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Ms. Susan M. Pojer and Ms. Hajduk. 1.Commercial/Business Interests-Industrial Revolution U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908.

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Presentation on theme: "Ms. Susan M. Pojer and Ms. Hajduk. 1.Commercial/Business Interests-Industrial Revolution U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ms. Susan M. Pojer and Ms. Hajduk

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3 1.Commercial/Business Interests-Industrial Revolution U. S. Foreign Investments:

4 American Foreign Trade: Commercial/Business Interests

5 2. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan  The Influence of Sea Power on History:

6 3.Social Darwinist Thinking 4.Examples of European Nations 3.Social Darwinist Thinking 4.Examples of European Nations The White Man’s Burden The Hierarchy of Race

7 5. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionaries in China, 1905 In the "Possible Future" portion of Our Country, Josiah Strong argued that the Anglo-Saxon race had a responsibility to "civilize And Christianize" the world due to its superiority.

8 6. Closing the American Frontier

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10 Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan: 1853 The Japanese View of Commodore Perry

11 Treaty of Kanagawa: 1854

12 Japan Sino-Japanese War-1894 overwhelmed China and acquired Taiwan and a sphere of influence in KoreaSino-Japanese War-1894 overwhelmed China and acquired Taiwan and a sphere of influence in Korea 1910 Korea annexed1910 Korea annexed Russo-Japanese War over Manchuria and Korea-fought in China- Japan wonRusso-Japanese War over Manchuria and Korea-fought in China- Japan won a. Treaty of Portsmouth T.R. helped to negotiate the treaty a. Treaty of Portsmouth T.R. helped to negotiate the treaty

13 Treaty of Portsmouth

14 Significance First time Asian nation won over EuropeanFirst time Asian nation won over European Japan resented lack of any war indemnitiesJapan resented lack of any war indemnities U. S. realized Japan had become a major and power and began to fear for PhilippinesU. S. realized Japan had become a major and power and began to fear for Philippines

15 Gentleman’s Agreement: 1908  A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports to laborers entering the U.S.  Japan recognized the U.S. right to exclude Japanese immigrants holding passports issued by other countries.The U.S. government got the school board of San Francisco to rescind their order to segregate Asians in separate schools.  1908  Root-Takahira Agreement.-respect each others territorial possessions

16 Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1912  Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr.  Non-European powers, like Japan, would be excluded from owning territory in the Western Hemisphere.

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18 “Seward’s Folly”: 1867 $7.2 million

19 “Seward’s Icebox”: 1867

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21 U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s

22 U. S. View of Hawaiians Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.  Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.

23 Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!

24 U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty  1875 – Reciprocity Treaty  1890 – McKinley Tariff American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani.  1893 – American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani.  Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.

25 To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898

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27 The Imperialist Taylor

28 Spanish Misrule in Cuba and Humanitarianism

29 Valeriano Weyler’s “Reconcentration” Policy- About 200,000 died of hunger and disease

30 Economic Interests American investors had about 50 million dollars in Cuban sugar and tobacco plantationsAmerican investors had about 50 million dollars in Cuban sugar and tobacco plantations Trade and investments suffered from unsettled conditionsTrade and investments suffered from unsettled conditions Many investors did oppose war.Many investors did oppose war. Wilson Gorman Tariff hard on Cuban economyWilson Gorman Tariff hard on Cuban economy

31 “Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst Hearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!

32 De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S.  Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S.  Criticized President McKinley as weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.

33 Sinking of the Maine Sparks the War The Maine was sent to Havana in January 1898 to protect American interests during the long-standing revolt of the Cubans against the Spanish government.The Maine was sent to Havana in January 1898 to protect American interests during the long-standing revolt of the Cubans against the Spanish government. It sank of Feb. 15, 1898 when her forward gunpowder magazines exploded. Nearly three-quarters of the battleship's crew died as a result of the explosion-258 sailors diedIt sank of Feb. 15, 1898 when her forward gunpowder magazines exploded. Nearly three-quarters of the battleship's crew died as a result of the explosion-258 sailors died

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35 Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana

36 Spain’s reaction McKinley’s sends demands to Madrid-an immediate armistice-release of prisoners and American mediation between Spain and CubaMcKinley’s sends demands to Madrid-an immediate armistice-release of prisoners and American mediation between Spain and Cuba Sagasta government wanted to avoid war and said that if nothing was done to humiliated Spain, they could come to some kind of settlementSagasta government wanted to avoid war and said that if nothing was done to humiliated Spain, they could come to some kind of settlement

37 McKinley's Reaction Wall Street –Big Business-and majority of Republican senators did not want warWall Street –Big Business-and majority of Republican senators did not want war McKinley could not take the pressure from the press and the Young Republican such as Henry Cabot Lodge and othersMcKinley could not take the pressure from the press and the Young Republican such as Henry Cabot Lodge and others McKinley was already worriedMcKinley was already worried about the 1900 election about the 1900 election

38 Key Events and Battles U.S.S. Maine blows up Feb.15, 1898U.S.S. Maine blows up Feb.15, 1898 Assistant Secretary Theodore Roosevelt orders Admiral Dewey to prepare for Asian War-February 25, 1898Assistant Secretary Theodore Roosevelt orders Admiral Dewey to prepare for Asian War-February 25, 1898

39 McKinley asks Congress to declare War April 11, 1898 Teller Amendment McKinley and Wheeler

40 The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War”

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42 Dewey Captures Manila!

43 Charge of the Rough Riders by Frederic Remington

44 The “Rough Riders”

45 Rough Riders The most famous of all the units fighting in Cuba, the "Rough Riders" was the name given to the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry under the leadership of Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt resigned his position as Assistant Secretary of the Navy in May 1898 to join the volunteer cavalry. The Rough Riders were a mix of troops ranging from Ivy League athletes to glee- club singers to Texas Rangers and Indians. They were commanded y Leonard Wood. The most famous of all the units fighting in Cuba, the "Rough Riders" was the name given to the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry under the leadership of Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt resigned his position as Assistant Secretary of the Navy in May 1898 to join the volunteer cavalry. The Rough Riders were a mix of troops ranging from Ivy League athletes to glee- club singers to Texas Rangers and Indians. They were commanded y Leonard Wood.

46 The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War”

47 During the War of 1898, Admiral Cervera commanded of the squadron sent to protect the colonies in the New World from the United States. He entered Santiago Bay, Cuba, May 19, 1898 where he was immediately blockaded by Admiral Sampson's fleet. On July 3, Cervera followed orders and tried an heroic but unsuccessful escape from theDuring the War of 1898, Admiral Cervera commanded of the squadron sent to protect the colonies in the New World from the United States. He entered Santiago Bay, Cuba, May 19, 1898 where he was immediately blockaded by Admiral Sampson's fleet. On July 3, Cervera followed orders and tried an heroic but unsuccessful escape from the enemy's blockade. As a result,enemy's blockade. As a result, he lost all his shipshe lost all his ships and became a prisoner of war.and became a prisoner of war.

48 July 10 - A second bombardment of Santiago, which severely battered Morro Castle. July 11 - General Miles joined the American Army before Santiago and conferred wth General Shafter as to the means for reducing the city July 17 - After the expiration of two periods of truce General Toral surrendered Santiago and eastern province of Cuba to General Shafter. July 20 - General Leonard Wood was appointed Military Governor of Santiago, and entered upon his duties by feeding the hungry, clothing the destitute and cleaning the city. July 21 - The harbor of Nipe was entered by four gunboats, which, after an hours' fierce bombardment, captured the port. July 25 - General Miles, with 8,000 men, after a voyage of three days, landed at Guánica, Puerto Rico. He immediately began his march towards Ponce, which surrendered on the 28th. July 26 - The French Ambassador at Washington, Jules Cambon, acting for Spain, asked the President upon what terms he would treat for peace. July 10 - A second bombardment of Santiago, which severely battered Morro Castle. July 11 - General Miles joined the American Army before Santiago and conferred wth General Shafter as to the means for reducing the city July 17 - After the expiration of two periods of truce General Toral surrendered Santiago and eastern province of Cuba to General Shafter. July 20 - General Leonard Wood was appointed Military Governor of Santiago, and entered upon his duties by feeding the hungry, clothing the destitute and cleaning the city. July 21 - The harbor of Nipe was entered by four gunboats, which, after an hours' fierce bombardment, captured the port. July 25 - General Miles, with 8,000 men, after a voyage of three days, landed at Guánica, Puerto Rico. He immediately began his march towards Ponce, which surrendered on the 28th. July 26 - The French Ambassador at Washington, Jules Cambon, acting for Spain, asked the President upon what terms he would treat for peace.

