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Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Shaping America in the Antebellum Age Religious Revival and Reform Philosophy The Political Response to Change Perfectionist Reform and Utopianism Reforming Society Abolitionism and Women’s Rights Conclusion: Perfecting America

2 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Religious Revival and Reform Philosophy

3 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Finney and the Second Great Awakening Religious rebirth gave people an anchor in rapidly changing times Late 1790s to 1830s Second Great Awakening  American revivalism  Growth of evangelical Protestants Charles G. Finney extremely popular  Revivals moved from New York to Old Northwest  Emphasis on human effort and faith  Highlighted emotion over doctrine  Christians must reform society Tremendous growth of Methodists and Baptists Catholics also involved  Worked to preserve religious heritage

4 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana The Transcendentalists Truth found beyond experience Ralph Waldo Emerson  Massachusetts essayist  Foremost intellectual figure of the era -Great influence on reformist American intellectuals, writers, artists  Focus inward and on nature would lead to self- knowledge, self-reliance, and divinity Importance of reform  Challenge slavery, competition, materialism, conformity Henry David Thoreau  Virtuous natural life – a life of principle  Walden 1854  “On Civil Disobedience” Went to jail for refusing to pay taxes for slavery and war

5 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana The Political Response to Change

6 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana The Political Response to Change Politics and religion merge Concern with maintaining republicanism  Voting essential to a healthy free nation Before 1820s politics for social and economic elite Franchise extended to all white men  States voluntarily begin removing voting restrictions  Many men still choose not to vote Panic of 1819 and Jackson election create political interest Political participation important for asserting and supporting important values

7 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Changing Political Culture Presidential election of 1828  High voter turn-out  Andrew Jackson -“The people’s candidate” -Promised more democratic system Purify and reform the government and purge patronage Political parties become more important  Competitive party system emerges  Raise money, select candidates, encourage voter turnout Political life more democratic  Conventions, rallies, parades to build identity Politics become more contentious and militaristic  Appeal to popular emotions, religious views, ethnic prejudices  New terms and actions - attacks, battles, enemies

8 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Jackson’s Path to the White House Lawyer and landowner in Nashville, TN  Had slaves Reputation built from War of 1812 and Indian wars  “Old Hickory” and questionable/popular military exploits Lost election of 1824 to John Quincy Adams  Won popular vote and electoral vote  Split of electors led to House of Reps choosing president Election of 1828 – birth of Democratic party  Tariff of Abominations passed by Congress Democrats to swing votes in key states  Defeats Adams in mudslinging campaign -Macho man versus intellectual man  Inauguration a wild event -White House trashed -Ordinary citizens showed up for party

9 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana The Man of the People Unlike rivals J. Q. Adams and Henry Clay, who deprived Jackson of the presidency in 1824, Jackson (nicknamed “Old Hickory” after America’s toughest hardwood) claimed to honor the constitutional electoral system and the will of the people.

10 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana OldHickory’sVigorousPresidency Old Hickory’s Vigorous Presidency Drew on Jeffersonian ideals  Majority rule, limited government, protecting average people from elites Considered himself ultimate representative of the people  Nationally elected  Employed veto power often Pledged to reform spoils system  Removed corrupt and incompetent appointees and replaced with Democrats Some internal improvements slowed – roads, canals  Wouldn’t impose national interests on states’ rights Actively supported national interests  River improvements and lighthouse construction

11 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana OldHickory’sVigorousPresidency Old Hickory’s Vigorous Presidency Tariff debates  New England and mid-Atlantic areas favor import duties -Heavy manufacturing areas  South disliked tariffs -Raised prices on all manufactured goods they bought and could affect cotton and tobacco exports Vice President John C. Calhoun  South Carolinian who opposes tariffs  “Exposition and Protest” – nullification theory -States can reject “nullify” federal legislation they deem harmful  Jackson rejects theory and Calhoun resigns VP Ordinance of Nullification, South Carolina  Voids tariffs of 1828 and Volunteer army formed, secession threatened  Repealed after Congress passes Force Bill and tariff compromises made

12 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Jackson’s Native American Policy His policy of forcible removal and relocation became government practice for the 19 th century  Purchase of land or warfare to remove Natives Jackson had reputation in warfare against Indians  Professional Indian fighter during early 1800s -Fought to acquire new lands for whites  Led military campaigns against SE tribes -Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, Creek Removal Act of 1830  Jackson recommended -Backed states’ rights when dealing with Indians  SC Worcester v. Georgia (1832) ruled state laws have no force over Cherokee but Jackson refused to uphold  1837 “Trail of Tears” Cherokee herded west by army  Old Northwest tribes pushed west to Oklahoma lands

13 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Native American Removals: Southeast and Midwest Native American Removals: Southeast and Midwest This map shows the westward routes of Indians removed from the Southeast to the new Indian territory in Oklahoma and from the Midwest (Old Northwest Territory) to present-day Kansas.

