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BY: Susan M. Pojer Pamela K. Montague

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1 BY: Susan M. Pojer Pamela K. Montague
Antebellum Revivalism & Reform BY: Susan M. Pojer Pamela K. Montague

2 The Rise of Popular Religion
In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America, I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country… Religion was the foremost of the political institutions of the United States. -- Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832

3 The Second Great Awakening
“Spiritual Reform From Within” [Religious Revivalism] Begins in response to the growing liberalism in religion Deism – reason over revelation / science over the Bible Unitarianism – God in only one person, not three stresses essential goodness of human beings, not the evil nature of Calvinism Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality Temperance Education Abolitionism Asylum & Penal Reform Women’s Rights

4 “The Pursuit of Perfection”
In Antebellum America How did the transportation revolution and the market revolution lead to this desire?

5 “The Benevolent Empire”: 1825 - 1846
Begins on southern frontier but soon spread to northeastern cities Where did the movement begin?

6 The “Burned-Over” District in Upstate New York
Many NE Puritans had settled there

7 Second Great Awakening Revival Meeting
Spread to the masses on the frontier by multi-day camp meetings

8 “soul-shaking” conversion
Charles G. Finney (1792 – 1895) The ranges of tents, the fires, reflecting light…; the candles and lamps illuminating the encampment; hundreds moving to and fro…;the preaching, praying, singing, and shouting,… like the sound of many waters, was enough to swallow up all the powers of contemplation. 2nd Great Awakening led to the feminization of religion - women make up majority of Church membership and move into charity work in the reform movements it sparked. “soul-shaking” conversion

9 The Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints)
1823  Golden Tablets 1830  Book of Mormon 1844  Murdered in Carthage, IL Church founded in the burned-over district Smith and brother murdered after rumors developed that they planned to take over the NW Why? Joseph Smith ( )

10 Violence Against Mormons
Persecuted in OH, MO and IL Polygamy Cooperative nature of the sect – offended individualistic Americans Themselves as “chosen” and envisioned a semi-independent state within the U.S. Why were the Mormons persecuted?

11 The Mormon “Trek” Wanted to get out of America Why Utah?

12 The Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints)
Deseret community Salt Lake City, Utah Frontier theocracy Later flouted what laws in UT? Flouted U.S. laws against polygamy – 1862 and 1882 delayed statehood of UT until 1896 Brigham Young ( )

13 Temperance Movement Frances Willard
American Temperance Society “Demon Rum”! Frances Willard Lyman Beecher & the Beecher Family

14 Annual Consumption of Alcohol

15 From the first glass to the grave, 1846
“The Drunkard’s Progress” Really two strategies – temperance = moderate use – Lyman Beecher and banning/illegalizing – Neal Dow From the first glass to the grave, 1846 What social problems were attributed to alcohol?

16 NEAL DOW Father of Prohibition MAINE LAW, 1851
First U.S. Law to ban the manufacture and sale of alcohol. Temperance is the most widely supported, least sectional and most successful of all the reform movements What groups will be most resistant? Immigrants resist – Irish, Germans

17 Early 19th Century Women – Rights?
Unable to vote. Legal status of a minor. Single  could own her own property. Married  no control over her property or her children. Could not initiate divorce. Couldn’t make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without her husband’s permission.

18 “Separate Spheres” Concept
“Cult of Domesticity” A woman’s “sphere” was in the home (to be a refuge from the cruel world outside). Her role was to “civilize” her husband and family – had great moral power. Seen as physically/emotionally weak….but also as artistic and refined. Republican Motherhood idea still alive. An 1830s MA minister: The power of woman is her dependence. A woman who gives up that dependence on man to become a reformer yields the power God has given her for her protection, and her character becomes unnatural!

