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This work is funded by the European Community under the Information Society Technologies (IST) Programme of the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). M-Learning.

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Presentation on theme: "This work is funded by the European Community under the Information Society Technologies (IST) Programme of the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). M-Learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 This work is funded by the European Community under the Information Society Technologies (IST) Programme of the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). M-Learning Symposium WLE Centre, University of London, 9 February 2007 Designing mobile Game-Based Learning supporting development of decision-making skills Alice Mitchell Anglia Ruskin University

2 | 2| 2 Designing mobile Game-Based Learning supporting development of decision-making skills  Project details  Project context and rationale  Intended outputs  Background research  Pedagogical framework  Early prototype development  Emerging issues and next steps

3 | 3| 3 Project details  Contract number: 027607  Project acronym: mGBL  Project name: mobile Game-Based Learning  Priority:2  Priority component:IST (Information Society Technologies)  Project  Project duration: October 2005 - September 2008 (36 months)  Total costs (€):2.541.289,83  Countries involved: Austria, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, UK

4 | 4| 4 mGBL Project partners  evolaris Privatstiftung (Austria)  Verein Schul- und Ausbildungsberatung SAB (Austria)  ARC Seibersdorf research GmbH - Research Studios (Austria)  Anglia Ruskin University - Ultralab & UCLT (UK)  Pomorski Fakulet u Rijeci (Croatia)  Filozofski Fakulet u Rijeci (Croatia)  Universita Degli Studi Di Trieste (Italy)  ASTER – Societa Consortile per Azioni (Italy)  Univerza v Mariboru (Slovenia)  Andragoski zavod Maribor – Ljudska univerza (Slovenia)

5 | 5| 5 Project context and rationale  Tough challenges for Higher Education in a knowledge-based, net- centric economy:  pressures of global competition  ‘digital native’ learners (Prensky)  flexible access to lifelong learning  supporting reflective processes  Growing sophistication & affordability of mobile technologies - increasing use for learning - and gaming (rapid growth of mobile games industry)  Motivating potential & learning gains of mobile games with young adults - growing interest in m-learning games  mGBL - a practical response

6 | 6| 6 Mobile games - important growth area for the game industry Contributing factors:  convergence of mobile technologies  mobile applications less constrained by device limitations  higher definition colour screens, enhanced memory & functionality = better games  lower development costs for mobile mGBL contributes new learning models to this market Target audiences: younger people aged 16-24

7 | 7| 7 mGBL overall goal New models of game-based learning that are:  fun to use  user-led  implemented via mobile technologies  standards-based that can support:  development of decision-making skills & strategies for crisis situations  learning in the fields of e-health, e-commerce & career guidance (affective and cognitive learning goals) and that will …

8 | 8| 8 (hopefully) generate positive response …

9 | 9| 9 mGBL Workpackages WP 1: Project management WP 2: User requirements research WP 3: Core workpackage: pedagogical framework and learning model design WP 4: System specifications, Web and Mobile Interfaces for Applications WP 5: Technological implementation WP 6: User trials and validation WP 7: Evaluation WP 8: Dissemination and exploitation

10 | 10 Intended outputs  Software to support choice of mobile game, to suit:  different learning goals and situations (Bloom and Krathwohl, Prensky)  different learner intelligences (Gardner)  Authoring tools for users:  incorporating their own materials  distributing the games to user cohorts via mGBL platform  Single user & multi-user gaming opportunities, to support development of decision-making skills and strategies

11 | 11 Research-based design  Desk research, investigating:  educational theories and standards  feasibility of the proposed development  ethical and legal issues  Focus Groups drawn from mGBL target audiences + semi-structured interviews with ‘experts’  Signs we may be on the right track:  huge need generally for flexible support for financial literacy, advice on health aspects and guidance on career choices  potential of mobile game-based learning as part of such support, especially where games are integrated into existing learning programmes

12 | 12 Theoretical perspectives informing Year 1 design Geared to:  Learning phases (Kolb)  Specific learning objectives (Bloom and Krathwohl) Opportunities for:  intrinsic learning through social interactions (Vygotsky)  learning conversations (Laurillard); discussing issues from different perspectives (de Bono)  knowledge-based learning, recognition-primed decision-making (Klein, Senge)  scenario-based learning, exercising different team roles (Belbin)  inquiry-based learning – reflective processes (Argyris, Schön)

13 | 13 Towards a framework for mGBL Alice Mitchell, Ultralab, 2006

14 | 14 Putting our approach to the test … (Neil deconstructs our diagram, to make tools for a design workshop)

15 | 15 Hmm... (hard at work at the mGBL game design workshop - how does it all fit together??)

