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Chp 22: Religion, Politics & Oil  Islam Monotheistic religion Monotheistic religion Based on the teaching of the prophet Muhammad Based on the teaching.

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Presentation on theme: "Chp 22: Religion, Politics & Oil  Islam Monotheistic religion Monotheistic religion Based on the teaching of the prophet Muhammad Based on the teaching."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chp 22: Religion, Politics & Oil  Islam Monotheistic religion Monotheistic religion Based on the teaching of the prophet Muhammad Based on the teaching of the prophet Muhammad Believe in the Old Testament of the Bible, (descendants of Abraham) but do not recognize the Jewish or Christian faith as accurate Believe in the Old Testament of the Bible, (descendants of Abraham) but do not recognize the Jewish or Christian faith as accurate Study the Koran Study the Koran

2 Take Five…  What are the five pillars of faith?

3 Five Pillars of Faith (1) Faith—all believers must testify to the statement of faith—”There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah” (2) Prayer—facing east (Mecca) 5 times a day— the mosque or where ever else at prayer time (3) Charity—support the poor (4) Fasting—Holy month of Ramadan—do not eat or drink from sunrise to sunset (5) Pilgrimage—(Hajj) to Mecca at least once in their lifetime

4 “Unwritten Codes” of Islam  Do not eat pork  Do not drink alcohol or take drugs  Do not look at or participate in pornography

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6 Mecca

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8 Take Five…  Why is Mecca so important? What other religions claim heritage to this region?

9 So…what’s with the black box?

10 The Spread of Islam--Crusades

11 The rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire

12 Colonization and Imperialism

13 Take Five…  Look at the chart on pg 505—what are the top 3 middle eastern oil producing countries? What percentage of oil income is their GDP?

14 The Unification of Saudi Arabia King Abdul al Aziz Ibn Saud Unites the region Becomes Saudi Arabia in 1932 Oil discovered in 1936

15 Theocracies  Government based on the teachings of the Koran Saudi Arabia=monarchy of the royal Saud family Saudi Arabia=monarchy of the royal Saud family Iran Iran Iraq=moving towards a democracy Iraq=moving towards a democracy

16 Women in the Middle East  Many must wear the veil  Cannot be photographed  Must not be married to more than one man  Are considered the property of their fathers, husbands, uncles, other male family members  Cannot vote, drive, hold government jobs or any jobs outside the home  Can be punished—even to death—by their male family members

17 Queen Rania of Jordan  Shifting away from more traditional roles for women to new modern ideas in SOME areas…

18 In Class Assignment…  Complete the Chp 22 Assessment on pg A, B and Main Ideas A, B and Main Ideas

19 Take Five  Complete the skill builder questions on pg 512

20 Oil Dominates the Middle East  Kuwait, Saudi Arabia & the United Arab Emirates = largest produces of oil  OPEC= Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (12 countries) Control worldwide oil prices Control worldwide oil prices Including : Qatar, Iran & Iraq Including : Qatar, Iran & Iraq

21 OPEC

22 Take Five…  From the graph…which country has the largest percentage of exporting oil with OPEC?

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24 Modern Day Middle East  Souks have been replaced by modern day buying and selling  Roughly 70% of the population are projected to be urban by 2015 verses the Bedouins of the past  Workers have become more educated to meet the needs of the technological age  Foreign workers brought in to complete jobs

25 Eastern Mediterranean Religious Tensions over Jerusalem Muslims= 3 rd most holy city Jews=Capital of Israel—historic homeland. Temple Mount housed Solomon’s First Temple—still pray at the remains of the Second Temple destroyed by Rome in 70 AD Christians=historic holy city of Abraham and crucifixion of Jesus

26 Western Wall of 2 nd Temple Ruins

27 Dome of the Rock

28 Religious symbolism  Western wall—remains of the 2 nd Temple constructed before the Roman Empire  Dome of the rock—Jews & Christians believe the sight of Abraham’s sacrifice of Issac; Muslims believe the sight where Muhammad ascended into heaven

29 The Zionist movement Great Britain controlled Palestine prior to WWI during Imperialism 12% of the population of Palestine were Jewish (1914) British allowed Jewish immigration to Palestine 1939 G. Britain stopped Jewish immigration due to Arab conflict The creation of the Jewish state of Israel 1948 after WWII, Israel was given to the Jewish people by the United Nations and Palestine was divided into 2 states

30 Conflict remains  PLO (Plaestine Liberation Organization)  United Nations refugee camps (53) 3.6 million people 3.6 million people  st Palestian Prime Minister Abu Mazen agreed to the “road map”

31 The Northeast  Turkey, Iran, Iraq & Afghanistan  Fertile Crescent—Tigris and Euphrates Rivers meet here—birthplace of humanity in early Mesopotamia  Different ethnic groups: Kurds, Turks & Persians  Different languages: Turkish, Arabic & Farsi

