Presentation on theme: "BY: Susan M. Pojer Pamela K. Montague"— Presentation transcript:
1BY: Susan M. Pojer Pamela K. Montague Antebellum Revivalism & ReformBY: Susan M. Pojer Pamela K. Montague
2The Rise of Popular Religion In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America, I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country… Religion was the foremost of the political institutions of the United States.-- Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832
3The Second Great Awakening “Spiritual Reform From Within” [Religious Revivalism]Begins in response to the growing liberalism in religionDeism – reason over revelation / science over the BibleUnitarianism – God in only one person, not threestresses essential goodness of human beings, not the evil nature of CalvinismSocial Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of EqualityTemperanceEducationAbolitionismAsylum & Penal ReformWomen’s Rights
4“The Pursuit of Perfection” In Antebellum AmericaHow did the transportation revolution and the market revolution lead to this desire?
5“The Benevolent Empire”: 1825 - 1846 Begins on southern frontier but soon spread to northeastern citiesWhere did the movement begin?
6The “Burned-Over” District in Upstate New York Many NE Puritans had settled there
7Second Great Awakening Revival Meeting Spread to the masses on the frontier by multi-day camp meetings
8“soul-shaking” conversion Charles G. Finney (1792 – 1895)The ranges of tents, the fires, reflecting light…; the candles and lamps illuminating the encampment; hundreds moving to and fro…;the preaching, praying, singing, and shouting,… like the sound of many waters, was enough to swallow up all the powers of contemplation.2nd Great Awakening led to the feminization of religion - women make up majority of Church membership and move into charity work in the reform movements it sparked.“soul-shaking” conversion
9The Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) 1823 Golden Tablets1830 Book of Mormon1844 Murdered in Carthage, ILChurch founded in the burned-over districtSmith and brother murdered after rumors developed that they planned to take over the NWWhy?Joseph Smith ( )
10Violence Against Mormons Persecuted in OH, MO and ILPolygamyCooperative nature of the sect – offended individualistic AmericansThemselves as “chosen” and envisioned a semi-independent state within the U.S.Why were the Mormons persecuted?
11The Mormon “Trek”Wanted to get out of AmericaWhy Utah?
12The Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) Deseret communitySalt Lake City, UtahFrontier theocracyLater flouted what laws in UT?Flouted U.S. laws against polygamy – 1862 and 1882delayed statehood of UT until 1896Brigham Young ( )
13Temperance Movement Frances Willard American Temperance Society “Demon Rum”!Frances WillardLyman Beecher & the Beecher Family
15From the first glass to the grave, 1846 “The Drunkard’s Progress”Really two strategies – temperance = moderate use – Lyman Beecherand banning/illegalizing – Neal DowFrom the first glass to the grave, 1846What social problems were attributed to alcohol?
16NEAL DOW Father of Prohibition MAINE LAW, 1851 First U.S. Law to ban the manufacture and sale of alcohol.Temperance is the most widely supported, least sectional and most successful of all the reform movementsWhat groups will be most resistant?Immigrants resist – Irish, Germans
17Early 19th Century Women – Rights? Unable to vote.Legal status of a minor.Single could own her own property.Married no control over her property or her children.Could not initiate divorce.Couldn’t make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without her husband’s permission.
18“Separate Spheres” Concept “Cult of Domesticity”A woman’s “sphere” was in the home (to be a refuge from the cruel world outside).Her role was to “civilize” her husband and family – had great moral power.Seen as physically/emotionally weak….but also as artistic and refined.Republican Motherhood idea still alive.An 1830s MA minister:The power of woman is her dependence. A woman who gives up that dependence on man to become a reformer yields the power God has given her for her protection, and her character becomes unnatural!
19CULT OF DOMESTICITY & TRUE WOMANHOOD Separate spheres: men off to work to support family, woman’s place is in the homePopularized in newspapers, magazines, etc.What were the 4 parts of ideal womanhood?Why were women seen as physically inferior to men?Why were women seen as intellectually inferior to men?What strange myths arose as a result?Workplace is too full of violence & temptations for women
20What It Would Be Like If Ladies Had Their Own Way!
