Presentation on theme: "Major Events of the Nineteenth Century"— Presentation transcript:
1Major Events of the Nineteenth Century ~ The Presidencies ~From George Washington toJohn Quincy Adams
2Timeline of Events 1789 First Presidential Election First Congress meetsWashington Inaugurated on April 30thBill of Rights passed by CongressFrench Revolution begins
3Timeline of Events 1791 1792 First Bank of the United States created Ratification of the Bill of Rights completed on December 15th1792Washington reelected unanimously
4Timeline of Events1793Proclamation of neutrality toward war in Europe1794Whiskey RebellionJay’s treaty with Britain1795Pinckney’s treaty with Spain
5Timeline of Events 1797 1798 John Adams becomes second President XYZ correspondence published1798Alien & Sedition Acts passedKentucky & Virginia Resolutions
6Timeline of Events 1800 1803 Thomas Jefferson becomes President Marbury v. Madison decidedLouisiana Purchase
7Timeline of Events 1804 1807 Burr-Hamilton duel Jefferson reelected Chesapeake-Leopard incidentRobert Fulton power the steam boat, Clermont, up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany in 32 hours
8Timeline of Events 1808 1811 1812 James Madison elected President Battle of Tippecanoe1812War declared on Britain
9Timeline of Events 1814 Treaty of Ghent ends war 1815 Battle of New OrleansNapoleon is defeated atWaterloo1816Second Bank of the United StatesJames Monroe elected President
10Timeline of Events 1817 1818 1819 1820 Rush Bagot Treaty Boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase set at the 49th parallel1819Florida treaty with SpainPanic of 1819McCulloch v. Maryland1820Missouri Compromise
11Timeline of Events 1820 1822 1823 1824 James Monroe reelected Freed U.S. slaves foundLiberia on the west coastof Africa1823Monroe Doctrine announced1824Election of John Quincy Adams
12Washington Administration With the election of George Washington as the first President of the United States under the Constitution, Congress was given the great task of creating and organizing the new government.
13The Federal CourtsThe Constitution authorized Congress to set up a federal court system headed by a Supreme Court but it did not tell them how to organize and create the lower federal courts. The Judiciary Act of 1789 created a judicial structure that has stayed basically intact until today.
14The Judiciary Act of 1789This act established the number of justices on the Supreme Court. There was a Chief Justice and 5 associate justices. We now have 8 associate justices.
15The Judiciary Act of 1789It created 3 federal circuit courts and 13 federal district courts.It made sure that federal laws would remain the “supreme law of the land” as directed by Article VI of the Constitution.
16The Executive BranchThe Constitution only provided for the President and Vice PresidentWashington chose to create a “Cabinet” to help govern the United StatesDepartment of StateDepartment of TreasuryDepartment of WarAttorney GeneralPost Master General
17The Executive Branch Department of State Department of Treasury Headed by Thomas JeffersonDeals with foreign affairsDepartment of TreasuryHeaded by Alexander HamiltonManages finances
18The Executive Branch Department of War Attorney General Headed by Henry KnoxHandles military mattersAttorney GeneralHeaded by Edmund RandolphChief lawyer of the federal government
19The Executive Branch Post Master General Headed by Samuel Osgood Handles the post officesCabinet position until 1971when the Post Office Dept.was reorganized into the U.S. Postal Service, a separate entity.
21Hamilton-Jefferson Debate Hamilton’s ViewsConcentrate power in federal governmentFears mob ruleRepublic led by a well-educated eliteLoose interpretation of the ConstitutionNational bank constitutional (loose interpretation)Economy based on shipping and manufacturingPayment of national and state debts (favoring creditors)Supporters – merchants, manufacturers, landowners, investors, lawyers, and clergy
22Hamilton-Jefferson Debate Jefferson’s ViewsSharing power with state & local governments; limited national governmentFear of absolute power or rulerDemocracy of virtuous farmers and trades peopleStrict interpretation of the ConstitutionNational bank unconstitutional (strict interpretation)Economy based on farmingPayment of only the national debt (favoring debtors)Supporters – the “plain people” farmers and trades people
23The Whiskey Rebellion - 1794 In 1789, Congress passes a protective tariff on imports from Europe.Hamilton pushes through Congress an excise tax on the manufacture, sales, or distribution of whiskeyWhiskey is made from corn and is easier to carry across the Appalachian Mountains to the settled areas along the Atlantic.Producers of whiskey are the small frontier farmers
24The Whiskey Rebellion - 1794 In western Pennsylvania, farmers refuse to pay the tax, beat up the federal marshals and threaten to secede from the union.Hamilton sends in 15,000 militiamen and the rebellion is put down without any loss of life.This rebellion helped to consolidate the federal governments power in domestic affairs.
