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READ CHAPTER 4.1 UP TO AND INCLUDING PAGE 67. READ CHAPTER 4.1 UP TO AND INCLUDING PAGE 67. WHAT DO WE MEAN BY SAYING THAT ACCORDING TO ARISTOTLE, THERE.

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Presentation on theme: "READ CHAPTER 4.1 UP TO AND INCLUDING PAGE 67. READ CHAPTER 4.1 UP TO AND INCLUDING PAGE 67. WHAT DO WE MEAN BY SAYING THAT ACCORDING TO ARISTOTLE, THERE."— Presentation transcript:

1 READ CHAPTER 4.1 UP TO AND INCLUDING PAGE 67. READ CHAPTER 4.1 UP TO AND INCLUDING PAGE 67. WHAT DO WE MEAN BY SAYING THAT ACCORDING TO ARISTOTLE, THERE IS A NATURAL STATE OR IDEAL TYPE BENEATH THE DIVERSITY THAT EXISTS BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS? WHAT DO WE MEAN BY SAYING THAT ACCORDING TO ARISTOTLE, THERE IS A NATURAL STATE OR IDEAL TYPE BENEATH THE DIVERSITY THAT EXISTS BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS?

2 WHAT PREVENTS INDIVIDUALS FROM ACHIEVING THEIR NATURAL STATE? IS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT TRUE OR FALSE? ACCORDING TO ARISTOTLE, VARIATION BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS OF A SPECIES IS JUST NOISE THAT MASKS A CREATURE’S NATURAL STATE. WHAT PREVENTS INDIVIDUALS FROM ACHIEVING THEIR NATURAL STATE? IS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT TRUE OR FALSE? ACCORDING TO ARISTOTLE, VARIATION BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS OF A SPECIES IS JUST NOISE THAT MASKS A CREATURE’S NATURAL STATE.

3 IS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT TRUE OR FALSE? ACCORDING TO DARWIN, VARIATION BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS OF A SPECIES IS JUST NOISE THAT MASKS A CREATURE’S NATURAL STATE.

4 IS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT TRUE OR FALSE? ACCORDING TO DARWIN, VARIATION BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS OF A SPECIES IS A BASIC ASPECT OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE.

5 IS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT BY REY SIMILAR TO ARISTOTLE’S VIEW OF NATURE OR DARWIN’S? IS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT BY REY SIMILAR TO ARISTOTLE’S VIEW OF NATURE OR DARWIN’S? To begin an inventory and proper classification of plants, we need to determine some criterion for distinguishing species. After long and careful consideration of this matter, nothing better has come to mind than those distinctions passed from one generation to another through seed. For whatever traits arise in an individual or in the seed of a species of plant, are accidental and not of the kind that distinguish species.... For species preserve their distinctive traits forever; one species does not arise from another, nor vice versa.

6 WHAT WAS JOHN LOCK’S VIEW OF A SPECIES AND HOW DID IT INFLUENCE DARWIN? IS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT TRUE OR FALSE? ACCORDING TO LOCKE, EACH SPECIES HAS A GENUINE ESSENCE (I.E. NATURAL STATE). IS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT TRUE OR FALSE? ACCORDING TO LOCKE, EACH SPECIES HAS A GENUINE ESSENCE (I.E. NATURAL STATE).

7 HOW DID ERASMUS DARWIN EXPLAIN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOUR? HOW DID ERASMUS DARWIN EXPLAIN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOUR? WHAT EVIDENCE IS THERE THAT AT LEAST IN SOME INSTANCES, HE WAS RIGHT? WHAT EVIDENCE IS THERE THAT AT LEAST IN SOME INSTANCES, HE WAS RIGHT?

8 IS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT TRUE OR FALSE: Lamarck emphasized the importance of behaviour itself as the agent of evolutionary change. IS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT TRUE OR FALSE: Lamarck emphasized the importance of behaviour itself as the agent of evolutionary change. IS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT TRUE OR FALSE: It is biological need rather than will or volition that, according to Lamarck, leads to behavioral and ultimately physical changes.

