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Music Culture of the 20 th Century Chelsea Schiek Sarah Tosha Webb 4 th Hour.

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Presentation on theme: "Music Culture of the 20 th Century Chelsea Schiek Sarah Tosha Webb 4 th Hour."— Presentation transcript:

1 Music Culture of the 20 th Century Chelsea Schiek Sarah Tosha Webb 4 th Hour

2 Outline Terms to KnowTerms to Know (Sarah) (Sarah) –Opera/Classical –Ragtime –Jazz –Blues –Musicals (Sarah) (Sarah) –Jazz –Swing –Musicals –Opera –God Bless America (Chelsea) (Chelsea) –Stage Musicals –Movie Musicals –Opera Reborn –Big Bands to Bee Bop –Rock n’ Roll 1960 (Tosha)1960 (Tosha) –The British Invasion –Civil Rights Movement –Vietnam Protest –The Drug Impact 1970 (Tosha)1970 (Tosha) –Individualists/Minimalism –Heavy Rock –Progressive Rock –Jazz, Fusion, and Disco –Rage and Resistance (Chelsea) (Chelsea) –Rock Bands –Pop Superstars –House, Hip-Hop, and Rap –Boy Bands Loss of GreatnessLoss of Greatness BibliographyBibliography

3 Terms to Know 1.Scat - A vocal technique of jazz singing that uses a stream of nonsense syllables to imitate the sounds of instruments 2.Rock star - A member of a rock n’ roll band, or solo artist; term implies celebrity status 3.Synthesizer - an electronic device used to produce sound unobtainable from ordinary musical instruments 4.Syncopation - The dropping of sounds or letters from the middle of a word 5.Symphonic - Having to do with harmony of sound 6.Musical - A theatrical or film production with dialogue developing the story line and an integrated musical score featuring songs and dances in a popular idiom 7.Atonal - The usually unstable and dissonant quality of music that is not written around a particular note 8.Flugelhorn – A brass instrument with the sound of a bugle but with the keys of a trumpet or cornet 9.Bebop – Style of Jazz involving a complex mix of melody, harmony, and rhythm 10.Big Band – a Large orchestra or group of musicians usually associated with jazz or swing, ensemble and solo 11.Rhythm and blues – mixes features of blues music with a strong beat and lively rhythms 12.Opera – A musical drama that includes vocal pieces accompanied by an orchestra

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5 Opera/ClassicalOpera/Classical RagtimeRagtime JazzJazz BluesBlues MusicalsMusicals

6 Opera/Classical Symphony and Opera writers such as Mahler, Strauss, Zemlinsky, and PucciniSymphony and Opera writers such as Mahler, Strauss, Zemlinsky, and Puccini Almost all classical music was imported from EuropeAlmost all classical music was imported from Europe Johann Strauss

7 Ragtime First true American genre, predating jazzFirst true American genre, predating jazz Piano music, considered a synthesis of African-American syncopation and European classical musicPiano music, considered a synthesis of African-American syncopation and European classical music Scott Joplin most famous ragtime composerScott Joplin most famous ragtime composer –Also wrote operas, but was thwarted by discrimination

8 Jazz Used trumpet, trombone, and clarinet City music, New Orleans “New Orleans” Jazz was used as entertainment for the black working class –dances, parades and funerals, and could also be heard in barrel houses, gambling joints and brothels Move to Chicago in the 1920’s as Blacks migrated

9 Blue s Emerged from Southern cotton plantations Flourished in Vaudeville Influenced later American and Western popular music blues has been accused of being the "devil's music" and of inciting violence and other poor behavior. Robert Johnson Blind Blake Bessie Smith Muddy Waters

10 George Cohan –First real hits in Broadway Little Johnny Jones (1904) The Honeymooners (1907)

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12 JazzJazz SwingSwing MusicalsMusicals OperaOpera God Bless AmericaGod Bless America

13 Jazz Caught the moods of the timeCaught the moods of the time –Great Depression –Europe after WWI Radio broadcasts and phonograph records help spread the musicRadio broadcasts and phonograph records help spread the music Duke EllingtonDuke Ellington –Symphonic Jazz Count BasieCount Basie –Steered jazz to the big bands of the 30’s Louis ArmstrongLouis Armstrong –Considered the finest trumpeter ever

14 Showboat (1927) –Made into a film two years later Cole Porter –Anything Goes (1934) George Gershwin –Songs for Shall We Dance (1937) Edgar Varese –France to NY in 1915 –Pioneered electronic music using sirens, ect.

