Presentation on theme: "3 ARGUMENT TYPES STUDENT SAMPLES. What type of argument? Cloning technology should not be widely used in our life. My reasons are as follows. For one."— Presentation transcript:
3 ARGUMENT TYPES STUDENT SAMPLES
What type of argument? Cloning technology should not be widely used in our life. My reasons are as follows. For one thing, cloning technology itself isn’t mature enough and not many evidences (sic) can prove its reliability on human beings. In fact, the cloning species are always of low survival rate like the sheep Dolly. Hence, there is a long scientific way to go before it can be safely applied on humans.
CLAIM “Cloning species has low survival rate.” TYPE/PROOF ARGUMENT FROM AUTHORITY. You will need to site the testimony of experts in the field More than one expert will be required Are there competing opinions?
Smoking Should Be Banned in China Smoking should be banned in China. There are three reasons for the claim. First and foremost,[EW] smoking is really harmful to our health. According to the statistics, many people in China die of smoking. [EW]: The mere fact that you are putting it first probably means it is “foremost.” Also, never use “Last but not least”
CLAIM “Smoking harms health” PROOF/TYPE Although this is a causal claim (smoking causes harm to health) you will need to site statistics to prove this Here, statistics are a type of Authority
Nuclear plants should be forbidden. First and foremost, [EW]the radiation effect triggered by nuclear explosion is devastating. Nuclear disasters have been on the rising curve in recent years. Let’s spare a thought (sic) for the disastrous earthquake which jolted Japan on March11 th, 2011.
CLAIM Nuclear accidents are on the rise Proof/type Here you will need statistical evidence (authority) that this is the case or the testimony of experts It would also be helpful to list examples (at least three)
Today, the economy of China is developing at a steady speed, but we still need a large number of talents. Talents are [NCE] the most valuable resources of a country in the economic competition. Clearly the emigration of too many Chinese elites makes a rather bad influence on our national economy. So it is the responsibility of our government to take measures on the problem. [NCE]: “Talent is”
CLAIM Emigration of too many Chinese causes economic difficulty PROOF/TYPE A “causal” argument that will probably require the testimony of economic experts ultimately to validate. Hence, reduces to an argument from authority
On the surface, selling organs is a kind of personal behavior without impairing other’s benefit. Even if there is any loss or damage, the seller will be the only victim. But human’s social attribute reveals the absurdity of this view. On one hand, the healthy growth of a seller, or that of the seller’s organs, is inseparable from family and society. After enjoying years of care and support from family and society, the seller has no right to do anything that may hurt his or her body
CLAIM Selling organs will harm the body PROOF/TYPE
CLAIM Selling organs will harm the body PROOF/TYPE A “causal” argument that will probably require the testimony of statistics and/or experts in order to verify A couple of examples (e.g. people who were harmed by giving their organs) could help to highlight the point
Many people, especially women, pursue cosmetic surgery in order to be more beautiful. In my opinion, taking cosmetic surgery is unwise. Firstly, it’s dangerous to have cosmetic surgery.If doctors can’t operate such surgery successfully, patients would be fail to achieve their preliminary goal or even be disfigured
CLAIM Cosmetic surgery is dangerous PROOF/TYPE A Causal argument that requires statistics and the testimony of experts [AUTHORITY] A few EXAMPLES would help to make the claim more vivid
Thus the commercialization of human organs not only challenges the long-established value that life is priceless, but also blasphemes and violates the dignity of all mankind
CLAIM Commercialization of organs challenges long established value that life is priceless PROOF/TYPE
CLAIM Commercialization of organs challenges long established value that life is priceless PROOF/TYPE Provide quotes from different cultures and different time periods about the value of life Argument from Examples
Second, after the legalization of drugs, the price can be lower, and then many people can afford it. They will not need to rub or steal something to get money. To some extent, the legalization of drugs can decrease the crime rate and make the society be more stable
Legalizing drugs will lower crime rate A causal claim that (1) legalizing drugs--)(2) lower prices for drugs---)lower crime rate Perhaps best proved by looking at EXAMPLES of places where drugs have been legalized to see whether all this has in fact happened
Plastic bags were once rated as “the worst invention of 21 st Century” by The Guardian. In my perspective,plastic bags should be completely forbidden since they play a quite harmful role at present. First of all, people still use plenty of plastic bags in daily life and [EOS4]the problem of white pollution is getting worse and worse.Plastic bags have a relatively stable structure so that they hardly decompose back into its elements. Therefore, the plastic bags buried in the soil can be a great threat to the quality of our soil
CLAIM Plastic bags are a threat to the quality of the soil PROOF/TYPE At its core a causal claim (the existence of plastic bag CAUSES harm to the environment). Evidence on how long it takes plastic bags to degrade will probably come from the testimony of experts [AUTHORITY] Discussion about the chemical composition of bags would likewise require support of authority
The question of whether it is reasonable to forbid Muslim women to wear burka in France has arisen [wc]a heated controversy around the world. Some people argue that this statute could eliminate the national discrimination to some degree just on the account that it will be not so easy to recognize the Muslims in the street any more.
CLAIM Eliminating the wearing of the burka will eliminate discrimination A causal claim (1) no burka-- -) can’t be identified as Muslim---)can’t be discriminated against
What should a terminally ill patient do? Live with more pain or leave by euthanasia? … euthanasia relieves their families, who have to pay high medical expenses to give them intensive care. It is a sweet but quite heavy burden, especially to a poor family.
With the constant growing up of pop music and movies recently, the recorded-music market and movie market have gradually gained its population among youngsters. However, there is a phenomenon that people increasingly prefer to buy pirate DVDs instead of legitimate copies. Since this is no good for the development of legal markets, pirate DVDs should not be allowed. First and foremost, (EW) the selling of pirate DVDs can largely affect the normal operation of the legalized music and movie markets.
The news that someone sold his kidney in order to pay a debt of 5000 yuan is not strange to us any more. It seems there is an appeal to get selling people’s organs legalized. However, as far as I’m concerned, (1) people should not be allowed to sell their organs. First, allowing people to sell organs may lead to crimes. Driven by their interest-oriented motives, many people may kidnap the innocents in order to trade their organs for money. (2
Last but not least, (EW) allowing people to sell organs will be a hazard for diseases, which may be communicated to others through the organs sold by those who carry a certain disease. Therefore, it should not be allowed to sell organs.(
That some representatives a few months ago proposed to put back the retirement age has sparked heated discussion. [EW] It is hard to dig [NCE] their motives, but easy to see that this decision, if made, would not be beneficial for the majority. First of all, if fewer people retired at a proper age, society could not provide enough employments.
First of all, the love between the same genders deserves respect and understanding. (1) People cannot determine their sexual preferences.