49 Peace Treaty Hostilities were halted on August 12, 1898, with the signing in Washington of a Protocol of Peace between the United States and Spain. The formal peace treaty was signed in Paris on December 10, 1898, and ratified by the United States Senate on February 6, It came into force on April 11, Cubans participated only as observers.Hostilities were halted on August 12, 1898, with the signing in Washington of a Protocol of Peace between the United States and Spain. The formal peace treaty was signed in Paris on December 10, 1898, and ratified by the United States Senate on February 6, It came into force on April 11, Cubans participated only as observers. The United States gained the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Cuba was occupied as of July 17, 1898, and thus under the jurisdiction of the United States Military Government. It formed its own civil government and attained independence on May 20, However, the United States imposed various restrictions on the new government, including prohibiting alliances with other countries, and reserved for itself the right of intervention. (Platt Amendment) The US also established a perpetual lease of Guantanamo Bay.The United States gained the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Cuba was occupied as of July 17, 1898, and thus under the jurisdiction of the United States Military Government. It formed its own civil government and attained independence on May 20, However, the United States imposed various restrictions on the new government, including prohibiting alliances with other countries, and reserved for itself the right of intervention. (Platt Amendment) The US also established a perpetual lease of Guantanamo Bay.

50 The Treaty of Paris: 1898  Cuba was freed from Spanish rule.  Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam.  The U. S. paid Spain $20 mil. for the Philippines.  The U. S. becomes an imperial power!

51 The American Anti-Imperialist League Founded in  Founded in  Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William Jennings Bryan among the leaders.  Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism.

52 Results of Spanish-American WarResults of Spanish-American War American battle deaths (1/20th the number lost at Gettysburg) 2. Several thousand deaths from disease and poisoned meat American battle deaths (1/20th the number lost at Gettysburg) 2. Several thousand deaths from disease and poisoned meat 3. Cost: $250,000,0003. Cost: $250,000, U.S. acquires Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippine Islands (100,000 sq. miles, 10 million people) for $20 million4. U.S. acquires Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippine Islands (100,000 sq. miles, 10 million people) for $20 million 5. Anti-Imperialists angered by anti-democratic aspects of imperialist efforts5. Anti-Imperialists angered by anti-democratic aspects of imperialist efforts 6. Teller Amendment pledged that U.S. would guarantee self-rule to Cubans6. Teller Amendment pledged that U.S. would guarantee self-rule to Cubans 7. Platt Amendment restricted Cuban foreign policies and gave U.S. land for coaling or naval stations7. Platt Amendment restricted Cuban foreign policies and gave U.S. land for coaling or naval stations Source: Feldmeth, Greg D. "U.S. History Resources"Source: Feldmeth, Greg D. "U.S. History Resources"

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54 Is He To Be a Despot?

55 Philippines Annexed and ruled directly by United StatesAnnexed and ruled directly by United States Filipinos resented American occupationFilipinos resented American occupation The Philippine–American War ( ) was an armed military conflict between the United States and the Philippines against U.S.The Philippine–American War ( ) was an armed military conflict between the United States and the Philippines against U.S. annexation of the Islands. annexation of the Islands. Over one million Filipino Over one million Filipino civilians perished in this war.

56 Emilio Aguinaldo L eader of the Filipino Uprising-had 70,000 men under his command war lasted from  L eader of the Filipino Uprising-had 70,000 men under his command war lasted from  July 4, 1946: Philippine independence

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58 The more frustrating the campaign became, the more frequently the Americans crossed the line separating the harsh reprisals sanctioned by General Order 100 from such crimes of war as torture and wanton destruction."

