Presentation on theme: "Surrounded by Water-Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal"— Presentation transcript:
1Surrounded by Water-Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal India- GeographyLarge SubcontinentLarge PeninsulaSurrounded by Water-Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal
2India GeographyHimalaya and Hindu Kush Mountains to the north create natural barrier to the rest of Asia.Many of the earth’s largest mountains are in these ranges. 50 of them are over 5 miles highMountain passes are the only through this barrier…Khyber PassIndian subcontinent includes India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives.
3Indian GeographyThe mountains also serve as the head waters for many of the great rivers that are on the subcontinent.Northern Plains (Indo-Gangetic) are just south of mountains.Great farmland from silt deposits from the 3 major rivers…Indus, Ganges, and Brahmputra.Densely populated billion total
4Indian Geography Indus river is the primary river of Pakistan Most of Pakistan’s population live in the Indus basin.Most of Indian early civilization developed along this riverGanges flows eastward across India and joins Brahmaputra which then flow into Bay of Bengal in Bangaladesh
5Indian GeographyThe huge delta from these two rivers has some of the most fertile land in the world but…this region suffers terrible floods.Rivers are sacred to the peopleThar Desert-western end of northern plain. 100,000 sq.mi.Deccan Plain- just south of Northern Plain.
6Indian GeographyHigh flat plain with some hilly regions and many small rivers. 50% of Southern AsiaVindhya Mts. Separate Deccan Plain from Northern Plain.Millions of small farms occupy this plain.The Ghats- 2 other small mountain ranges on the east and west coasts
7Indian Geography Climate- The Monsoons- seasonal wind that dominates the climate of south asia. Two monsoons define the climate of South Asia. The wet monsoon of summer and the dry monsoon of winter.Farmers depend on both the dry and wet monsoons.Too much or too little rain will cause famine.
8Indian GeographyCyclones frequently strike the Ganges / Brahmaputra delta often killing thousandsRainfall varies greatly with the coastal plains getting large amounts while the plains get less due to mountain shadowing.Temperatures range from very cold in the mountains to tropical on the Deccan Plain.
9Indian GeographyNatural Resources in include water for farming from the monsoonsIron Ore = steelManganeseBauxiteCopperMica
10Indian Geography Natural Resources con’t -Limestone -Gypsum -Nuclear PowerCultural Diversity- Europe, Middle East, AsiaReligions include Hindu, Islam, Christianity, Sikhs, and BuddhistsLanguage includes more than 700 languages and dialectsMost widely spoken in Hindi…about 30% speak it
11Indian GeographyEnglish is used by many. India has 15 official languagesMany items such as money have 15 different languages on them
12Indian History Indus Valley Civilization The largest ancient civilization BCHarappa and Mohenjo-Daro anchored the civilizationTrade and farming were the source of wealthClimate became too dry for farming and the civilization declined
13Indian History Arrival of the Aryans Invade form Caucasus Mts. Have iron weaponsEasily conquer Indus River peopleWere culturally absorbed and brought and developed religion and language- SanskritDeveloped villages and became farmers and herders
14Indian History Rajahs ruled these villages Developed 4 social classes called VarnaBrahmans or priests at topKshatriyas or warriors nextVaisyas or merchantsSudras or peasants at the bottom
15Indian HistoryThe Maurya ( BC) and Gupta Empires (320 BC- 535 AD) helped to spread and solidify both Buddhism and Hinduism in IndiaIslam came around 1200 AD. Spread under the direction of the Mughal Empire
16Indian HistoryPortuguese and DaGama were thr first Europeans to reach India…British, French and Dutch soon followed.British eventually squeeze out others based on their trading skill and organizationBritish East India Company…The foremost trading company of its day.Forged monopoly deals with Mughal Empire to control trade all over India from Calcutta to Bombay ( Mumbai)
17Indian HistoryBEI traded gold and silver for cotton, silk and tea. Textiles were by far the most important.As Mughals decline British and French fight over many small kingdoms and territories formed after the empire dies.Under Robert Clive BEI grew enormously wealthy.
18Indian HistoryClive and BEI first kicked out the French with an armed forceClive appoints rulers that are only favorable to BEI interestsBEI also gained the right to collect taxes, set up law codes, and establish a court systemBy 1850, the British were in conflict with Hindus and Muslims.
19Indian HistorySepoy Rebellion- Indian soldiers who served in the British Army.Rebellion starts over British use of pork and beef fat to grease cartridges. Both are sacred to HindusNew British law requiring Sepoys to fight oversees for the British…Many were afraid they would lose their castes
20Indian HistoryAfter Sepoy, Britian made India an official colony and used their own people in the army and the governmentLeft a lasting distrust of British by the IndiansBritish bought infrastructure which made the colony easier to controlTrade limited farming caused famines
21Indian History British brought schools and colleges Created middle classNationalism begins with formation of Indian National Congress ( INC )Open Rebellion begins after WW1 At Amritsar, after British open fire on 10,000 demonstrators, organized resistance begins
22Indian History Mohandas Gandhi emerges as independence leader Uses non-violent resistance (satyagraha)Civil disobedienceThe Salt March protest tax on saltGandhi arrested with 50,000 followersBritish respond to non-violence with violence
23Indian HistoryAfter WW 2 Britain realizes that holding onto India as a colony was impossibleAt the same time Muslims began to fear an independent Hindu India might step on their rights and beliefs as Muslims1947 British pass Indian Independence Act which called for the partition of India into separate Hindu and Muslim nations.
24Indian History/Government 15 Million fled to either side of the border depending on religion-Hindus to India and Muslims to Pakistan1949- India writes its constitution. Central government has most of the power. 25 states and 7 territories have less power. Parliamentary DemocracyParliament has two houses.
25Indian Governemnt Indian Political Parties-12 The Caste System Sikh SeparatismHindu-Muslim ClashesIndian LeadersJawharlal NehruIndira GandhiRajiv Gandhi
26Indian EconomyNehru adapted many socialist principles to carefully control the economy but still a mixed economyIndia convinced the population to invest in the economy to build industrial infrastructureInitial success was impressive but by the 90’s things cooled off.In the 90’s India moves toward privatization
27Indian Economy Indian farming was mostly subsistence Irrigation improvements have helpedLand ReformGreen Revolution…Miracle CropsVillage Life- Cottage IndustriesImproved health /Infant mortality rateImproving Education
28Indian EconomyIndian family lifeMarriageWomen’s Rights