Separate spheres: men off to work to support family, woman’s place is in the home Popularized in newspapers, magazines, etc. What were the 4 parts of ideal womanhood? Why were women seen as physically inferior to men? Why were women seen as intellectually inferior to men? What strange myths arose as a result? Workplace is too full of violence & temptations for women

20 What It Would Be Like If Ladies Had Their Own Way!

21 Cult of Domesticity = Slavery Angelina & Sarah Grimke
The 2nd Great Awakening inspired women to improve society – many began with abolitionism. Lucy Stone Angelina & Sarah Grimke American Women’s Suffrage Assoc. edited Woman’s Journal Southern Abolitionists R2-9

22 Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Women’s Rights 1840  split in the abolitionist movement over women’s role in it. London  World Anti-Slavery Convention One of Stanton’s protégées will be Susan B. Anthony Susan B. Anthony Lucretia Mott, a Quaker Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1848  Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments

23 What did the Declaration of Sentiments call for?
Seneca Falls Convention, 1848 Equality for women, right to sue, right to own property, suffrage 61 women and 34 men there….including Frederick Douglass What did the Declaration of Sentiments call for? Who attended?

24 Religious Training Secular Education
Educational Reform Religious Training Secular Education More people have right to vote, so more need for education Also, many immigrants to be Americanized! MA – 1st state to establish free public education – tax supported However, many communities unwilling to tax to raise the $ needed Lots of private, religious schools - did not want to pay taxes to support public ones By 1850 – free public ed. in most of North; even some high schools Better teacher training Mostly women as teachers – CATHERINE BEECHER didn’t have to pay them as much as men Illegal to educate blacks in S; not favored in N Not much for women in way of colleges – mostly finishing schools Elizabeth Blackwell is 1st female doctor

25 Horace Mann ( ) “Father of American Education” Children were clay in the hands of teachers and school officials Children should be “molded” into a state of perfection Discouraged corporal punishment Established state teacher- training schools (“normal schools”)

26 Noah Webster “American Spelling Book”
Encouraged Americans to respect their own literature Later, dictionaries Noah Webster

27 The McGuffey Eclectic Readers
Used religious parables to teach “American values.” Teach middle class morality and respect for order. Teach “3 Rs” + “Protestant ethic” (frugality, hard work, sobriety)

28 Women Educators Troy, NY Female Seminary
Curriculum: math, physics, history, geography. train female teachers Emma Willard ( ) she established Mt. Holyoke [So. Hadley, MA] as the first college for women. Mary Lyons ( )

29 Penitentiary Reform Dorothea Dix Prisons are an American creation
Reformers hope to help prisoners “repent” & learn to lead normal lives, reflect on sins, become better citizens Horrid conditions existed; sane & insane together DOROTHEA DIX gets prison reforms & gets insane out of prisons; mental asylums established Will be appointed as Superintendent of Nurses for Union forces in Civil War Dorothea Dix ( )

30 Dorothea Dix Asylum Insane = “deranged” – task is to “arrange” lives in a rational manner

31 Two Types of Prisons Develop:
Auburn System First in 1821, Auburn, NY Congregate system Congregate work by day BUT in total silence Solitary at night Pennsylvania System Individual system Isolates inmate for entire stay Blindfolded on admittance, etc. Overcrowding a problem

32 Utopian Communities

33 Robert Owen (1771-1858) Utopian Socialist
Owen based his conception of utopian society on the belief that an individual's character was shaped by his or her environment. Owen therefore believed that by controlling the environment, superior character could be developed which would result in a new utopian social order. Came from BR – disillusioned by changes in society from Ind. Rev. Bought land fro Rappites for New Harmony. Owen believed that the community would serve as the model for the "New Moral World" communities that would follow New Harmony and eventually transform world society according to enlightenment principles. Progressive experiments in education, communal living and science were attempted, and Owen brought to New Harmony some of the m ost progressive European educators and scientists. New Harmony provided equality for all its inhabitants, male and female. This manifestation of this equality was the responsibility of each citizen to contribute to the labor force of the community. But although Owen provided New Harmony with everything he could imagine that it would need to succeed, it was missing the essential component that made other communities, like the Shakers, cohesive. Because Owen did not believe in God, their was no centr al covenant that committed the residents of New Harmony to their enterprise. Although they were united by their communal labor, and to the idea of utopian life, the very rational concepts upon which Owen had based the community were antithetical to commu nal life. Because they lacked the strong central belief which served to unite other utopian groups, the members of the community were lacking the commitment to carry out the mission that Owen envisioned. New Harmony dissolved in less than three years. Communitarianism emphasizes the need to balance individual rights and interests with that of the community as a whole Utopian Socialist New Harmony - “Village of Cooperation” To be a model of the "New Moral World" But will dissolve in less than 3 years.

