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Major Events of the Nineteenth Century

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1 Major Events of the Nineteenth Century
~ The Presidencies ~ From George Washington to John Quincy Adams

2 Timeline of Events 1789 First Presidential Election
First Congress meets Washington Inaugurated on April 30th Bill of Rights passed by Congress French Revolution begins

3 Timeline of Events 1791 1792 First Bank of the United States created
Ratification of the Bill of Rights completed on December 15th 1792 Washington reelected unanimously

4 Timeline of Events 1793 Proclamation of neutrality toward war in Europe 1794 Whiskey Rebellion Jay’s treaty with Britain 1795 Pinckney’s treaty with Spain

5 Timeline of Events 1797 1798 John Adams becomes second President
XYZ correspondence published 1798 Alien & Sedition Acts passed Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions

6 Timeline of Events 1800 1803 Thomas Jefferson becomes President
Marbury v. Madison decided Louisiana Purchase

7 Timeline of Events 1804 1807 Burr-Hamilton duel Jefferson reelected
Chesapeake-Leopard incident Robert Fulton power the steam boat, Clermont, up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany in 32 hours

8 Timeline of Events 1808 1811 1812 James Madison elected President
Battle of Tippecanoe 1812 War declared on Britain

9 Timeline of Events 1814 Treaty of Ghent ends war 1815
Battle of New Orleans Napoleon is defeated at Waterloo 1816 Second Bank of the United States James Monroe elected President

10 Timeline of Events 1817 1818 1819 1820 Rush Bagot Treaty
Boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase set at the 49th parallel 1819 Florida treaty with Spain Panic of 1819 McCulloch v. Maryland 1820 Missouri Compromise

11 Timeline of Events 1820 1822 1823 1824 James Monroe reelected
Freed U.S. slaves found Liberia on the west coast of Africa 1823 Monroe Doctrine announced 1824 Election of John Quincy Adams

12 Washington Administration
With the election of George Washington as the first President of the United States under the Constitution, Congress was given the great task of creating and organizing the new government.

13 The Federal Courts The Constitution authorized Congress to set up a federal court system headed by a Supreme Court but it did not tell them how to organize and create the lower federal courts. The Judiciary Act of 1789 created a judicial structure that has stayed basically intact until today.

14 The Judiciary Act of 1789 This act established the number of justices on the Supreme Court. There was a Chief Justice and 5 associate justices. We now have 8 associate justices.

15 The Judiciary Act of 1789 It created 3 federal circuit courts and 13 federal district courts. It made sure that federal laws would remain the “supreme law of the land” as directed by Article VI of the Constitution.

16 The Executive Branch The Constitution only provided for the President and Vice President Washington chose to create a “Cabinet” to help govern the United States Department of State Department of Treasury Department of War Attorney General Post Master General

17 The Executive Branch Department of State Department of Treasury
Headed by Thomas Jefferson Deals with foreign affairs Department of Treasury Headed by Alexander Hamilton Manages finances

18 The Executive Branch Department of War Attorney General
Headed by Henry Knox Handles military matters Attorney General Headed by Edmund Randolph Chief lawyer of the federal government

19 The Executive Branch Post Master General Headed by Samuel Osgood
Handles the post offices Cabinet position until 1971 when the Post Office Dept. was reorganized into the U.S. Postal Service, a separate entity.

20 Key Players Alexander Hamilton Thomas Jefferson

21 Hamilton-Jefferson Debate
Hamilton’s Views Concentrate power in federal government Fears mob rule Republic led by a well-educated elite Loose interpretation of the Constitution National bank constitutional (loose interpretation) Economy based on shipping and manufacturing Payment of national and state debts (favoring creditors) Supporters – merchants, manufacturers, landowners, investors, lawyers, and clergy

22 Hamilton-Jefferson Debate
Jefferson’s Views Sharing power with state & local governments; limited national government Fear of absolute power or ruler Democracy of virtuous farmers and trades people Strict interpretation of the Constitution National bank unconstitutional (strict interpretation) Economy based on farming Payment of only the national debt (favoring debtors) Supporters – the “plain people” farmers and trades people

