Britain realizes that holding onto India as a colony was impossible At the same time Muslims began to fear an independent Hindu India might step on their rights and beliefs as Muslims 1947 British pass Indian Independence Act which called for the partition of India into separate Hindu and Muslim nations.

24 Indian History/Government
15 Million fled to either side of the border depending on religion-Hindus to India and Muslims to Pakistan 1949- India writes its constitution. Central government has most of the power. 25 states and 7 territories have less power. Parliamentary Democracy Parliament has two houses.

25 Indian Governemnt Indian Political Parties-12 The Caste System
Sikh Separatism Hindu-Muslim Clashes Indian Leaders Jawharlal Nehru Indira Gandhi Rajiv Gandhi

26 Indian Economy Nehru adapted many socialist principles to carefully control the economy but still a mixed economy India convinced the population to invest in the economy to build industrial infrastructure Initial success was impressive but by the 90’s things cooled off. In the 90’s India moves toward privatization

27 Indian Economy Indian farming was mostly subsistence
Irrigation improvements have helped Land Reform Green Revolution…Miracle Crops Village Life- Cottage Industries Improved health /Infant mortality rate Improving Education

28 Indian Economy Indian family life Marriage Women’s Rights

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