34 Original Plans for New Harmony, IN
Believed an individual's character was shaped by his or her environment, therefore, by controlling the environment, superior character could be developed.

35 New Harmony, IN First American kindergarten and free public school

36 BROOK FARM West Roxbury, MA 1841
George Ripley ( ) Eventually burns down Nathaniel Hawthorne was a resident BROOK FARM West Roxbury, MA 1841 “Plain Living & High Thinking” Transcendentalists Nathaniel Hawthorne was a resident; eventually it burns down

37 John Humphrey Noyes (1811-1886)
The Oneida Community New York, 1848 Millenarianism --> the 2nd coming of Christ had already occurred. Humans were no longer obliged to follow the moral rules of the past. Birth control, eugenic selection of parents, communal care of children Noyes had to flee to Canada to escape prosecution for adultery Survive for 30 years (silverware!) and then change in 1880 – no more communism / became monogamous all residents married to each other. carefully regulated free love.” John Humphrey Noyes ( ) Silver plate, steel traps

38 The Oneida Community Birth control, eugenic selection of parents, communal care of children Noyes had to flee to Canada to escape prosecution for adultery Survive for 30 years (silverware!) and then change in 1880 – no more communism / became monogamous

39 Mother Ann Lee (1736-1784) The Shakers
“If you will take up your crosses against the works of generations, and follow Christ in the regeneration, God will cleanse you from all unrighteousness. Remember the cries of those who are in need and trouble, that when you are in trouble, God may hear your cries. If you improve in one talent, God will give you more.” God is dual sided – Christ is male side / Mother Ann Lee is female side

40 Shaker Meeting Religious fervor is sign of inspiration from God!

41 Shaker Beliefs Shaker Hymn Men / women equal spiritually Celibacy
So how did they survive so long? Longest lasting sect – until 1940……. Shaker Hymn Longest living sect – from late 70s until 1940 New members were adopted as orphans or recruited through conversion 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'Tis the gift to be free, 'Tis the gift to come down where you ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, 'Till by turning, turning we come round right.

42 Shaker Simplicity & Utility

43 Artistic Achievements
Gilbert Stuart, an AMERICAN painter Landsdowne Portrait George Washington, 1796 Portrait of George Washington, 1796

44 Charles Wilson Peale

Hudson River School: Romantic, grandiose AMERICAN landscapes Thomas Cole, The Oxbow

46 Transcendentalism Individualism in religion!
Man can be liberated from understanding and the cultivation of reasoning.” Truth “transcends” the senses. Man can “transcend” the limits of intellect and allow the emotions, the SOUL, to create an original relationship with the divine

47 Transcendentalist Thinking
Commitment to self-reliance, self-culture, self-discipline; artistic expression more important than wealth. Rejected all secular authority and the authority of organized churches and the Scriptures, of law, or any conventional wisdom. As reformers – role was to restore man to the divinity God had given them. So…. man can’t be held in slavery or have his mind corrupted by superstition or ignorance!

48 Essay on Civil Disobedience (1849) “The American Scholar” (1837)
Transcendentalist Intellectuals/Writers Concord, MA Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau Nature (1832) Essay on Civil Disobedience (1849) Self-Reliance (1841) Walden (1854) “The American Scholar” (1837)

49 The Transcendentalist Agenda
Give freedom to the slave. Give well-being to the poor and the miserable. Give learning to the ignorant. Give health to the sick. Give peace and justice to society.

50 A Transcendentalist Critic: Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)
Their pursuit of the ideal led to a distorted view of human nature and possibilities: * The Blithedale Romance One should accept the world as an imperfect place: * Scarlet Letter * House of the Seven Gables Hawthorne also held minor political offices under Van Buren, Polk, Pierce

51 Overview of Period Authors:
James Fennimore Cooper American themes Leatherstocking Tales Walt Whitman Rambling, free-verse poetry Leaves of Grass Ralph Waldo Emerson Evolved the essay Henry David Thoreau Activity in nature Walden Pessimists - a dark view of human nature: Edgar Allen Poe Short story Terror, darkness The Raven Herman Melville Human psychology & struggles Moby Dick Nathaniel Hawthorne Also focused on human struggles Fascination with New England Puritans The Scarlett Letter 51

52 The End of the Age of Reform?
Caused by westward territorial expansion which brings what issue to the forefront and takes over politics? SLAVERY!

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