23 The Whiskey Rebellion - 1794
In 1789, Congress passes a protective tariff on imports from Europe. Hamilton pushes through Congress an excise tax on the manufacture, sales, or distribution of whiskey Whiskey is made from corn and is easier to carry across the Appalachian Mountains to the settled areas along the Atlantic. Producers of whiskey are the small frontier farmers

24 The Whiskey Rebellion - 1794
In western Pennsylvania, farmers refuse to pay the tax, beat up the federal marshals and threaten to secede from the union. Hamilton sends in 15,000 militiamen and the rebellion is put down without any loss of life. This rebellion helped to consolidate the federal governments power in domestic affairs.

25 The Whiskey Rebellion - 1794
Washington reviewing the troops

26 Washington’s Farewell
In his farewell address to the country, George Washington asked the people to “beware of political factions.” Even though he hoped political parties would not form, the opposing views of Hamilton and Jefferson led to the first two political parties in this country ~ the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans.

27 The Democratic- Republicans
The Factions The Federalists The Democratic- Republicans

28 The Federalists Headed by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams
Believed in a strong national government Favored the development of an industrial economy based on manufacturing Supporters - bankers and business interests in the Northeast

29 The Democratic-Republicans
Headed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Believed in a weak national government Favored the development of an agricultural economy based on farming Supporters – farmers, artisans, and frontier settlers in the South

30 John Adams’ Presidency
John Adams became the second President of the United States with Thomas Jefferson as his Vice President. 1798 – Adams signs into law a bill creating the United States Navy after the XYZ Affair occurs

31 XYZ Affair To steer clear of war with France, President Adams sent a delegation to France (Charles Pinckney, John Marshall and Elbridge Gerry) to negotiate a peaceful solution to the Jay Treaty The delegation wanted to meet with the French foreign minister, Talleyrand The Directory sent 3 low-level officials to meet with the delegation

32 XYZ Affair John Marshall Elbridge Gerry Charles Pinckney

33 XYZ Affair These official demanded a $250,000 bribe as payment to see Talleyrand Upon learning about this insult, a wave of anti-French sentiment swept the country People refuse to use anything French as well as listen to French music “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute” became the slogan of the time

34 Alien and Sedition Acts
Were passed because of the growing anti-French feeling that continued to flourish Alien Acts American citizenship from 5 to 14 years President could deport or jail any alien considered undesirable Sedition Act Set fines and jail terms for anyone trying to impede how the government was run or who made “false, scandalous, and malicious statements” against the government

35 Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
Written in opposition to the Alien & Sedition Acts Madison wrote the resolutions for Virginia Jefferson wrote them for Kentucky They stated that the states had the right to nullify (consider void) any act of Congress that they deemed unconstitutional They believed the Alien & Sedition Acts violated the First Amendment rights of citizens

36 Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson John Adams

37 Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson became the 3rd president of the United States after the House of Representatives decided the election. Jefferson – 73 Aaron Burr – 73 John Adams – 65 C. C. Pinckney – 64 John Jay – 1

38 Election of 1800 After realizing there was a flaw in the Electoral College, Congress fixed the flaw by passing the Twelfth Amendment which calls for having the electors cast separate ballots for President and Vice President

39 Jefferson’s Administration
Was the first person to take office in Washington, D.C. Believed in free trade with Europe Shrank the size of the federal government Cut costs wherever and whenever possible

40 John Marshall Was appointed as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by John Adams Served on the court for over 30 years Strengthened the power of the Supreme Court and the federal government

41 Marbury v. Madison John Adams signed the appointments of 16 new federal judges late on the last day of his administration. Some of the appointments were never delivered and Jefferson believed that since they were not, that they were invalid. The result is the case of Marbury v. Madison.

42 Marbury v. Madison 1803 Marbury was one of the midnight judges who did not receive his appointment. The Judiciary Act of 1789 required that the appointments be delivered and Marbury sued to enforce this provision. John Marshall delivered the Court’s decision.