25The Whiskey Rebellion - 1794 Washington reviewing the troops
26Washington’s Farewell In his farewell address to the country, George Washington asked the people to “beware of political factions.” Even though he hoped political parties would not form, the opposing views of Hamilton and Jefferson led to the first two political parties in this country ~ the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans.
27The Democratic- Republicans The FactionsThe FederalistsThe Democratic- Republicans
28The Federalists Headed by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams Believed in a strong national governmentFavored the development of an industrial economy based on manufacturingSupporters - bankers and business interests in the Northeast
29The Democratic-Republicans Headed by Thomas Jefferson and James MadisonBelieved in a weak national governmentFavored the development of an agricultural economy based on farmingSupporters – farmers, artisans, and frontier settlers in the South
30John Adams’ Presidency John Adams becamethe second President of theUnited States with ThomasJefferson as his Vice President.1798 – Adams signs into law a bill creating the United States Navy after the XYZ Affair occurs
31XYZ AffairTo steer clear of war with France, President Adams sent a delegation to France (Charles Pinckney, John Marshall and Elbridge Gerry) to negotiate a peaceful solution to the Jay TreatyThe delegation wanted to meet with the French foreign minister, TalleyrandThe Directory sent 3 low-level officials to meet with the delegation
33XYZ AffairThese official demanded a $250,000 bribe as payment to see TalleyrandUpon learning about this insult, a wave of anti-French sentiment swept the countryPeople refuse to use anything French as well as listen to French music“Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute” became the slogan of the time
34Alien and Sedition Acts Were passed because of the growing anti-French feeling that continued to flourishAlien ActsAmerican citizenship from 5 to14 yearsPresident could deport or jail anyalien considered undesirableSedition ActSet fines and jail terms for anyone trying to impede how the government was run or who made “false, scandalous, and malicious statements” against the government
35Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions Written in opposition to the Alien & Sedition ActsMadison wrote the resolutions for VirginiaJefferson wrote them for KentuckyThey stated that the states had the right to nullify (consider void) any act of Congress that they deemed unconstitutionalThey believed the Alien & Sedition Acts violated the First Amendment rights of citizens
37Election of 1800Thomas Jefferson became the 3rd president of the United States after the House of Representatives decided the election.Jefferson – 73Aaron Burr – 73John Adams – 65C. C. Pinckney – 64John Jay – 1
38Election of 1800After realizing there was a flaw in the Electoral College, Congress fixed the flaw by passing the TwelfthAmendment which calls forhaving the electors castseparate ballots forPresident and Vice President
39Jefferson’s Administration Was the first person to take office in Washington, D.C.Believed in free trade with EuropeShrank the size of the federal governmentCut costs wherever andwhenever possible
40John MarshallWas appointed as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by John AdamsServed on the court for over 30 yearsStrengthened the power ofthe Supreme Court and thefederal government
41Marbury v. MadisonJohn Adams signed the appointments of 16 new federal judges late on the last day of his administration. Some of the appointments were never delivered and Jefferson believed that since they were not, that they were invalid. The result is the case of Marbury v. Madison.
42Marbury v. Madison1803Marbury was one of the midnight judges who did not receive his appointment.The Judiciary Act of 1789 required that the appointments be delivered and Marbury sued to enforce this provision.John Marshall delivered the Court’s decision.