15 George Gershwin –Wrote Porgy and Bess (1935) –One of America’s best –Performed by an all African American cast

16 God Bless America  Irving Berlin visited Berlin as fascism was taking over and the US was uneasy  Upon return he rewrote God Bless America making it a soothing song for a country in turmoil  Kate Smith made it popular  Used during difficult times

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18 Stage Musicals Movie Musicals Opera Reborn Big Bands to Bee Bop Rock n’ Roll

19 Stage Musicals Kept up American moral during WWIIKept up American moral during WWII Writers: Rodgers & Hammerstein, Irving Berlin (Anything You Can Do, I Can Do It Better)Writers: Rodgers & Hammerstein, Irving Berlin (Anything You Can Do, I Can Do It Better) Stage was BroadwayStage was Broadway –Oklahoma (1943) (1955) –South Pacific (1949) (1958) –The King and I (1951) (1956) –My Fair Lady (1956) –Sound of Music (1959) (1965)

20 Movie Musicals Rodgers & Hammerstein –Strong characters and unusual concepts –Transferred well to big screens Showboat filmed 3 different times –1929 –1936 –1951 Sing in Rain – Gene Kelly & Debbie Reynolds All filmed by MGM Actors: Gene Kelly, Fred Astaire, Judy Garland, Marlon Brando, Frank Sinatra, Jean Simmons

21 Opera Reborn Mainly in 1945Mainly in 1945 After WWII, Opera was more prominent because of excess recreational money for this more expensive medium of classical musicAfter WWII, Opera was more prominent because of excess recreational money for this more expensive medium of classical music Peter Grimes (1945) by Benjamin Britten, set in motion the post-war tradition of modern operaPeter Grimes (1945) by Benjamin Britten, set in motion the post-war tradition of modern opera

22 Big Band to Bebop Spin off of big bands Cutting edge of Jazz in the 40’s Mirrored aspects of modernism Explored extremes of harmony like classical atonality had done 40 years previously Songwriters: Miles Davis, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, John Coltrane “Trane” Used trumpets, saxes, flugelhorn, piano

23 Elvis Presley –Appealed to young, rebellious teenagers –First person to shake hips on stage –Joining the military for 2 years was a PR move –Created musical hits and Elvis screen musicals –Heartbreak Hotel most impact ever Jerry Lee Louis –Pioneer of piano rock –Very dynamic performance Chuck Berry –Electric guitar –Big influence for future rockers Buddy Holly –Different influences of R&B & teenage pop –Died in plane crash

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25 Things Get Crazy The British InvasionThe British Invasion Civil Rights MovementCivil Rights Movement Vietnam ProtestVietnam Protest The Drug ImpactThe Drug Impact

26 The British are Coming

27 The British Invasion The most well known: The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Animals, The Zombies, & Manfred Mann. Started a sharing of culture Started up the interest of Rock n’ Roll again Introduced the theory of a “rockstar” All was influenced by American blues, jazz, & rock n’ roll John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr (front, left to right) in 1964.