59 William H. Taft, 1st Gov.-General of the Philippines Great administrator.

60 Under U. S. Rule A system of education was establishedA system of education was established Health and sanitation programsHealth and sanitation programs U. S. capital helped agricultureU. S. capital helped agriculture Gradual self governmentGradual self government This included the meeting of a Philippine Assembly in 1907This included the meeting of a Philippine Assembly in 1907

61 Philippines Jones Act of 1916-they received the right to elect both houses and were promised eventual independenceJones Act of 1916-they received the right to elect both houses and were promised eventual independence Why did U. S. support Filipino independence?Why did U. S. support Filipino independence? 1. we realized how much the wanted independence1. we realized how much the wanted independence 2. American wanted to halt influx of immigrants2. American wanted to halt influx of immigrants 3. wanted to end federal spending3. wanted to end federal spending Location made it difficult to be responsible for defenseLocation made it difficult to be responsible for defense

62 Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934 This act offered independence after a determined period-empowered the Filipinos to write a constitutionThis act offered independence after a determined period-empowered the Filipinos to write a constitution In 1946-Philippines formally received independence-and formed a tariff agreementIn 1946-Philippines formally received independence-and formed a tariff agreement In 1947 Philippines granted U.S. military basesIn 1947 Philippines granted U.S. military bases In 1965 things began to change with MarcosIn 1965 things began to change with Marcos

63 On February 25, 1986, Ferdinand Marcos and his family fled to Hawaii after his regime was toppled by the four-day People Power Revolution in EDSA. Marcos was succeeded by Corazon C. Aquino, widow of Benigno Aquino, Jr. Marcos' foremost political rival who was assassinated during his return to the Philippines after years of political exile in 1983 at the Manila International Airport.On February 25, 1986, Ferdinand Marcos and his family fled to Hawaii after his regime was toppled by the four-day People Power Revolution in EDSA. Marcos was succeeded by Corazon C. Aquino, widow of Benigno Aquino, Jr. Marcos' foremost political rival who was assassinated during his return to the Philippines after years of political exile in 1983 at the Manila International Airport.

64 After the Marcos family fled Malacañang Palace, Imelda was found to have left behind 15 mink coats, 508 gowns, 888 handbags and 1060 pairs of shoes. In February 2006, Imelda insisted that Ferdinand Marcos acquired his wealth legitimately as a gold traderAfter the Marcos family fled Malacañang Palace, Imelda was found to have left behind 15 mink coats, 508 gowns, 888 handbags and 1060 pairs of shoes. In February 2006, Imelda insisted that Ferdinand Marcos acquired his wealth legitimately as a gold trader During his 20-year reign as president of the Philippines, Ferdinand Marcos was estimated to have stolen up to $US10 billion from his country, which he squirreled into overseas bank accounts. His regime imprisoned between 17,000 and 30,000 people..During his 20-year reign as president of the Philippines, Ferdinand Marcos was estimated to have stolen up to $US10 billion from his country, which he squirreled into overseas bank accounts. His regime imprisoned between 17,000 and 30,000 people..

65 Our “Sphere of Influence”

66 Cuban Independence? Senator Orville Platt Platt Amendment (1903) 1. Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. 1. Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. 2. The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. 2. The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. 3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. 3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. 4. Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt. 4. Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.

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69 Puerto Rico: 1898 Foraker Act. In 1900, Congress passed the Foraker Act, which established the governing structure for Puerto Rico. An American-appointed governor was to be the executive officer of the island and he was to be advised by a two- house legislature. The lower house was to be popularly elected, but the upper chamber was to be selected in the United States.  Foraker Act. In 1900, Congress passed the Foraker Act, which established the governing structure for Puerto Rico. An American-appointed governor was to be the executive officer of the island and he was to be advised by a two- house legislature. The lower house was to be popularly elected, but the upper chamber was to be selected in the United States.   the Insular Cases.  full constitutional rights did not automatically extend to all areas under American control.  Jones Act 1917 U. S. citizenship and citizenship and The right to elect both houses houses

70 Puerto Rico In 1950 Puerto Rico received self governing Commonwealth status-In 1950 Puerto Rico received self governing Commonwealth status- They are U. S. citizens-do not vote for president or pay a federal income tax.They are U. S. citizens-do not vote for president or pay a federal income tax.