44Marbury v. MadisonMarshall did believe that Marbury deserved his commission but not under the provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789 because it was unconstitutional and there the act was void and so was Marbury’s claim.By doing this, John Marshall and the Supreme Court were able to use the power of judicial review.
45Judicial Review Is the power of the Supreme Court to decide whether or not specific laws are valid.This made the Court aco-equal branch because itsent the executive and legislative branches a message that the judicial branch had the power to affect legislation.
46Louisiana Purchase1803Napoleon Bonaparte decides to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United StatesJames Monroe and Robert Livingston purchased the territory for $15 million while in FranceThe size of the United States doubled after the Senate ratified the treaty
48The Explorers & Their Guide Lewis and ClarkSacajawea
49Exploring the Territory Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to exploreLewis lead what he called the Corps of Discovery from St. Louis Missouri to the Pacific coastDiscoveries included unknown plants and animals and new Native American tribesSacajawea was a guide and interpreterThe expedition took 2 years and 4 months to complete
50Madison Presidency James Madison became president in 1808 Jefferson, like Washington, chose to serve only two termsTwo territories becomestatesIllinoisLouisiana
51Chesapeake-Leopard Incident June 1807The commander of the British warship, the Leopard, demanded the right to board and search the Chesapeake, a U.S. naval frigate for British desertersThe captain of the Chesapeake refused and the British opened fireWhen the smoke cleared, 3 Americans were dead and 18 were wounded
52Chesapeake-Leopard Results As a result of this incident, Jefferson was able to convince Congress to pass the Embargo Act of 1807Jefferson hoped it would hurt Britain and other European countries, but it only hurt American business and was eventually lifted in 1809
53Battle of Tippecanoe November 1811 William Henry Harrison leads troops to view lands in theWabash area (Indiana)Harrison and his troops were attacked by Tecumseh’s brother, the Prophet, and the Shawnee tribeHarrison is victorious and burns “Prophetstown” to the ground
54Battle of Tippecanoe Harrison becomes a national hero. Significance Native Americans were put down and their resistance in the Northwest is weakenedThey lose out to the expansionistsWar Hawks call for war with Great Britain when they find out Canada helped to arm the Native Americans
56Causes of the War of 1812 Causes British seizure of more than 1,000 American ships and their cargoesFrench seized about 500 ships and cargoesImpressment – seizing ofAmericans as sea anddrafting them into the British navyChesapeake-Leopard incident
57The War of 1812Madison sends to Congress a declaration of war against Great BritainCongress approves the declaration in June of 1812America is unprepared for war and the British seize Detroit and have numerous setbacks
58The War of 1812William Henry Harrison defeats the Native Americans at the Battle of Tippecanoe and westward expansion goes onPerry defeats the British at Put-in-Bay in 1813 and Americans gain control of Lake ErieBritish decided to blockade the Atlantic coast bottling up American ships in port
59The War of 1812The British march into Washington, D.C. and burn the Capitol, the White House and other important buildings.Dolly Madison barely escapes with the unfinished portrait ofGeorge Washington.
60War of 1812Andrew Jackson an upcoming general from Tennessee won a series of battles that gave him national fameDefeated the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in March of1814Victory destroyed themilitary power of the Native Americans in the South
61Treaty of Ghent December 24, 1814 An armistice was declared to end the fightingDid not address the issue of impressment or neutral shipping rightsAmericans welcomed the treaty because they were eager for peace
63Battle of New Orleans January 8, 1815 Occurred after the signing of the Treaty of GhentAndrew Jackson’s greatest victoryJackson’s troops defeated a superior British forceHundreds of British troops diedOnly a handful of Americans died
65Other Treaties1815A commercial treaty reopened trade between the United States and Great Britain1817Rush-Bagot Treaty limited the number of warships on the Great Lakes
66Other Treaties1818Convention of British-American commission sets the boundary of the Louisiana Purchase at the 49th parallel and agrees to a 10 year joint occupation of the Oregon Territory
67Industrial Revolution Great Britain starts the Industrial Revolution during the 18th century Inventions include:John Kay’s flying shuttle (1733)James Hargreave’s spinning jenny (1764)Richard Arkwright’s water frame (1769)James Watt’s steam engine (1769)Samuel Crompton’s spinning mule (1779)Edmund Cartwright’s power loom (1785)
68Industrial Revolution James Hargreave’s spinning jenny (1764)John Kay’s flying shuttle (1733)Richard Arkwright’s water frame (1769)
69Industrial Revolution James Watt’s steam engine (1769)Edmund Cartwright’s power loom (1785)Samuel Crompton’s spinning mule (1779)
70America Industrializes America becomes an industrialized nation for many reasons but the first and foremost was because of war.America’s primary source of income after the War for Independence was international tradeBecause of the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812, America will become an industrial nation.