43 Marbury v. Madison

44 Marbury v. Madison Marshall did believe that Marbury deserved his commission but not under the provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789 because it was unconstitutional and there the act was void and so was Marbury’s claim. By doing this, John Marshall and the Supreme Court were able to use the power of judicial review.

45 Judicial Review Is the power of the Supreme Court to decide whether or
not specific laws are valid. This made the Court a co-equal branch because it sent the executive and legislative branches a message that the judicial branch had the power to affect legislation.

46 Louisiana Purchase 1803 Napoleon Bonaparte decides to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States James Monroe and Robert Livingston purchased the territory for $15 million while in France The size of the United States doubled after the Senate ratified the treaty

47 Louisiana Purchase

48 The Explorers & Their Guide
Lewis and Clark Sacajawea

49 Exploring the Territory
Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore Lewis lead what he called the Corps of Discovery from St. Louis Missouri to the Pacific coast Discoveries included unknown plants and animals and new Native American tribes Sacajawea was a guide and interpreter The expedition took 2 years and 4 months to complete

50 Madison Presidency James Madison became president in 1808
Jefferson, like Washington, chose to serve only two terms Two territories become states Illinois Louisiana

51 Chesapeake-Leopard Incident
June 1807 The commander of the British warship, the Leopard, demanded the right to board and search the Chesapeake, a U.S. naval frigate for British deserters The captain of the Chesapeake refused and the British opened fire When the smoke cleared, 3 Americans were dead and 18 were wounded

52 Chesapeake-Leopard Results
As a result of this incident, Jefferson was able to convince Congress to pass the Embargo Act of 1807 Jefferson hoped it would hurt Britain and other European countries, but it only hurt American business and was eventually lifted in 1809

53 Battle of Tippecanoe November 1811
William Henry Harrison leads troops to view lands in the Wabash area (Indiana) Harrison and his troops were attacked by Tecumseh’s brother, the Prophet, and the Shawnee tribe Harrison is victorious and burns “Prophetstown” to the ground

54 Battle of Tippecanoe Harrison becomes a national hero. Significance
Native Americans were put down and their resistance in the Northwest is weakened They lose out to the expansionists War Hawks call for war with Great Britain when they find out Canada helped to arm the Native Americans

55 Battle of Tippecanoe

56 Causes of the War of 1812 Causes
British seizure of more than 1,000 American ships and their cargoes French seized about 500 ships and cargoes Impressment – seizing of Americans as sea and drafting them into the British navy Chesapeake-Leopard incident

57 The War of 1812 Madison sends to Congress a declaration of war against Great Britain Congress approves the declaration in June of 1812 America is unprepared for war and the British seize Detroit and have numerous setbacks

58 The War of 1812 William Henry Harrison defeats the Native Americans at the Battle of Tippecanoe and westward expansion goes on Perry defeats the British at Put-in-Bay in 1813 and Americans gain control of Lake Erie British decided to blockade the Atlantic coast bottling up American ships in port

59 The War of 1812 The British march into Washington, D.C. and burn the Capitol, the White House and other important buildings. Dolly Madison barely escapes with the unfinished portrait of George Washington.

60 War of 1812 Andrew Jackson an upcoming general from Tennessee won a series of battles that gave him national fame Defeated the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in March of 1814 Victory destroyed the military power of the Native Americans in the South

61 Treaty of Ghent December 24, 1814
An armistice was declared to end the fighting Did not address the issue of impressment or neutral shipping rights Americans welcomed the treaty because they were eager for peace

62 Treaty of Ghent

63 Battle of New Orleans January 8, 1815
Occurred after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent Andrew Jackson’s greatest victory Jackson’s troops defeated a superior British force Hundreds of British troops died Only a handful of Americans died

64 Battle of New Orleans

65 Other Treaties 1815 A commercial treaty reopened trade between the United States and Great Britain 1817 Rush-Bagot Treaty limited the number of warships on the Great Lakes

66 Other Treaties 1818 Convention of British-American commission sets the boundary of the Louisiana Purchase at the 49th parallel and agrees to a 10 year joint occupation of the Oregon Territory