14 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Jackson’s Bank War and “Van Ruin’s” Depression Second Bank of the United States “B.U.S.”  Hated by Jackson = monopoly hurting common man  Largest commercial bank in country  Helped regulate state banks  Handled federal deposits and government bonds Election of 1832  Whigs (National Republicans) nominate Henry Clay  Jackson reelected on anti-BUS campaign -Removes Bank’s money reserves to state banks -Issues Specie Circular Government accepts only gold or silver for public land sales Partially responsible for economic panic of 1837 Martin Van Buren elected in 1836  Inherits financial disaster - depression -High unemployment, wage cuts, huge inflation, street violence

15 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana The Second American Party System Whigs  Generally wealthier  New England and Upper Midwest  Businessmen and manufacturers  Religions believing in reforms sponsored by government  Support Clay’s American System -National bank, federal funded internal improvements, tariffs Democrats  Liberty and local rule – Jeffersonian ideals  “Party of the common man” - Jacksonian  Often recent immigrants, persecuted religious groups  Strong in South Election of 1840  Winner = Whig - W. H. Harrison v. Democrat Van Buren  Campaigned using songs, cartoons, barbecues, parades

16 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Perfectionist Reform and Utopianism

17 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana The International Character of Reform Reformers influenced by Finney revivals, Puritan legacy, founding fathers, Republican ideology, romantic beliefs  America chosen by God to reform world International influences  Ideas borrowed and shared across Atlantic -New groups modeled on established organizations -Letter writing and visiting  Robert Owen, Scottish -Set up socialist community -The Book of the Moral World inspired cooperative efforts

18 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana The Dilemmas of Reform Timeless dilemmas  Change minds in order to change institutions -Education, sermons, tracts, literature, argument, personal testimony  Change institutions in order to change attitudes -Acts politically and institutionally -Seeks to pass laws, win elections, encourage unions, boycott goods, create or abolish institutions  Piecemeal change or recommend force

19 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Utopian Communities: Oneida and the Shakers John Humphrey Noyes – Oneida, New York  Transformed by Finney revival  Admires Shakers  Many sexual restrictions  Communal child raising  Operate business for money Mother Ann Lee  Many Shaker communities -Maine to kentucky  Communal property  Demanded chastity -New members must be converted not reproduced  Well known for furniture making

20 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Utopian Communities Before 1860 Utopian Communities Before 1860 The Mormons migrated to the trans-Mississippi West to realize their vision of a better society, but most communitarians did not go so far away from “civilization” to establish their experiments.

21 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Other Utopias 100 communities - some religious some secular  Many last very briefly Robert Owen  Secular communalist  Envisioned society of small towns with good schools and healthy work  New Harmony, Indiana 1824 Brook Farm  Founded by friends of Emerson  Integrate intellectual and manual labor  Produced notable literature – The Dial Communities fell apart because Americans unwilling to share property or spouses  Unstable leadership, unorthodox practices

22 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Millerites and Mormons Some groups believed the Second Coming of Christ was near William Miller – Millerites  Calculated end of time, March Convinced followers to prepare for judgment day -Kept recalculating and followers became disillusioned  Small Millerite group became Seventh-Day Adventists -Millions of believers today Joseph Smith - Mormons  Claimed to have been visited by an angel Moroni -Showed him secret golden tablets which he transcribed Book of Mormon  1830 Formed Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints -Migrated west to escape persecution -Smith lynched and succeeded by Brigham Young  Moved out west to Utah in 1846

23 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Reforming Society

24 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Temperance Heaving drinking common in 19 th century  Poverty, crime, illness, insanity, abuse, broken homes American Temperance Society, 1826  Teetotalers = absolutely no alcohol consumed Methods copied from revival meetings  Fiery lectures, graphic descriptions Some groups believe alcoholism is a disease not a moral failing Increasing use of political action from 1840s  Parades, picnics, melodramas, festivals Culminates in Prohibition, 1919  18 th Amendment Allowed some groups to target immigrants and Catholics in a socially acceptable way

25 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Temperance Propaganda This piece of temperance propaganda comes from a journal entitled Cold Water Magazine.

26 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Health and Sexuality Other groups choose to target other behaviors that were harmful  Overeating, use of stimulants, too much sex Some promoted panaceas and quack remedies  Hydropathy, hypnotism, phrenology, spiritualist séances Sylvester Graham  Extolled chastity, special diets, exercise  Published an advice book on sex -Women should have sex only to procreate -Women should maintain sexual purity to ensure male health Doctor advice  Women shouldn’t be educated since it would redirect blood flow from womb and breed defective males  Sperm should never be wasted - caused illness, insanity -No masturbation

27 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Humanizing the Asylum Mental institutions Dorothea Dix  Prison reform Samuel Gridley Howe and Thomas Gallaudet

28 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Working-Class Reform Trade unions  National Trades Union, 1834

29 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Abolitionism and Women’s Rights

30 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Tensions Within the Antislavery Movement William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator  American Anti-Slavery Society American Colonization Society, 1816 Tactics differ  Pamphlets, petitions, boycotts Divisions between black and white abolitionists Frederick Douglass calls for stronger action

31 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Flood Tide of Abolitionism Cooperation on most work  Unified by attacks on abolitionists

32 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana An Abolitionist Message This image of an imploring slave was one of the favorite abolitionist devices. Sometimes the caption asked, “Am I not a Man and a Brother?” In this case, the caption has been changed to encourage antislavery supporters to make weekly donations to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society.

33 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Women Reformers and Women’s Rights Reform work gave women a new role  Sometimes alongside husbands  Angelina Grimke and Theodore Weld New York Female Moral Reform Society  Work against prostitution World Anti-Slavery Convention  Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott Seneca Falls  Declaration of Sentiments

34 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Conclusion: Perfecting America

35 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Perfecting America Reform  Second Great Awakening  Temperance  Women’s rights Social and economic transformations The issue of slavery becomes more divisive

36 Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, Seventh Edition Nash Jeffrey Howe Winkler Davis Mires Frederick Gardina Pestana Timeline


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