28 Civil Rights Movement Singing together comforted people and gave them courage.Singing together comforted people and gave them courage. James Weldon Johnson & J. Rosamond JohnsonJames Weldon Johnson & J. Rosamond Johnson –“Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing –James Weldon Johnson became one of the founders of the NAACP –Most famous song: “We Shall Overcome” by American textile workers in TN Folk songwriters: Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Peter Paul & Mary, Odetta, Harry Belafonte, and Pete Seeger all helped MLK to express the civil rights of African-AmericansFolk songwriters: Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Peter Paul & Mary, Odetta, Harry Belafonte, and Pete Seeger all helped MLK to express the civil rights of African-Americans

29 Vietnam Protest The war impacted music just as much as the music impacted the war.The war impacted music just as much as the music impacted the war. Sang of the evils of war and the happiness of peace.Sang of the evils of war and the happiness of peace. Created an anti-war atmosphere when the support was needed the most.Created an anti-war atmosphere when the support was needed the most. Lyrics were harsh, negative, and sarcastic.Lyrics were harsh, negative, and sarcastic. Foremost songwriters were: Edwin Starr, The Doors, Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Simon & GarfunkelForemost songwriters were: Edwin Starr, The Doors, Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Simon & Garfunkel Kent StateKent State

30 Lysergic Acid Diethyamide (LSD), discovered by Albert Hofmann in 1943.Lysergic Acid Diethyamide (LSD), discovered by Albert Hofmann in Rock gets cosmic with technology and drugsRock gets cosmic with technology and drugs Music became an attempt to recreate the affects of LSDMusic became an attempt to recreate the affects of LSD Artists include: Grateful Dead, The Beatles, The Doors, Jimi Hendrix, Cream, Jefferson AirplaneArtists include: Grateful Dead, The Beatles, The Doors, Jimi Hendrix, Cream, Jefferson Airplane (The Drug Impact)

31 Sex Pistols The Village People

32 Things Get CRAZY…er Individualists / MinimalismIndividualists / Minimalism Heavy RockHeavy Rock Progressive RockProgressive Rock Jazz, Fusion, and DiscoJazz, Fusion, and Disco Rage and ResistanceRage and Resistance Individualists / MinimalismIndividualists / Minimalism Heavy RockHeavy Rock Progressive RockProgressive Rock Jazz, Fusion, and DiscoJazz, Fusion, and Disco Rage and ResistanceRage and Resistance

33 The End of Innocence Music of the 70’s reflected turbulence and disillusionment of decadeMusic of the 70’s reflected turbulence and disillusionment of decade –Rock was a way to escape Revolutions of the 60’s turn nastyRevolutions of the 60’s turn nasty –Instability because of inflation –Watergate –Dealing with loosing the war

34 Heavy Rock  The 1970s took rock from 1960s and made it even louder, heavier, and more confrontational  Led Zeppelin dominated the 70s like the Beatles did the 60s  Louder the Better  Deep Purple  Outrageous dress styles  Alice Cooper - performed with live boa constrictor named Angela  KISS took a step further with paint and wild hair  Hit with teenagers

35  Incorporated classical influences and virtuoso playing  Elaborate concerts  Keyboardists from Yes and Emerson, Lake, and Palmer were classically trained  Genesis, Moody Blues, Pink Floyd, David Bowie

36  Punk rock challenged mainstream rock’s self indulgent excess with short, simple songs driven by a relentless beat, capturing the era’s anger and aggression.  New York and the West Coast became a center for new forms of rock  Bob Marley helped Jamaican reggae to become popular  A potent blend of infectious rhythms and social commentary  The Sex Pistols, Ramones, Blondie, and the Talking Heads

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38 A Comfortable Age Music reflected the “era of good feelings” after the end of communism in Eastern Europe during the 80’s and 90’s With a time of creative individualism with digital technology and the huge increase of specialized radio stations, Music was EVERYWHERE!!! The invention of the Walkman, VCR, and boom box reshaped music in 1981

39 Rock Bands MTV Pop Superstars House, Hip-Hop, and Rap Boy Bands Rock Bands MTV Pop Superstars House, Hip-Hop, and Rap Boy Bands