67 Industrial Revolution
Great Britain starts the Industrial Revolution during the 18th century Inventions include: John Kay’s flying shuttle (1733) James Hargreave’s spinning jenny (1764) Richard Arkwright’s water frame (1769) James Watt’s steam engine (1769) Samuel Crompton’s spinning mule (1779) Edmund Cartwright’s power loom (1785)

68 Industrial Revolution
James Hargreave’s spinning jenny (1764) John Kay’s flying shuttle (1733) Richard Arkwright’s water frame (1769)

69 Industrial Revolution
James Watt’s steam engine (1769) Edmund Cartwright’s power loom (1785) Samuel Crompton’s spinning mule (1779)

70 America Industrializes
America becomes an industrialized nation for many reasons but the first and foremost was because of war. America’s primary source of income after the War for Independence was international trade Because of the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812, America will become an industrial nation.

71 New England Industrializes

72 New England Industrializes
New England had the greatest push toward industrialization Samuel Slater established the first successful mechanized textile factory in Pawtucket, Rhode Island Slater’s factories only mass produced one part of the textile (finished cloth) ~ thread

73 Textile Revolution 1813 Three Bostonians revolutionize the textile industry by mechanizing all stages of textile production Francis Cabot Lowell, Nathan Appleton, and Patrick Tracy Jackson built a weaving factory in Waltham, Massachusetts

74 Textile Revolution 1822 Jackson and Appleton build a larger operation in Lowell, Massachusetts Lowell (named for their deceased partner) becomes a booming manufacturing center Young women come their to find jobs because their family farms are in decline

75 Sectionalism Develops
Two economic systems develop and with this, sectionalism becomes even more prevalent North Northeast Subsistence farming Northwest Livestock (cattle) Crops (corn)

76 Sectionalism Develops
North Slavery is dying out by the late 1700s By 1804 almost all northern states had voluntarily abolished slavery South Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin (1793) Sets the South on a different course of development

77 Sectionalism Develops
South Short-staple cotton easier to grow than long-staple cotton Cotton in great demand in Great Britain Plantations grew out of Europe’s need for cotton Slave labor force need to work the fields Cotton Kingdom includes Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana

78 Sectionalism Develops
Cotton gin accelerated the need for slaves Number of bales of cotton produced went from 3,000 to 178,000 Number of slaves increased from 700,000 to 1,200,000

79 Clay’s American System
Developed by James Madison in 1815 Was a plan created to unify the nation and create a strong, stable economy that would make the nation self-sufficient

80 Clay’s American System
Three major points Develop transportation systems and other internal improvements Establish a protective tariff Resurrect the national bank Henry Clay like the plan and promoted as the American System which would unite the nation’s economic interests

81 Internal Improvements
First steam locomotive in the U.S. was built in 1825 Railroads important because they were faster and more economical Many states built turnpikes National Road began in 1811 in Cumberland, Maryland By 1838 it reaches Vandalia, Illinois

82 Internal Improvements
Erie Canal “The Big Ditch” was 363 miles long Took 8 years to build By 1825 it linked the Hudson River with the Erie Canal Other states begin building and by 1837 over 3,000 miles of canals have been built

83 Protective Tariffs British goods were cheaper to buy than American made goods By placing a tariff on the British goods, the price advantage would be eliminated Madison proposed the Tariff of 1816 Northeast liked protective tariffs South and West disliked them

84 National Bank Most felt that a national bank would benefit all 1816
Congress charters the Second National Bank of the United States (BUS) for a 20 year period Made a national currency available for people in different regions to do business with one another

85 Monroe Presidency 1816 James Monroe of Virginia is elected president
America enters into the “Era of Good Feelings”

86 Supreme Court Boosts Power
1808 Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston receive a charter from the New York legislature Charter gives them exclusive right to run steamboats on rivers in that state Aaron Ogden receives a license from Fulton and Livingston to run his steamship line between New York and New Jersey