72New England Industrializes New England had the greatest push toward industrializationSamuel Slater established the first successful mechanized textile factory in Pawtucket, Rhode IslandSlater’s factories only mass produced one part of the textile (finished cloth) ~ thread
73Textile Revolution1813Three Bostonians revolutionize the textile industry by mechanizing all stages of textile productionFrancis Cabot Lowell, Nathan Appleton, and Patrick Tracy Jackson built a weaving factory in Waltham, Massachusetts
74Textile Revolution1822Jackson and Appleton build a larger operation in Lowell, MassachusettsLowell (named for their deceased partner) becomes a booming manufacturing centerYoung women come their to find jobs because their family farms are in decline
75Sectionalism Develops Two economic systems develop and with this, sectionalism becomes even more prevalentNorthNortheastSubsistence farmingNorthwestLivestock (cattle)Crops (corn)
76Sectionalism Develops NorthSlavery is dying out by the late 1700sBy 1804 almost all northern states had voluntarily abolished slaverySouthEli Whitney invents the cotton gin (1793)Sets the South on a different course of development
77Sectionalism Develops SouthShort-staple cotton easier to grow than long-staple cottonCotton in great demand in Great BritainPlantations grew out of Europe’s need for cottonSlave labor force need to work the fieldsCotton Kingdom includes Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana
78Sectionalism Develops Cotton gin accelerated the need for slavesNumber of bales of cotton produced went from 3,000 to 178,000Number of slaves increased from 700,000 to 1,200,000
79Clay’s American System Developed by James Madison in 1815Was a plan created to unify the nation and create a strong, stable economy thatwould make the nationself-sufficient
80Clay’s American System Three major pointsDevelop transportation systems and other internal improvementsEstablish a protective tariffResurrect the national bankHenry Clay like the plan and promoted as the American System which would unite the nation’s economic interests
81Internal Improvements First steam locomotive in the U.S. was built in 1825Railroads important because they were faster and more economicalMany states built turnpikesNational Road began in 1811 in Cumberland, MarylandBy 1838 it reaches Vandalia, Illinois
82Internal Improvements Erie Canal“The Big Ditch” was 363 miles longTook 8 years to buildBy 1825 it linked the Hudson River with the Erie CanalOther states begin building and by 1837 over 3,000 miles of canals have been built
83Protective TariffsBritish goods were cheaper to buy than American made goodsBy placing a tariff on the British goods, the price advantage would be eliminatedMadison proposed the Tariff of 1816Northeast liked protective tariffsSouth and West disliked them
84National Bank Most felt that a national bank would benefit all 1816 Congress charters the Second National Bank of the United States (BUS) for a 20 year periodMade a national currency available for people in different regions to do business with one another
85Monroe Presidency 1816 James Monroe of Virginia is elected president America enters into the“Era of Good Feelings”
86Supreme Court Boosts Power 1808Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston receive a charter from the New York legislatureCharter gives them exclusive right to run steamboats on rivers in that stateAaron Ogden receives a license from Fulton and Livingston to run his steamship line between New York and New Jersey
87Gibbons v. OgdenThomas Gibbons opens his own steam line in the same areaOgden takes Gibbons to court and in an 1824 ruling the Supreme Court stated thatInterstate commerce could be regulated only by the federal governmentTherefore, Ogden’s exclusive right granted by the state of New York was not legal because in crossed state linesCongress is given the authority over interstate commerce
88McCulloch v. Maryland1819John Marshall and the Supreme Court strengthen the federal government’s control over the economyRuling also supports the national government over state government
89McCulloch v. MarylandMaryland levied a heavy tax on the local branch of the Bank of the United States (BUS)They wanted to make it fallMaryland law was overturned stating that states were not allowed to tax the federal government