21Cult of Domesticity = Slavery Angelina & Sarah Grimke The 2nd Great Awakening inspired women to improve society – many began with abolitionism.Lucy StoneAngelina & Sarah GrimkeAmerican Women’s Suffrage Assoc.edited Woman’s JournalSouthern AbolitionistsR2-9
22Elizabeth Cady Stanton Women’s Rights1840 split in the abolitionist movement over women’s role in it.London World Anti-Slavery ConventionOne of Stanton’s protégées will be Susan B. AnthonySusan B. AnthonyLucretia Mott,a QuakerElizabeth Cady Stanton1848 Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
23What did the Declaration of Sentiments call for? Seneca Falls Convention, 1848Equality for women, right to sue, right to own property, suffrage61 women and 34 men there….including Frederick DouglassWhat did the Declaration of Sentiments call for?Who attended?
24Religious Training Secular Education Educational ReformReligious Training Secular EducationMore people have right to vote, so more need for educationAlso, many immigrants to be Americanized!MA – 1st state to establish free public education – tax supportedHowever, many communities unwilling to tax to raise the $ neededLots of private, religious schools - did not want to pay taxes to support public onesBy 1850 – free public ed. in most of North; even some high schoolsBetter teacher trainingMostly women as teachers – CATHERINE BEECHERdidn’t have to pay them as much as menIllegal to educate blacks in S; not favored in NNot much for women in way of colleges – mostly finishing schoolsElizabeth Blackwell is 1st female doctor
25Horace Mann ( )“Father ofAmerican Education”Children were clay in the hands of teachers and school officialsChildren should be “molded” into a state of perfectionDiscouraged corporal punishmentEstablished state teacher- training schools (“normal schools”)
26Noah Webster “American Spelling Book” Encouraged Americans to respect their own literatureLater, dictionariesNoah Webster
27The McGuffey Eclectic Readers Used religious parables to teach “American values.”Teach middle class morality and respect for order.Teach “3 Rs” + “Protestant ethic” (frugality, hard work, sobriety)
28Women Educators Troy, NY Female Seminary Curriculum: math, physics, history, geography.train female teachersEmma Willard ( )she established Mt. Holyoke [So. Hadley, MA] as the first college for women.Mary Lyons ( )
29Penitentiary Reform Dorothea Dix Prisons are an American creation Reformers hope to help prisoners “repent” & learn to lead normal lives, reflect on sins, become better citizensHorrid conditions existed; sane & insane togetherDOROTHEA DIX gets prison reforms & gets insane out of prisons; mental asylums establishedWill be appointed as Superintendent of Nurses for Union forces in Civil WarDorothea Dix( )
30Dorothea Dix AsylumInsane = “deranged” – task is to “arrange” lives in a rational manner
31Two Types of Prisons Develop: Auburn SystemFirst in 1821, Auburn, NYCongregate systemCongregate work by day BUT in total silenceSolitary at nightPennsylvania SystemIndividual systemIsolates inmate for entire stayBlindfolded on admittance, etc.Overcrowding a problem
33Robert Owen (1771-1858) Utopian Socialist Owen based his conception of utopian society on the belief that an individual's character was shaped by his or her environment. Owen therefore believed that by controlling the environment, superior character could be developed which would result in a new utopian social order. Came from BR – disillusioned by changes in society from Ind. Rev. Bought land fro Rappites for New Harmony. Owen believed that the community would serve as the model for the "New Moral World" communities that would follow New Harmony and eventually transform world society according to enlightenment principles. Progressive experiments in education, communal living and science were attempted, and Owen brought to New Harmony some of the m ost progressive European educators and scientists.New Harmony provided equality for all its inhabitants, male and female. This manifestation of this equality was the responsibility of each citizen to contribute to the labor force of the community.But although Owen provided New Harmony with everything he could imagine that it would need to succeed, it was missing the essential component that made other communities, like the Shakers, cohesive. Because Owen did not believe in God, their was no centr al covenant that committed the residents of New Harmony to their enterprise. Although they were united by their communal labor, and to the idea of utopian life, the very rational concepts upon which Owen had based the community were antithetical to commu nal life. Because they lacked the strong central belief which served to unite other utopian groups, the members of the community were lacking the commitment to carry out the mission that Owen envisioned. New Harmony dissolved in less than three years.Communitarianism emphasizes the need to balance individual rights and interests with that of the community as a wholeUtopian SocialistNew Harmony - “Village of Cooperation”To be a model of the "New Moral World"But will dissolve in less than 3 years.