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72 Panama: The King’s Crown 1850  Clayton-Bulwer Treaty  Hay-Paunceforte Treaty-with Britian  DeLessep offered to sell franshise  Hay Herran Treaty- Colombia-not ratified  Philippe Bunau-Varilla, agent provocateur.  Dr. Walter Reed.  Colonel W. Goethals.  1903  Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty.

73 Panama Canal TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)

74 Culebra Cut 1898

75 A Steam Shovel at Work

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77 1977

78 Torrijos-Carter Treaties 1977 The first treaty is officially titled The Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal and is commonly known as the Neutrality Treaty. Under this treaty, the U.S. retained the permanent right to defend the canal from any threat that might interfere with its continued neutral service to ships of all nations. The second treaty is titled The Panama Canal Treaty, and provided that as from 12:00 on December 31,1999, Panama would assume full control of canal operations and become primarily responsible for its defense.The first treaty is officially titled The Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal and is commonly known as the Neutrality Treaty. Under this treaty, the U.S. retained the permanent right to defend the canal from any threat that might interfere with its continued neutral service to ships of all nations. The second treaty is titled The Panama Canal Treaty, and provided that as from 12:00 on December 31,1999, Panama would assume full control of canal operations and become primarily responsible for its defense.

79 The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905 The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905 Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power power.

80 Roosevelt's extension of the Monroe Doctrine asserted the right of the United States to intervene to stabilize the economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts. The alternative was intervention by European powers, especially Britain and Germany, which loaned money to the countries that did not repay. The catalyst of the new policy was Germany's aggressiveness in the Venezuela (Wikipedia)Roosevelt's extension of the Monroe Doctrine asserted the right of the United States to intervene to stabilize the economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts. The alternative was intervention by European powers, especially Britain and Germany, which loaned money to the countries that did not repay. The catalyst of the new policy was Germany's aggressiveness in the Venezuela (Wikipedia)

81 Big Stick Policy

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83 Stereotypes of the Chinese Immigrant Oriental [Chinese] Exclusion Act, 1887

84 The Boxer Rebellion: 1900 The Peaceful Harmonious Fists.  The Peaceful Harmonious Fists. “55 Days at Peking.”  “55 Days at Peking.”  Hay urged that China pay not be territory but by paying a monetary indemnity

85 The Open Door Policy

86  Secretary John Hay.  Give all nations equal access to trade in China.  Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.

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88 The Cares of a Growing Family

89 Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick!

90 Constable of the World

91 Treaty of Portsmouth: 1905 Nobel Peace Prize for Teddy

92 The Great White Fleet: 1907

93 The "Great White Fleet" sent around the world by President Theodore Roosevelt from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909 consisted of sixteen new battleships of the Atlantic Fleet. The battleships were painted white except for gilded scrollwork on their bows. The Atlantic Fleet battleships only later came to be known as the "Great White Fleet."The "Great White Fleet" sent around the world by President Theodore Roosevelt from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909 consisted of sixteen new battleships of the Atlantic Fleet. The battleships were painted white except for gilded scrollwork on their bows. The Atlantic Fleet battleships only later came to be known as the "Great White Fleet."

94 Photo from deck of ship. The Yosemite is alongside and full of people. Lots of women on its deck. Postmarked July 7th from San Francisco.

95 Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”  Improve financial opportunities for American businesses.  Use private capital to further U. S. interests overseas.  Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and order abroad that would best promote America’s commercial interests.

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97 The Mexican Revolution: 1910s  Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.  Wilson’s policy will be Watchful Waiting  Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against Huerta.  Huerta arrested a small force of American sailors at Tampico  The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz and demanding an apology-ABC powers come in to mediate  and Huerta fled the country.  Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico but can’t maintain order

98 The Mexican Revolution: 1910s Emiliano Zapata Francisco I Madero Venustiano Carranza Porfirio Diaz Pancho Villa

99 Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy”  The U. S. should be the conscience of the world.  Spread democracy.  Promote peace.  Condemn colonialism.

100 Searching for Banditos  Villa killed 17 persons in Columbus, New Mexico  General John J. Pershing with Pancho Villa in 1914.

101 U. S. Global Investments & Investments in Latin America, 1914

102 U. S. Interventions in Latin America: s

103 One of the “Boys?”

104 America as a Pacific Power

105 What the U. S. Has Fought For


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