9 PLEASE NOTE: THE PREVIOUS SLIDE WAS INTENDED TO ALERT YOU TO A DISTINCTION THAT, IF YOU MASTER, CAN HELP YOU AVOID LOSING POINTS ON SOME QUESTIONS IN THE NEXT MIDTERM, OR IN THE FINAL EXAM. THERE ARE LOTS OF SIMILAR HELPFUL AIDS AND HINTS IN THE STUDY GUIDES. WHY NOT MAKE USE OF THEM? BOTH STATEMENTS ARE IN FACT CORRECT. LAMARCK ARGUED THAT BEHAVIOUR IS RESPONSIBLE FOR EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES. HE ALSO ARGUED THAT BIOLOGICAL NEED IS ULTIMATELY RESPONSIBLE FOR EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES. AREN’T THESE TWO STATEMENTS CONTRADICTORY? NO THEY ARE NOT! THE PROPER CHAIN OF EVENTS GOES LIKE THIS: FIRST AND FOREMOST, THE ANIMAL EXPERIENCES BIOLOGICAL NEED. IF YOU ARE A FERN OR BLADE OF GRASS, YOU DON’T EXPERIENCE BIOLOGICAL NEED. IF YOU ARE A GIRAFFE, YOU DO. THEN, BIOLOGICAL NEED LEADS TO CHANGES OF BEHAVIOR. YOU ARE HUNGRY (BIOLOGICAL NEED), SO YOU WORK HARD TO OBTAIN FOOD. YOUR EFFORTS CAUSE PHYSICAL CHANGES. THESE CHANGES ARE PASSED ON TO YOUR DESCENDANTS. HOW? THE ANSWER GIVEN BY LAMARCK IS ON PAGES PLEASE NOTE: THE PREVIOUS SLIDE WAS INTENDED TO ALERT YOU TO A DISTINCTION THAT, IF YOU MASTER, CAN HELP YOU AVOID LOSING POINTS ON SOME QUESTIONS IN THE NEXT MIDTERM, OR IN THE FINAL EXAM. THERE ARE LOTS OF SIMILAR HELPFUL AIDS AND HINTS IN THE STUDY GUIDES. WHY NOT MAKE USE OF THEM? BOTH STATEMENTS ARE IN FACT CORRECT. LAMARCK ARGUED THAT BEHAVIOUR IS RESPONSIBLE FOR EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES. HE ALSO ARGUED THAT BIOLOGICAL NEED IS ULTIMATELY RESPONSIBLE FOR EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES. AREN’T THESE TWO STATEMENTS CONTRADICTORY? NO THEY ARE NOT! THE PROPER CHAIN OF EVENTS GOES LIKE THIS: FIRST AND FOREMOST, THE ANIMAL EXPERIENCES BIOLOGICAL NEED. IF YOU ARE A FERN OR BLADE OF GRASS, YOU DON’T EXPERIENCE BIOLOGICAL NEED. IF YOU ARE A GIRAFFE, YOU DO. THEN, BIOLOGICAL NEED LEADS TO CHANGES OF BEHAVIOR. YOU ARE HUNGRY (BIOLOGICAL NEED), SO YOU WORK HARD TO OBTAIN FOOD. YOUR EFFORTS CAUSE PHYSICAL CHANGES. THESE CHANGES ARE PASSED ON TO YOUR DESCENDANTS. HOW? THE ANSWER GIVEN BY LAMARCK IS ON PAGES

10 IS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT TRUE OR FALSE: Lamarck argues that will or conscious intentions are necessary for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. THE ANSWER IS “FALSE”. WHY?

11 EXPLAIN TO SOMEONE DARWIN’S THEORY OF HOW INSTINCTS DEVELOP. (PAGE 61) EXPLAIN TO SOMEONE DARWIN’S THEORY OF HOW INSTINCTS DEVELOP. (PAGE 61) WHAT IS THE BALDWIN EFFECT? Is the following statement True or False: The Baldwin Effect was designed to explain the mechanism by which habits lead to changes in behaviour that eventually become innate. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE BALDWIN EFFECT AND THE EXPLANATION OFFERED BY THE SCOTTISH BIOLOGIST, DOUGLAS SPALDING IN 1873?

12 AGAIN, THE DISTINCTION RAISED IN THE PREVIOUS SLIDE IS AN EXAMPLE OF A LITTLE WORK YOU NEED TO DO THAT CAN EARN YOU POINTS IN THE MIDTERM AND FINAL EXAM. HINT: THE ACCOUNT OFFERED BY SPALDING IS TELEOLOGICAL BUT THE ACCOUNT BY BALDWIN IS NOT. WHY? AGAIN, THE DISTINCTION RAISED IN THE PREVIOUS SLIDE IS AN EXAMPLE OF A LITTLE WORK YOU NEED TO DO THAT CAN EARN YOU POINTS IN THE MIDTERM AND FINAL EXAM. HINT: THE ACCOUNT OFFERED BY SPALDING IS TELEOLOGICAL BUT THE ACCOUNT BY BALDWIN IS NOT. WHY?