40 Rock Bands Rolling Stones –Sold most concert tickets and had been around the longest –New songs, massive amplification, and spectacular light shows U2 –Made ambitious and politically charged albums “Sunday Bloody Sunday” R.E.M. –America’s pacesetter –Used raging electric tracks and gentle acoustic sounds

41 MTV was born in 1981MTV was born in 1981 Allowed for music to become more visualAllowed for music to become more visual Set fashion stylesSet fashion styles Helped to give artists the Superstar statusHelped to give artists the Superstar status “Video Killed the radio star” by the Buggles“Video Killed the radio star” by the Buggles

42 Record companies and radio stations increasingly marketed music to particular groups of listenersRecord companies and radio stations increasingly marketed music to particular groups of listeners Michael JacksonMichael Jackson –Peaked in 1982 with Thriller, album sold 40 million copies PrincePrince –Drew together rock, R&B, and funk –Purple Rain (1984) one of biggest hits Bruce SpringsteenBruce Springsteen –Famous for his storming live performances and working-class image –Born in the USA (1984) Garth BrooksGarth Brooks –Reigning king of pop country and western music –His wide commercial appeal contrasts with newly revived, folk-rooted bluegrass music MadonnaMadonna –Most successful female pop artist ever –Used her songwriting talent and her flair for reinventing her image

43 Hip-Hop & Rap Was the essence of music made for dancing in the late 20 th centuryWas the essence of music made for dancing in the late 20 th century Rap:Rap: –“Gangsta Rap” had gangland links and violent feuds between artists, managers, and record labels –Tupac and Notorious B.I.G. were killed in these conflicts –In late 1980’s Public Enemy supported Stop the Violence movement Hip-Hop:Hip-Hop: –Started in the black communities of New York –DJs rhythmically scratched disks while a “rapper” improvised spoken dialogue –Became an expression of rebellious urban youth –Public Enemy, Beastie Boys, Will Smith, and Run DMC

44 N*SYNC BACKSTREET BOYS V.S. Rarely play instruments, more of vocal harmony Rarely play instruments, more of vocal harmony Synchronized dancing Synchronized dancing Aimed at teenyboppers and/or pre-teens Aimed at teenyboppers and/or pre-teens Prominent of the 90’s Prominent of the 90’s Followed musical trends of pop music Followed musical trends of pop music

45 The Loss of Greatness Jimi Hendrix – September 18, 1970 Janice Joplin – October 4, 1970 Jim Morrison – July 3, 1971 Elvis Presley – August 16, 1977 Lynard Skynard – October 20, 1977 –Ronnie Van Zant, Steve Gaines, & Cassie Gaines Bon Scott ( ACDC ) – February 19, 1980 John Bonham ( Led Zeppelin ) – September 24, 1980 John Lennon – December 8, 1980 Bob Marley – May 11, 1981 Kurt Cobain – April 5, 1994

46 Bibliography About Music Education New York Times Company. April 15, American Cultural History: The 20 th Century Kingwood College Library. April 17, 2007 Elvis Presley Elvis Presley Enterprises, Inc. April 15, Hayes, Malcolm New Horizons. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Gareth Stevens Publishing, Hayes, Malcolm. 20’s & 30’s Between the Wars. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Gareth Stevens Publishing, Hayes, Malcolm. 40’s & 50’s From War to Peace. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Gareth Stevens Publishing, Hayes, Malcolm. 1960’s The Age of Rock. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Gareth Stevens Publishing, Hayes, Malcolm. 1970’s Turbulent Times. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Gareth Stevens Publishing, Hayes, Malcolm. 1980’s & 1990’s Different Paths. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Gareth Stevens Publishing, Jazz Age Culture. July 30, Pittsburgh State University. April 5, Music Timeline HighBeam Research. April 3, Riverwalk Jazz. Unknown date of posting. Public Radio International. April 5, Southern Music Network Southern Music. April 3, The Modern/20 th Century Area. Unknown date of posting. ThinkQuest. April 5, 2007 Wikipedia. Unknown date of posting. Wikimedia. April 3, 2007


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