87 Gibbons v. Ogden Thomas Gibbons opens his own steam line in the same area Ogden takes Gibbons to court and in an 1824 ruling the Supreme Court stated that Interstate commerce could be regulated only by the federal government Therefore, Ogden’s exclusive right granted by the state of New York was not legal because in crossed state lines Congress is given the authority over interstate commerce

88 McCulloch v. Maryland 1819 John Marshall and the Supreme Court strengthen the federal government’s control over the economy Ruling also supports the national government over state government

89 McCulloch v. Maryland Maryland levied a heavy tax on the local branch of the Bank of the United States (BUS) They wanted to make it fall Maryland law was overturned stating that states were not allowed to tax the federal government

90 McCulloch v. Maryland Maryland law was overturned
John Marshall stated that “the power to tax is the power to destroy” Marshall declared that the BUS was constitutional

91 Other Court Cases Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
Court nullified a George law that had violated individual’s constitutional rights to enter into contracts Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) Court declared that the state of New Hampshire could not revise the original charter it had granted to the college’s trustees in colonial times

92 Nationalism The belief that national interests should be placed ahead of regions concerns or the interests of other countries John Quincy Adams Secretary of State Guides foreign policy towards nationalism

93 Adams-Onis Treaty Most Americans believed Spanish Florida would become part of the United States In 1819, John Quincy Adams negotiated a treaty with Spain to cede Florida to the United States Spain would also give up its claims to the Oregon Territory

94 Monroe Doctrine Spain and Portugal defeat Napoleon
They want to reclaim their former colonies in Central and South America Russia is pushing into the Northwest and interfering in trade with China America interested in getting Cuba and northern Mexico

95 Monroe Doctrine December 1823
James Monroe delivers a speech to Congress He warns all outside powers not to interfere with affairs in the Western Hemisphere Do not attempt to create new colonies Do not try to overthrow the republics that have become independent

96 Monroe Doctrine North America Central America South America
Western Hemisphere

97 Monroe Doctrine Any aggression on the part of European nations would be considered an action “dangerous to our peace and safety” Monroe also promised that America would stay out of European affairs and not involve itself with existing colonies in the Western Hemisphere

98 Westward Expansion People who wanted to escape debts or the law often went west It was easy to get lost and not be found Land was abundant and fertile People could make their own way more easily changing jobs if needed

99 Missouri Compromise

100 Events Leading to Compromise
1818 United States consists of 10 slave states and 10 free states Illinois admitted as a free state on December 3rd 1819 Missouri applies for admission to become a state Alabama admitted as a slave state on December 14th

101 Events Leading to Compromise
How Missouri would be admitted became the crucial decision Northerners wanted it to become a free state Southerners wanted it to become a slave state Henry Clay came up with a solution to the problem

102 The Compromise Maine would be admitted as a free state
Missouri would be admitted as a slave state This kept the sectional balance in the Senate Louisiana Territory was split Above 36o 30’ north latitude would be for free with the exception of Missouri Below 36o 30’ north latitude would be for slavery Monroe signed the compromise and the issue of slavery seemed to be settled

103 Election of 1824 Opponents John Quincy Adams 84 Andrew Jackson 99 William C. Crawford 41 Henry Clay 37 No one won the majority of electoral votes and the decision of who would be president was thrown into the House of Representatives

104 Election of 1824 Henry Clay was able to swing the election to John Quincy Adams because of his influence in the House of Representatives John Quincy Adams was elected President of the United States

105 John Q. Adams Presidency
John Quincy Adams was the son of John Adams, the second president of the United States A father and son as presidents has occurred only twice in the history of the United States John Adams and John Quincy Adams George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush

106 John Q. Adams Presidency
Andrew Jackson accuses Adams of stealing the presidency from him When Adams elects Henry Clay as his Secretary of State, Jackson and his supporters cry foul saying that they created a “corrupt bargain” The feuding between Adams and Jackson effectively ruined any good Adams may have been able to do during his presidency

107 Portent of What is to Come
With the presidencies of George Washington through John Quincy Adams, the choice of president was left up to the upper class. With the advent of easing voting restrictions, more people were able to vote and a new era would commence with the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828 This Age of Jackson would soon become known as the Age of Democracy

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