90McCulloch v. Maryland Maryland law was overturned John Marshall stated that “the power to tax is the power to destroy”Marshall declared that the BUS was constitutional
91Other Court Cases Fletcher v. Peck (1810) Court nullified a George law that had violated individual’s constitutional rights to enter into contractsDartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)Court declared that the state of New Hampshire could not revise the original charter it had granted to the college’s trustees in colonial times
92NationalismThe belief that national interests should be placed ahead of regions concerns or the interests of other countriesJohn Quincy AdamsSecretary of StateGuides foreign policy towards nationalism
93Adams-Onis TreatyMost Americans believed Spanish Florida would become part of the United StatesIn 1819, John Quincy Adams negotiated a treaty with Spain to cede Florida to the United StatesSpain would also give up its claims to the Oregon Territory
94Monroe Doctrine Spain and Portugal defeat Napoleon They want to reclaim their former colonies in Central and South AmericaRussia is pushing into the Northwest and interfering in trade with ChinaAmerica interested in getting Cuba and northern Mexico
95Monroe Doctrine December 1823 James Monroe delivers a speech to CongressHe warns all outside powers not to interfere with affairs in the Western HemisphereDo not attempt to create new coloniesDo not try to overthrow the republics that have become independent
96Monroe Doctrine North America Central America South America Western Hemisphere
97Monroe DoctrineAny aggression on the part of European nations would be considered an action “dangerous to our peace and safety”Monroe also promised that America would stay out of European affairs and not involve itself with existing colonies in the Western Hemisphere
98Westward ExpansionPeople who wanted to escape debts or the law often went westIt was easy to get lost and not be foundLand was abundant and fertilePeople could make their own way more easily changing jobs if needed
100Events Leading to Compromise 1818United States consists of 10 slave states and 10 free statesIllinois admitted as a free state on December 3rd1819Missouri applies for admission to become a stateAlabama admitted as a slave state on December 14th
101Events Leading to Compromise How Missouri would be admitted became the crucial decisionNortherners wanted it to become a free stateSoutherners wanted it to become a slave stateHenry Clay came up with a solution to the problem
102The Compromise Maine would be admitted as a free state Missouri would be admitted as a slave stateThis kept the sectional balance in the SenateLouisiana Territory was splitAbove 36o 30’ north latitude would be for free with the exception of MissouriBelow 36o 30’ north latitude would be for slaveryMonroe signed the compromise and the issue of slavery seemed to be settled
103Election of 1824OpponentsJohn Quincy Adams 84Andrew Jackson 99William C. Crawford 41Henry Clay 37No one won the majority of electoral votes and the decision of who would be president was thrown into the House of Representatives
104Election of 1824Henry Clay was able to swing the election to John Quincy Adams because of his influence in the House of RepresentativesJohn Quincy Adams waselected President of theUnited States
105John Q. Adams Presidency John Quincy Adams was the son of John Adams, the second president of the United StatesA father and son as presidents has occurred only twice in the history of the United StatesJohn Adams and John Quincy AdamsGeorge H.W. Bush and George W. Bush
106John Q. Adams Presidency Andrew Jackson accuses Adams of stealing the presidency from himWhen Adams elects Henry Clay as his Secretary of State, Jackson and his supporters cry foul saying that they created a “corrupt bargain”The feuding between Adams and Jackson effectively ruined any good Adams may have been able to do during his presidency
107Portent of What is to Come With the presidencies of George Washington through John Quincy Adams, the choice of president was left up to the upper class.With the advent of easing voting restrictions, more people were able to vote and a new era would commence with the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828This Age of Jackson would soon become known as the Age of Democracy