34Original Plans for New Harmony, IN Believed an individual's character was shaped by his or her environment, therefore, by controlling the environment, superior character could be developed.
35New Harmony, INFirst American kindergartenand free public school
36BROOK FARM West Roxbury, MA 1841 George Ripley ( )Eventually burns downNathaniel Hawthorne was a residentBROOK FARM West Roxbury, MA 1841“Plain Living & High Thinking”TranscendentalistsNathaniel Hawthorne was a resident; eventually it burns down
37John Humphrey Noyes (1811-1886) The Oneida Community New York, 1848Millenarianism --> the 2nd coming of Christ had already occurred.Humans were no longer obliged to follow the moral rules of the past.Birth control, eugenic selection of parents, communal care of childrenNoyes had to flee to Canada to escape prosecution for adulterySurvive for 30 years (silverware!) and then change in 1880 – no more communism / became monogamousall residents married to each other.carefully regulated free love.”John Humphrey Noyes ( )Silver plate, steel traps
38The Oneida CommunityBirth control, eugenic selection of parents, communal care of childrenNoyes had to flee to Canada to escape prosecution for adulterySurvive for 30 years (silverware!) and then change in 1880 – no more communism / became monogamous
39Mother Ann Lee (1736-1784) The Shakers “If you will take up your crosses against the works of generations, and follow Christ in the regeneration, God will cleanse you from all unrighteousness.Remember the cries of those who are in need and trouble, that when you are in trouble, God may hear your cries.If you improve in one talent, God will give you more.”God is dual sided – Christ is male side / Mother Ann Lee is female side
40Shaker MeetingReligious fervor is sign of inspiration from God!
41Shaker Beliefs Shaker Hymn Men / women equal spiritually Celibacy So how did they survive so long?Longest lasting sect – until 1940…….Shaker HymnLongest living sect – from late 70s until 1940New members were adopted as orphans or recruited through conversion'Tis the gift to be simple, 'Tis the gift to be free, 'Tis the gift to come down where you ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, 'Till by turning, turning we come round right.
45ROMANTICISM IN ART AND LITERATURE Hudson River School: Romantic, grandiose AMERICAN landscapesThomas Cole, The Oxbow
46Transcendentalism Individualism in religion! Man can be liberated from understanding and the cultivation of reasoning.”Truth “transcends” the senses.Man can “transcend” the limits of intellect and allow the emotions, the SOUL, to create an original relationship with the divine
47Transcendentalist Thinking Commitment to self-reliance, self-culture, self-discipline; artistic expression more important than wealth.Rejected all secular authority and the authority of organized churches and the Scriptures, of law, or any conventional wisdom.As reformers – role was to restore man to the divinity God had given them.So…. man can’t be held in slavery or have his mind corrupted by superstition or ignorance!
48Essay on Civil Disobedience (1849) “The American Scholar” (1837) Transcendentalist Intellectuals/Writers Concord, MARalph WaldoEmersonHenry DavidThoreauNature (1832)Essay on Civil Disobedience (1849)Self-Reliance (1841)Walden (1854)“The American Scholar” (1837)
49The Transcendentalist Agenda Give freedom to the slave.Give well-being to the poor and the miserable.Give learning to the ignorant.Give health to the sick.Give peace and justice to society.
50A Transcendentalist Critic: Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) Their pursuit of the ideal led to a distorted view of human nature and possibilities: * The Blithedale RomanceOne should accept the world as an imperfect place: * Scarlet Letter * House of the Seven GablesHawthorne also held minor political offices under Van Buren, Polk, Pierce
51Overview of Period Authors: James Fennimore CooperAmerican themesLeatherstocking TalesWalt WhitmanRambling, free-verse poetryLeaves of GrassRalph Waldo EmersonEvolved the essayHenry David ThoreauActivity in natureWaldenPessimists - a dark view of human nature:Edgar Allen PoeShort storyTerror, darknessThe RavenHerman MelvilleHuman psychology & strugglesMoby DickNathaniel HawthorneAlso focused on human strugglesFascination with New England PuritansThe Scarlett Letter51
52The End of the Age of Reform? Caused by westward territorial expansion which brings what issue to the forefront and takes over politics?SLAVERY!