13 IN WHAT WAY WAS DARWIN’S VIEWS ON THE EVOLUTION OF MORALITY INFLUENCED BY JOHN LOCKE? ARE THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS TRUE OR FALSE: Locke assumed that animals were capable of formulating abstract ideas. David Hume ( ) argued that animal reasoning differed only in degree from human abilities. For Charles Darwin, like his grandfather Erasmus, there was a fundamental distinction between instinct and reason. According to Darwin, our moral choices are determined by our biological nature and personal history rather than our free will. ARE THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS TRUE OR FALSE: Locke assumed that animals were capable of formulating abstract ideas. David Hume ( ) argued that animal reasoning differed only in degree from human abilities. For Charles Darwin, like his grandfather Erasmus, there was a fundamental distinction between instinct and reason. According to Darwin, our moral choices are determined by our biological nature and personal history rather than our free will.

14 Altruistic behaviour benefits the group rather than the individual. Some biologists argued that there are problems with this idea. What problems?

15 The term “selfish gene” was developed by Dawkins to express the idea that the survival of a gene may not coincide with the best interests of the individual who carries the gene. True or False? What is meant by the term “replicator”? Why is the body not an example of a replicator. Think of four good examples of replicators?

16 WHAT IS MEANT BY THE TERM “VEHICLE”? IS THE HUMAN BODY AN EXAMPLE OF A VEHICLE? WHAT IS MEANT BY THE TERM “VEHICLE”? IS THE HUMAN BODY AN EXAMPLE OF A VEHICLE? The distinction between replicator and vehicle corresponds to the distinction between ……? Fill in the missing word(s).

17 WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A ‘MEME’ AND A ‘GENE’? If a meme is like a gene, then in each instance it should be possible to identify a replicator, or something that can be copied. Can this be easily done? Are the following statements true or false: Learning is like copying a meme from one vehicle to another. Learning is like copying the phenotype of a meme. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A ‘MEME’ AND A ‘GENE’? If a meme is like a gene, then in each instance it should be possible to identify a replicator, or something that can be copied. Can this be easily done? Are the following statements true or false: Learning is like copying a meme from one vehicle to another. Learning is like copying the phenotype of a meme.

18 ARE THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS TRUE OR FALSE: Darwin agreed with the popular view that emotional expressions were a kind of natural language that signalled a large number of feelings. Darwin argued that much of perceptual cognition depends on context. Darwin assume that emotional expression evolved by natural selection. Darwin assumed that emotions served a definite communicative function. ARE THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS TRUE OR FALSE: Darwin agreed with the popular view that emotional expressions were a kind of natural language that signalled a large number of feelings. Darwin argued that much of perceptual cognition depends on context. Darwin assume that emotional expression evolved by natural selection. Darwin assumed that emotions served a definite communicative function. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING, ACCORDING TO DARWIN, ALLOWS ONE TO IDENTIFY AN AMBIGUOUS EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION? a)KNOWLEDGE OF THE INDIVIDUAL EXPRESSING THE EMOTION. b)EXPERIENCE OF THE EMOTION ITSELF. c)LANGUAGE. d)ALL OF THE ABOVE. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING, ACCORDING TO DARWIN, ALLOWS ONE TO IDENTIFY AN AMBIGUOUS EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION? a)KNOWLEDGE OF THE INDIVIDUAL EXPRESSING THE EMOTION. b)EXPERIENCE OF THE EMOTION ITSELF. c)LANGUAGE. d)ALL OF THE ABOVE.

19 Be sure to understand and be able to define the three principles that Darwin used to explain the origin of emotional expressions. Broad hint: I am inviting you to do this because for sure, you will face questions on the distinction between these three principles in the midterm and final exam.

20 ‘Therefore I say, grant reason to any animal with social and sexual instincts and yet with passion (..then...) he must have conscience -- this is a capital view’ WHAT DID DARWIN MEAN BY THE FOLLOWING: FOLLOWING:


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