32 Religious Differences with Islam  Sunni 83% all Muslims are Sunni 83% all Muslims are Sunni  Shi’ite

33 Clashes over Land  Kurds in a stateless nation  Genocide by Sadam Hussain of Iraq during 1 st Gulf War  Clashes over Persian Gulf oil fields Iran, Iraq, Kuwait Iran, Iraq, Kuwait

34 Clashes over Leadership  Military dictatorships Iran Iran Corrupt electionsCorrupt elections Iraq Iraq Saddam HusseinSaddam Hussein More democratic leadershipMore democratic leadership Afghanistan Afghanistan Hamid KarzaiHamid Karzai TalibanTaliban Osama bin Laden & al-Qaeda terrorists Osama bin Laden & al-Qaeda terrorists

35 The Great Divide—Islam divided  Sunni The Caliphate should lead the Islamic religion The Caliphate should lead the Islamic religion  Shi’ite The followers of Ali— direct descendants of Muhammad should lead the Islamic religion Muhammad died without a male heir— his son in law (also his cousin) was the closest male heir

36 Chp 23 Today’s Issues for Southwest Asia

37 Population Relocation  War ravaged areas left behind refugees  Refugees cannot return home Example: Kurds—pushed out of Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkey, Syria and Iran Example: Kurds—pushed out of Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkey, Syria and Iran Genocide of Kurds by Saddam Hussein Genocide of Kurds by Saddam Hussein Estimated 70,000 Kurds displaced and living in refugee camps in 2000 Estimated 70,000 Kurds displaced and living in refugee camps in 2000 Example: Palestinians—relocated from their homes in Israel due to their Arab heritage Example: Palestinians—relocated from their homes in Israel due to their Arab heritage Palestinians living on the West Bank and in the Gaza Strip—displaced from their homes in now Israel=3.6 million living in refugee camps (2005) Palestinians living on the West Bank and in the Gaza Strip—displaced from their homes in now Israel=3.6 million living in refugee camps (2005)

38 UN Resolution 194  “Palestinians have the right to return…”

39 Pros and Cons of Oil Rich Areas  Pros Great wealth from oil profits Great wealth from oil profits Rapid urbanization from oil profits Rapid urbanization from oil profits  Cons Conflict over oil fields—has led to war Conflict over oil fields—has led to war Rapid urbanization requires skilled & educated workforce as well as unskilled workers Rapid urbanization requires skilled & educated workforce as well as unskilled workers “Guest workers”“Guest workers”

40 Guest workers  Skilled workers=Europe, U.S. other advanced societies  Unskilled workers=South and East Asia Mostly undesirable work Mostly undesirable work Ex: 1999, 90% of the UAE workforce was made up of immigrants Ex: 1999, 90% of the UAE workforce was made up of immigrants Immigrant issues—language barriers, cultural differences, ethnic conflicts, weakened national identity etc Immigrant issues—language barriers, cultural differences, ethnic conflicts, weakened national identity etc

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42 Conflicts with “guest workers”  Conflicts over cultural differences Immigrants may find themselves in prison without any legal recourse Immigrants may find themselves in prison without any legal recourse  Immigrants have few rights  Immigrants may not be paid in a timely manner or even not at all—cannot return to their home country  Living in separate areas of the country

43  American Workers Urged to Leave Saudi Arabia  Tuesday, June 15, 2004    WASHINGTON — The U.S. government renewed its call on Monday for Americans to leave Saudi Arabia (search) after the recent terrorist attacks, saying the safety of U.S. workers was more important than any effect on oil supplies or the Saudi economy. search  An estimated 35,000 Americans have been working in Saudi Arabia and it was unclear how many have left since the increase in attacks, which have come at the same time the Bush administration has been pressing the Saudis to boost oil production to help lower gas prices in the United States.  Referring to U.S. workers in Saudi Arabia, State Department (search) spokesman Richard Boucher said, "We first and foremost have a responsibility to Americans. We need to give them our best advice on how to handle any particular situation overseas." search

44 Workers compound in Saudi Arabia

45 Take Five…  Complete the Skill Builder questions on pg 526

46 Oil Wealth Fuels Change  “black gold”=Strategic commodity  64% of the world’s oil deposits  34% of the world’s natural gas  Variable oil prices leads to unstable economies

47 Using Oil Wealth to Diversify  Using the profits from oil to make modern day improvements  Improvements in Infrastructure New roads, airports, irrigation networks, desalinization plants, information technology systems etc… New roads, airports, irrigation networks, desalinization plants, information technology systems etc…

48 Using Oil Wealth to Diversify  Using oil profits to create new economic opportunities besides oil  Agriculture improvements with irrigation systems, wells and desalinization plants  Developing mines for copper and other minerals  Investing in education—even women in many countries

49 Complete the mental map…  Draw a mental map of the shape of the Middle East…  Then, using the blank map provided, find the following locations:  Gaza StripMt. Ararat  Taurus MtnsZagros Mtns  Israel Turkey  UAEMedina  IstanbulTele-Aviv

50 In Class Assignment…  Work in groups of no more than 4 to complete the case study at the end of Chp 23 in your textbook—will go in your portfolio


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