16 | 16 Does the theory get in the way? (There were delegates who thought that it did … so, back to the drawing board …)

17 | 17 Forget the theory for a moment - What, from a technology point of view, will a mobile learning game look like? (some findings from our field research)  Smaller, shorter, easier to learn games  Revision type games - Question & Answer, comparison, competition  Use of a convergence platform, enabling links to learning resources that exist elsewhere  Taking design cues from successful commercial games, to achieve the ‘wow’ factor  Exploiting the unique aspects of the mobile platform used: e.g. personalisation, portability, context sensitivity, connectivity  Fast games with reaction/thinking time, corresponding to the impetus and push the technology brings

18 | 18 mGBL modular structure  Quiz component – optional - knowledge-testing (e.g. to test readiness for game session)  System-generated scenarios - problem solving opportunities:  Random generation of options  Prioritising among options; system feedback (consider providing option of feedback on demand)  From simple to complex  Points accumulate: player achieves level  Feedback takes various forms (cognitive and affective) - explore how far feedback can be mapped against cognitive and affective learning outcomes (e.g. Bloom & Krathwohl, ARU’s generic graduate learning outcomes), to suit integration into blended learning programmes

19 | 19 Messages emerging from the research...  Make it a GAME first and foremost: “What mGBL might do is create activities where they realise they can use their gaming skills. Kids actually love to learn – you don’t need to sneak it past them.”  Make it relevant to social and learning needs, ‘just-in-time’ information needs, capabilities and level  Provide challenge, excitement and feedback  Don’t focus on providing learning content. Do provide problem-solving activities that require ingenuity  Exploit the fun and informality of games  Don’t frustrate them by knocking them out of the game early!

20 | 20 „Phones aren‘t suitable for games...“  “They’ve got a very small screen … actually quite limiting in terms of power. Controls in a mobile phone are not designed for games. Some phones have joysticks but its nothing like as usual as a playstation, which is a superb device. The only real advantage of a phone is that you’ve got one and it can do some of these things, if not very well.”  “Reminds me of when the telephone was first devised they thought you would be able to listen to concerts down it. Actually what people really want to do is talk. Phone people – communicate with them. Game facility might be a factor – they use them for a bit but not necessarily very long.”

21 | 21 Which areas to focus on and why?  Cater for those needing advice and support on financial/health/career matters “ Increasingly typical in today’s society, many lack an extended family they can turn to.”  Support reflection (Argyris) Focus on procedures, process associated skills (single loop reflection) Focus on norms (double loop reflection)  Potential game options include:  multiple choice quiz - test knowledge  simulations - put the subject area into a ‘risk-free’, ‘holistic’ setting  games geared around real life communication - fulfil social needs

22 | 22 Game idea 1 ‚Ahead of the Game’ Very early ideas for knowledge-testing quiz -nothing very new here, but a component in the overall game package (for self-testing in readiness for a follow-on simulation) Welcome to „SURGERY II“ Mobile Training. I am Herbert, the big boss of this game. I will test your skills. Answer questions rapidly. You´ve got 20 sec per question. Are you fit enough?

23 | 23 Game idea 2 ‘On the Edge’  A hybrid game - started out with an idea for a simple board game, meanwhile progressing to a ‚Box of games’ - with a variety of surprise problem-solving opportunities:  Random generation of options  Prioritising among options; system feedback (consider providing option of feedback on demand)  From simple to complex  Adventure game version  Points accumulate:  player achieves level  characteristics build up over game  Player can save state and return  Single-player + multi-player modes - the possibility of alliance-forming will be explored

24 | 24 Game idea 3 - “Get real!” Real world decision-making Problem finding and solving - phone as tool (c.f. Swiss Army knife) Use of blogs, wikis (link to assessment) - encouraging real world collaboration towards: Finding problem situation (mess) Data finding - goals Problem-finding statement (isolate most important problem) Idea finding - towards solutions (challenging assumptions) Solution finding Acceptance finding - implementation Students may not achieve all these stages - but will be more aware of the processes and will have opportunities for double loop reflection

25 | 25 Richard Millwood, Ultralab, 2006

26 | 26 Alice Mitchell, Ultralab, 2006

27 | 27 Ethical and legal issues... Issues to take into account include: IPR Accessibility issues & legislation (e.g. from RNIB) Gaming law: premium rate activity = gambling Privacy, identity & authentication issues (mGBL platform will need to cater for these, including user notes) Appropriate online behaviour, etc Associated WP3 outputs: Legal issues report (v.2 completed) Guidelines for template users (to include teacher notes developed during WP3 content collection) ‘Netiquette’ notes, etc.

28 | 28 Plenty more design considerations... (Nokia guidelines) 1.Who is playing; accessibility issues culture, peer pressure? attitude towards mobile games? competitive? social/withdrawn? 2. Why played - reasons social factors competitiveness enhancing personal profile intellectual challenge reaction challenge + How paid for - What the function of playing is - Player satisfaction - ease of use …

29 | 29 Underway - content development Working groups: career guidance (ASTER, AZM-LU), e-commerce (FFRI, MARIBOR), e-health (Anglia Ruskin, TRIESTE) Suitability of each game concept identified in respect of the 3 pre-identified sectors technical feasibility Critical situations identified: career-guidance: mobility issues, occupations e-commerce: professional development, life skills e-health: Accident & Emergency situations

30 | 30 Guiding precepts  An educational game will not work unless it is a real game first and foremost  Half measures will not do  It need not be an “all-whizzy” computer game, but it must be great fun - and relevant to their learning, otherwise young people simply won’t be interested!

31 | 31 Thank you for your attention Alice Mitchell UCLT Anglia Ruskin University Bishop Hall Lane, Chelmsford CM1 1SQ e-mail:

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